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Ist. If your partner has led from a single card.
3d. If great strength in trumps is declared against you.
4th. If you have a probability of a saw.
5th. If your partner has been forced and did not trump out. 6th. It is often right in playing for an odd trick.
24. It is often difficult to judge when to lead trumps. The following situations will assist the beginner to reason, and, in general, direct him properly :
1st. With six trumps, on supposition your partner bas a strong suit.
2d. If strong in other suits, though weak in trumps yourself.
3d. If your adversaries are playing from weak suits.
4th. If your adversaries are at the point of eight, and you have no honour, or probability of making a trump by a ruff.
25. It is easy soon to discover the different strengths of good players, but more difficult with bad ones. When your adversary refuses to trump, and throws away a small card, you conclude his hand consists of a strong suit in trumps, with one strong and another weaker suit. If be throws an honour, you know he has two suits only. one of which is trumps. In the latter case, win tricks when you can. Avoid leading trumps, or to his suit; force him, and give your partner an opportunity to trump, if possible. This maxim cannot be too maturely considered, as there is a fault which is constantly committed by bad players, and is among those most fatal in their consequences. The moment an adversary refuses to ruff, though a winning card, thev, in violation of common sense, trump out, and not unfrequently give away five or six tricks, which a judicious force would have prevented.
26. If you are strong in trumps, and have the ace, king, and two or more of your right hand adversary's lead, there are two ways to play, either to pass it the first time, or else to put on the ace, and play the suit on to force your partner. If weak in trumps, put on the ace, but do not continue the suit
27. If you win your partner's lead with the queen, unless in trumps, do not return it; it is evident the ace
or king lies behind him, and you give the tenace to the a adversary.
28. To lead from only three cards, unless in sequence, is bad play, and only proper when you have reason ton think it is your partner's suit; in which case, play off the highest, though the king or queen.
N. B. This is contrary to the general practice, but undoubtedly right.
29. The first object should be to save the game, if its appears in probable danger : the next to win it, if you have a reasonable hope of success, by any mode of play, though hazardous. If peither of these is the question, you should plar to the points or score of the game. In other words, you should not give up the certainty of the odd trick, or scoring five or eight, for the equal chance of two, six, or nine. whereas you should risk an equal finesse that will prevent your adversaries from these scores by its success.
30. It is generally right to return your partner's lead in trumps, unless he leads an equivocal card, such as nine or ten. These are called equivocal, because they are led with propriety, both from strong and weak suits.is With a quart to a king-or pine, ten, knave, and king of a suit, you lead the nine, as you do when it is the best of two or three of a suit.
31. With only four trumps do not lead one, unless vour strong suit is established, except that with a terceat major, and another trump, and a sequence to the king of three or more, it is good play to lead trumps twice, and then the knave of your suit, and continue till the ace is out.
32. If you remain with the best trump, and one of your adversaries has three or more, do not play out, as it may stop the suit of your other adversary. If they both have trumps, and your partner none, it is right to take out two for one.
33. If strong in trumps, with the commanding card of your adversaries' suit, and small ones, force your partner, if he has none of that suit, with the small ones. and keep the commanding cards till the last.
34. If your partner leads the ace and queen of a suite of which you have the king and two others, win hill queen, that you may not stop bis suit.
35. If your right hand adversary wins, and return his partner's lead, should you bave the best and a smal
one, play the latter. If your partner has the third best, he will probably make it. If your adversary is a bad player, I would not advise this, as they never finesse when they ought to do it.
N. B. If weak in trumps, you should not venture this in other suits. Ć 36. If your right adversary calls, and your partner
leads through him ; with ace or king, the nine, and a
small one, you should finesse the nine. T 37. If your partner calls before his turn, he means you
should play a trump. Take every opportunity to show your partner that you can command the trumps. In this case he will keep his own strong suit entire; whereas, if the strength of trumps is with the adversaries, his play would be to keep guard on their suits, and throw away from his own.
38. With ace, knave, and another trump, it is right to finesse the knave to your partner's lead; and if strong in them, you should do the same in any suit. If he leads the ten of any suit, you pass it invariably with the ace and knave; unless one trick saves or wins any particu.
lar point. 1 39. It is better to lead from ace nine, than ace ten, as
you are more likely to have a tenace in the latter suit, if led by your adversary. be 40. If the partner to your winning card throws away
the best card of any suit, it shows he wishes you to know he commands it; if the second best, it is to tell you he has no more of that suit. .
