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THE GAME OF CHESS.
This Game is played on a board the same as that used in draughts or chequers, containing sixty-four squares. The board must be so placed that each player will have a white square at his right hand. The squares are named from the pieces, viz. that on which the king is placed is called the king's square, and that on which the king's pawn is placed, the king's second square, that before the pawn the king's third square, and the next the king's fourth, and so of ail the pieces of each side. Each player has eight pieces and eight pawns, which are thus placed ; the white king on the fourth square from the right hand, which is black, and the queen on the fifth, which is white, the black king on the fifth square from the right hand on the other side the board, directly opposite the white king, and the queen on the fourth, opposite the white queen; cach queen being on a square of her own colour. The bishops, one on the third and one on the sixth square of each side: the knights on the second and seventh, and the rooks on the first and eighth, or corner squares; the pawns on the lines of squares immediately in front of the pieces of each side. The pieces and pawns before the king, and on his side the board, are called the king's pawn, king's bishop, king's bishop's pawn, &c. ; those before the queen, and on her side, are called the queen's pawn, queen's bishop, queen's bishop's pawn, &c.
The white queen being on the lefi of her king, and the black queen on the right of hers, players should accustom themselves to play with either colour.
The pawns move forward only; they may move one or two squares the first move, but afterward only one; the pawns can only take by moving angularly forward.
The knights move obliquely three squares at a time, vaulting over any piece which may be in their way, from black to white, and from white to black; a move which
may be better learnt from the games hereafter stated, than from description.
The bishops move angularly, forward or backward, on the colour on which they are originally placed.
The rooks move in straight lines, forward, backward, or sidewise.
The queen has the moves of the bishop and of the rook.
The king moves in every direction, but one square only ai a time, except in castling. He may castle once in the game, which is done by
i done by placing the rook with which he castles, on the square next to the king, and then placing the king on the square next the other side of the rook
The queen, rooks, and bishops, move the whole ex. tent of the board, unless impeded by some other piece or pawn.
The player is not compelled, as at draughts, to tako any piece offered him, but may refuse if he thinks proper. When any piece is captured, it is removed from the boarri, and the capturing piece placed in the same square.
When the king is exposed to the attack of any of the ariversary's pieces or pawns, he is said to be in check, and if he is unable to avoid the attack, by taking the attacking piece, interposing one of his own, or retiring out of check, he is check-mated, and bis adversary wins the game.
When the pieces and pawns on each side are so much reduced, or so situated, that neither party can checkanate the other's king, the game is drawn.
When a plaver has no piece or pawn which he can move, except his king, and his king not being in check, is yet so situated that he cannot move without going into check, he is stale maled. Phillidore, Hoyle, and many others, say that he who is stale mate wins the game; but Sarrait, in his work, published in London, 1808, states, that "in Italy, France, Germany, &c. and by al] Italian players of eminence, stale mate is considered a drawn game ;" and gives this as an established law.
Laws of the Game. 1. If the board, or pieces, be improperly placed, the mistake cannot be rectified after four nioves on each side are played.