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2. When a player has touched a piece, he must move it, unless it is only to replace it; when he must say,
J'adoube," or I replace.
3. When a player has quitted a piece, he cannot recall the move.
4. If a player touch one of his adversary's pieces, without saying J'rdoube, he may be compelled to take it, or if it cannot be taken to move his king.
5. When a pawn is moved two steps, it may be taken by any adversary's pawo which it passes, and the capturing pawn must be placed in that square over which the other leaps.
6. The king cannot castle if he has before moved, if he is in check, if in castling he passes a check, or if the rook has moved.
7. Whenever a player checks bis adversary's king, he inust say Check, otherwise the adversary need not notice the check. If the player should, on the next move, attack the queep or any other piece, and then say check, his adversary may replace bis last move, and detend his king,
8. When a pawn reaches the first row of the adversary's side, it may be made a queen, or any other piece the player chooses.
9. If a false move is made, and is not discovered until the dext move is completed, it cannot be recalled.
10. The king cannot be moved into check, nor within one square of the adverse king, nor can any player move a piece or pawn that leaves his king in check.
Mr. Hoyle's General Rules for the Game of Chess.
1. Before you stir your pieces, you ought to move your pawns, and afterward bring out your pieces to support them. Therefore, in order to open your game well, the king's, the queen's, and the bisbop's pawns should be first played.
2. 'You are not, therefore, to play out any of your pieces in the early part of your game, because you thereby lose moves, in case your adversary should have it in his power by playing a pawn upon them, to make them retire, which also opens his game at the same time; inore particularly avoid playing your queen out, until your game is tolerably well opened. •
3. Never give check unless some advantage is thereby gained, because you lose the move if he is able either to take or drive your piece away.
1. Do not crowd your game by having too many pieces together, choking up your passage, so as to im. perle your advancing or retreating your men as occasion may render necessary.
5. If your game is crowded, endeavour to free it by making exchanges of pieces or pawns, and castle your king as soon as possible.
6. Endeavour, on the other hand, to crowd your ad. versary's game, thus: when he plays out his pieces before he does his pawns, artack them as soon as you can with your pawns, by which you may make bim lose moves, and thus crowd him.
7 If the adversary attacks your king, and it should not be in your power to attack his, offer exchanges with him: and if he retires, when you present a piece to exchange, he may lose a move, and thus you gain an advantage.
8. Play your men in so good guard of one another, that if aniv man you advance be taken, the adverse piece may be taken also by that which protected yours, and with this view, be sure to have as many guarits to your piece as you perceive your adversary advances pieces upon ili and if you can. let them be of less consideration than those he attacks with. If you find that you cannot well support your piece, see if by assailing 0.3 of bis that is beiter, or as good, you cannot thereby sa yours.
3. Avoid making an attack unler, well prepared for it, for you open thereby your adversary's game, an make him ready prepared to pour in a strong attack upon you when your weak one is over..
10. Never play any man till you have examined whe. ther you are free from danger by your enemy's last move: nor offer to cominence an attack till you have considered what injury he would be able to do you by his next moves, in consequence of yours, that you may frustrate his designs, if hurtful, before it is too late.
11. When your attack is prosperous, never be divert. ed from following up your scheme (if possible) on to giving him mate, by taking any piece, or other advantage, your adversary may purposely throw in your way,
with this intention, that by your taking that bait he might gain a move that would make your design prove abortive.
12. When you are pursuing a well-conceived attack, but judge it necessary to force your way through your adversary's defence, with the loss of a few pieces: if, upon reckoning as many moves forward as you can, you see a prospect of success, rush on boldly, and sacrifice a piece or two to achieve your object: these bold at. teinpts make the finest games.
13 Never let your queen so stand before your king, as that your adversarv, by bringing a rook or a bishop, might check your king, if she was not there, for you hardly have a chance to save her.
14. Let not your adversary's knight (particularly if duly guarded) come to check your king and queen, or your king and rook, or your queen and rook, or your two rooks at the same time; for in the two first cases, the king being compelled to go out of check, the queen or the rook inust be lost: and in the two last cases, a rook must be lost, at best, for a worst piece,
15. Be careful that no giarded pawn of your adversary's fork two of your pieces.
16. When the kings have castled on different sides o. the board, the enemy must advance upon the other king the pawns he has on thar side or the board, taking care to bring up his pieces, especially bis queen and rooks to support them; and the king that has castled is not to stir his three pawns till compelled to it.
