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little cooloess, I have often known an almost sure victory snatched out of a player's hands, and a total overthrow the consequence. But if, after all, you cannot penetrate so far as to win the game, nevertheless, by observing these rules, you may still be sure of having a well disposed game.
3. And now that I am arrived at the last period of the gaine, which abounds also with difficulties and niceties, it must be remarked, where your pawns are strong. est, most united together, and nearest to queen, you must likewise bear in mind how your adversary's pawns are disposed, and their degree of prefernent, and com: pare these things together, and if you find you can get to queen hefore inn, you must proceed without hesita. tion: if not, you must hasten on with your king to prevent him. I speak now, as supposing noblemen to be gone: if not, they are to attend your pawns, and likewise to binder your adversary from going to queen.
Some other General Rules.
1. Do not be over cautious about losing a rook for an inferior piece: although a rook is better than any other, except the queen, yet it does not often come into play, so as to operaie, until the end of the game; apd therefore it often turns out that it is better to have a less good piece in piav than a better out.
2. When you have moved a piece, so that your adver. sary drives you away with a pawn, you may be sure (generally speaking) that it is a bad mave, your enemy gaining that double advantage over you of advancing hiinself, and making you retire: I think this merits at. tention; for although between equal and good players the first move may not be much, yet the loss of one or two more, after the first, makes the game almost irre. trievable. Also, if you defend and can recover the move, or the attack, (for they both go together) you are in a fair way of winning.
3. If you make such a move as that, having liberty to play again, you can make nothing of it, take it for granted, it is an exceeding bad one; for in this nice game every move is important.
4. If your game is such, that you have scarcely any thing to play, it is your own fault, either for baving brought out your pieces wrong, or, which is worse, not at all; for bad they been brought out right, you must have sufficient variety to play.
5. Do not be too cautious of doubling a pawn ; three pawos together are strong, but four, that make a square. with the help of other pieces, well managed, create an invincible strength, and in time of need may probably produce you a queen : on the other hand, two pawns, with an interval between, are no better than one; and if, carelessly, you should have three over each other in a line, your game cannot be in a worse plight. examine this on the table, and the truth will be self evident. You are therefore to keep your pawns closely cemented and weil connected together: and it must be great strength on your adversary's side that can overpower them.
6. When a piece is so attacked as that you cannot save it, give it up, and bestow your thoughts how to annoy your enemy elsewhere, while he is taking it: for it frequently occurs, that while your adversary is running madly after a piece, you either get a pawn or two, Or such a situation as ends in bis discomfiture.
7. Supposing your queen and another piece are attacked at the same time, and by renoving your queen, you must lose your piece : in this situation, if you can get two pieces in exchange for your queen, you should rather do it than retire ; for it is the difference of thre. pieces, which is more than the value of a queen; besides that, you keep your game entire, and preserve your situation, which very often is better than a piece; nay, rather than retire, I would give my queen for a piece, and a pawn or two. nav, almost for what I can get; for observe this one thing, among good players, (to convince you this advice is not bad) that when the attack and defence is well formed, and every thing prepared for the storm, it be that plays first is obliged by the act of the person that defends to retire, it generally ends in the loss of the game of the attacked side.
8. Do not aim at changing without suficient reason; it is so far from being right, that a good player will tak this advantage of it. that he will spoil your situation, and of course mend his own : but it is quite right ira these following cases; when you are strongest, especially by a piece, then every time you change your advantage is increasing; this is so plain, it requires no ar
gument. Again, when you have played a piece, and your adversary opposes one to you, change directly, for it is clear he wants to remove you ; prevent him, there. fore, and do not lose the move.
9. Cast up your game every now and then, make a balance, and then take your measures accordingly.
10. At tbe conclusion of the game especially, remem. ber your king is a capital piece, and do not let him be idle; it is by his means, generally, you get the move and
11. Notice this also, that as the queen, rook, and bishop, operate at a distance, it may not always be necessary in your attack to have them near your adversary's king; they do better at a distance, cannot be driven away, and prevent a stale-mate.
12. When a piece presents that you can take, and that cannot escape you, avoid being in too great a hurry; see that there is not a better move elsewhere, and take it at your leisure.
13. To take your adversary's pawn with your king is not always right, for it very often turns out to be a safe. guard and protection to your king.
14. If you can take a man with different pieces, do it not hastily with the first that occurs, but consider thoroughly with which you had best take it.
SELECT GAMES AT CHESS.
THE FIRST GAME ;
Beginning with whate. Nlustrated by observations on
the most material moves ; and two bock games; one commencing at the 12th, and the second at the 37th move.
1., White. The king's pawn two steps.
Black. The same. 2. W The king's bishop at his quoen's bishop's 4th
square. B The same. 3. W The queen's bishop's pawn one move.
B The king's knight at his bishop's 3d squarea
4. W The queen's pawn two moves. a
B The pawn takes it. 5. W The pawn retakes the pawn. b B The king's bishop at his queen's knight's 3d
B The queen's bishop's pawn one inove.
a This pawn is played two moves for important reasons; 1st, to hinder the adversary's king's bishop from playing upon your king's bishop's pawp ; 2d, to place the strength of your pawns in the middle of the board; of great consequence to achieve the making of a queen.
6 When the game is in this situation, viz. one of your pawns at your king's, and another at your queen's 4th square, do not push either of them before your adversary proposes to change one for the other: in such case advance the attacked pawn. Pawns, when sustained in a front line, obstruct very much the adversary's pieces from entering in our game, or taking a desirable
c If he gives check with his bishop instead of withdrawing it, you are to cover the check with your bishop, in order to retake his bishop with your knight, in case he takes yours; your knight will then defend your king's pawn, otherwise defenceless. But perhaps he may not choose to take your bishop, because a good player endeavours to retain his king's bishop as long as possible.
d You should not play your knights at your bishop's 3d square before the bishop's pawn has moved two steps, because the motion of the pawn is hindered by the knight.
e Your bishop retires to avoid being attacked by the black queen's pawn, which would force you to take that
in yours; and thus decrease the strength of your game, spoiling entirely the project already men. tioned, in the 1st and 2d observations.
B The queen's pawn two moves. 9. W The king's pawn one move
B The king's knight at his king's square. 10. W The queen's bishop at his king's 3d square,
B The king's bishop's pawn one move. f 11. W The queen at her 2d square. g
B The king's bishop's pawn takes the pawn. h 12. W The queen's pawn retakes it
B The queen's bishop at his king's 3d square. i
f He plays this to give an opening to his king's rook, which cannot be avoided, whether you take his pawn Ol not
! g If you should take the pawn, in lieu of playing your queen, you would commit a great error, for your royal pawn would then lose its line; whereas if your king's pawn is taken by the adversary, that of your queen supplies ihe place, and you may sustain it with that of your king's bishop: these two pawns will evi." dently win the game, because they can now no more be parted without the loss of a piece, or one of them will make a queen, as will be seen in the end. Besides, it is of no little consequence to play your queen in that place, and for two reasons: Ist, to support and defend" your king's bishop's pawn: and 2d, to sustain your queen's bishop, which, being taken, would oblige you :0 retake his bishop with the above mentioned last pawn; and thus your best pawns would have been totally di.l. vided, and the game lost.
h He takes the pawn in order to give an opening to his king's rook.
¿ He plays this bishop to protect his queen's pawn. with a view afterward to push that of his queen's, bishop.
N.B. He might have taken your bishop, but he ra. ther chooses to let you take his, to clear a way for his queen's rook, though his knight's pawn is doubled by it; you are again to take notice, that a do-ible pawn is noway disadvantageous when surrounded by three or four others. However, this is the subject of a back