41. If very strong in trumps, it is always right to inform your partner of it as soon as possible. If fourth i player, you are to win a small trump, and you have a
sequence of three or more, win it with the highest, and
play the lowest afterward, x 42. If strong in trumps, do not ruff the second best of
any suit your partner leads, but throw away a losing 1 card, unless you have an established saw. i 43. If ten cards are played out, and there remains one
entire suit, and your partner leads, if you have king, ten, and another, and six tricks, you have a certainty to make the odd one, if you play right, let the cards lie how they will ; should your right hand adversary put on an honour, you must win it, if not, put on the ten; with five tricks, put on the king. palio 44. Many good players, in playing terce.majors, be:
gin with the king and queen. This is often productive of mischief, as, when played at other times from king and queen only, the ace is kept up, and while each thinks bis partner has it, and has played accordingly, it unex. peciedly appears from the adversary, and disappoints their whole plao.
45. If the fourth player wins his adversary's lead, it is better to return it than to open a new suit, unless strong enough to support his partner.
46. With ace, kvave, and another, do not win the king led by your left hand adversary. You either force him to change his lead, or give you the tenace in his own suit.
47. With ace, queen, &c. of a suit of which your right hand adversary leads the knave, put on the ace in. variably. No good player, with king, knave, and ten, will begin with the knave; of course it is fiuessing against yourself, to put on the queen, and as the king is certainly behind you, you give away at least the lead, without any possible advantage.
43. With only three of a suit, put an honour on an honour: with four or more you should not do it-except the ace should not be put on the knave.
49. With king and one more, good players sometimes put it on second, soinetimes not : if turned up, it should invariably be put on, and generally in trumps. But queen or knave should never be played, unless a superior honour is turned up on the right.
50. In playing for an odd trick, you play a closer game than at other scores. You lead from single cards, and force your partner, when at other times you would not be justified. It is seldoin in this case proper to lead trumps : and few finesses are justifiable. It is a nice part of the game, and experience, with attention, will alone teach it with effect.
51. If the trumps remain divided between you and your partner, and you have no winning card yourself, it is good play to lead a small trump, to put it in his hand to play off any that he may have, to give you an oppor tunity to throw away your losing cards.
A remains with two or more trumps, and two losing cards : his partner with a better trump, and two winning cards. . It is evident, if he plays off a losing card, he will merely make his own trumps; but if he plays an inferior trump, and put it into his partner's lead, he
will play off his winning cards, and give A an opportunity to throw away his losing ones.
N. B. This continually occurs, and is necessary to be comprehended.
52. When your partner leads, win with the lowest of a sequence, to demonstrate your strength in his suit; but it is often right to win your adversary's lead with the highest, to keep him in ignorance.
53. When your partner plays a thirteenth card, and most of the trumps are unplayed, he in general means you should put on a high trump to strengthen his own hand.
54. When you have but a moderate hand yourself, sacrifice it to your partner; he, if a good player, will act in the same manner.
55. With three, return the highest; with four, the lowest of your partner's lead. This answers two purposes, by giving your partner an opportunity to finesse, and showing him you have but three at most in his suit.
56. With the ace, queen, and others of your right hand adversary's lead, put on a small one, except he leads the knave, in which case put on the ace.
57. When at eight, with two honours, look at your adversaries' score, and consider if there is a probability they should save their lurch, or win the game, notwithstanding your partner holds a third honour; if not, you should not call, as it gives a decided advantage against you in playing for tricks.
58. Finessing in general is only meant against one card. There are, however, situations when much deeper are required; but theory alone, can never enable the beginner to discover these. Supposing it necessary you should make two out of the last three cards in a suit not yet played, your partner leads the nine, you have ace, and a small one-Query, what are you to do? Answer, pass it though the finesse is against three; for if your partner has an honour in the suit, you make two tricks. If not, it is impossible by any mode of play whatever.
59. With king, queen, &c. of your right hand adversary's lead, put on one of them : with queen, knave, and another, the knave; with two or more small ones, the lowest.
60. The more critically you recollect the cards the better; at least you should remember the trumps, and the