17. Endeavour to have a move as it were in ambuscade, in playing the game that is place the queen, bishop, or rook, behind a pawn, or a piece, in such a way, as that upon playing that pawn, or piece, vou dis. cover a check upon your ariversary's king, and thus get a piece, or some other advantage bv it.
18. Never protect an inferior piece with a better, if you can do it with a pawn, because that better piece may in such a case he, as it were, out of play; on the same account, you ought not to guard a pawn with a piece, if you have it in your power to guard it with a pawn.
19. A pawo passed, and well supported, frequently costs the adversary a piece. And if you play to win the game only, whenever you have gained a pawn, or any other advantage, and are not in danger of losing the move thereby, make as frequent exchanges of pieces as possible.
20. If you have three pawns each upon the board, and no piece, and you have one of your pawns on one side of the board, and the other two on the opposite, and your adversary's three pawns also are opposite to your two, march with your king as soon as possible, to take his pawns; and if he tries with his king to protect them, go on to queen with your single pawn, and if he goes to prevent it, take his pawns, and push the others to queen.
21. Toward the end of a game, each party having only three or four pawns on opposite sides of the board, the kings should endeavour to gain the move, in order to win the game. For instance, if you bring your king opposed to your adversary's king, with only one square between you, you will have gained the inove.
22. When your adversary bas his king and one pawn on the board, and you have your king only, you caonot lose that game, if you can bring your king to be opposite to your adversary's when he is directly either before or on one side of his pawn, and there is only one square between the kings.
23. When your adversary has a bishop and one pawn on the rook's line, and bishop is not of the colour that commands the square his pawn is going to, and you have only king, if you can get into that corner, that game cannot be lost, but may be won by a stale.
24. When the game is to your disadvantage, having only your queen left in play, and your king is in the position of stale male, keep giving check to your adversary's king, taking especial care not to check him where he can interpose any of his pieces that make the stale; you will at last force him, by so doing, to take your queen, and then you conquer by being in a stale mate. (See p. 208.)
25. Never cover a check with a piece that a pawn pushed upon it may take, for fear of only getting that pawn for it.
26. Always be careful that your adversary's king has a move: therefore do not crowd him up with your pieces, for fear you inadvertently give stale-mate.
Explanatory Observations on some of the preceding
1. Whether it is the open or the close game you play, be sure bring out all your pieces into play before you commence the assault; for if you do not, and your ad. versary does, you will attack or be attacked always disadvantageously; this is so decided, that you had better forego a benefit than deviate from it; and no one will ever play well at this game, who does not put this rule strictly in practice. liinust not be concluded that these preparatory moves are useless, because you not receive an immediate success from them; they are equally important as it is at Whist to deal thirteen cards round before play. With a view of bringing out your pieces properly, push on your pawns first, and support them with your pieces, and you will receive this advantage from it, that your ame will not be choked. By this I mean, that all your preces will be at liberty to play and assist each other, and thus co-operate towards completing your purpose; and this may be farther observed, that, either in your attack or defence, you bring them out so as not to be driven back again.
2. When you have brought out your pieces, which you will have done very well, if you have your choice on which side to castle, (which I would always recommend to do) you should then stop and consider thoroughly your own and your adversary's game, and from his situation, and noticing where he is weakest, you should not only make your decision where to castle, but also where to begin your attack; and it is certainly clear you cannot do it in a better place than where your are strongest, and your adversary weakest. By this mode, it is very probable that you will be able to break through your adversary's ga ne, in which contest some pieces must of course be excujanged. But now rest awhile, and survey both games attentively, and do not let your impetuosity buriy you away with this first suc. cess; and my advice to you in this critical juncture (especially if you still find your enerny pretty strong) is to rally your men again, and put them in good order for a second or third attack, if requisite, still keeping your men close and well connected together, so as to be of use to each other : for want of this method, and a