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must move it somewhere ; if you set it down, you must let it stand ;” and it is therefore best that these rules should be observed ; as the game thereby becomes more the image of human life, and particularly of war; in which, if you have incautiously put yourself into a bad and dangerous position, you cannot obtain your enemy's leave to withdraw your troops, and place them more securely, but you must abide all the consequences of your rashness.

And, lastly, we learn by chess the habit of not being discouraged by present bad appearances in the state of our affairs, the habit of hoping for a favourable change, and that of persevering in the search of resources. The game is so full of events, there is such a variety of turns in it, the fortune of it is so subject to sudden vicissitudes, and one so frequently, after long contemplation, discovers the means of extricating one's self from a supposed insurmountable difficulty, that one is encouraged to continue the contest to the last, in hopes of victory by our own skill, or at least of giving a stalemate, by the negligence of our adversary. And who. ever considers, what in chess he often sees instances of, that particular pieces of success are apt to produce presumption, and its consequent inattention, by which the loss may be recovered, will learn not to be too much discouraged by the present success of his adversary, ñor to despair of final good fortune, upon every little check he receives in the pursuit of it.

That we may, therefore, be induced more frequently to choose this beneficial amusement, in preference to others, which are not attended with the same advan. tages, every circumstance which may increase the pleasure of it should be regarded ; and every action or word that is unfair, disrespectful, or that in any way


may give uneasiness, should be avoided, as contrary to the immediate intention of both the players, which is pass the time agreeably.

Therefore, First, If it is agreed to play according to the strict rules; then those rules are to be exactly observed by both parties, and should not be insisted on for one side, while deviated from by the other ; for this is not equitable.

Secondly, If it is agreed not to observe the rules exactly, but one party demands indulgences, he should then be as willing to allow them to the other.

Thirdly, No false move should ever be made to extricate yourself out of a difficulty, or to gain an advantage. There can be no pleasure in playing with a person once detected in such unfair practices.

Fourthly, If your adversary is long in playing, you ought not to hurry him, or to express any uneasiness at his delay. You should not sing, nor whistle, nor look at your watch, nor take up a book to read, nor make a tapping with your feet on the floor, or with your fingers on the table, nor do any thing that may disturb his attention. For all these things displease ; and they do not show your skill in playing, but your craftiness or your rudeness.

Fifthly, You ought not to endeavour to amuse and deceive your adversary, by pretending to have made bad moves, and saying that you have now lost the game, in order to make him secure and careless, and inattentive to your schemes ; for this is fraud and deceit, not skill in the game.

Sixthly, You must not, when you have gained a victory, use any triumphing or insulting expression, nor show too much pleasure; but endeavour to console your adversary, and make him less dissatisfied

with himself, by every kind of civil expression that may be used with truth; such as, “You understand the

game better than I, but you are a little inatten. tive;'or, 'You play too fast;'or, 'You had the best of the game, but something happened to divert your thoughts, and that turned it in my favour.”

Seventhly, If you are a spectator while others play, observe the most perfect silence. For if you give ad. vice, you offend both parties ; him against whom you give it, because it may cause the loss of his game; and him in whose favour you give it, because, though it be good, and he follows it, he loses the pleasure he might have had, if you had permitted him to think until it had occurred to himself. Even after a move or moves, you must not, by replacing the pieces, show how it might have been placed better ; for that displeases, and may occasion disputes and doubts about their true situation. All talking to the players lessens or diverts their attention, and is therefore unpleasing. Nor should you give the least hint to either party, by any kind of noise or motion. If you do, you are unworthy to be a spectator. If you have a mind to exer. cise or show your judgment, do it in playing your own game, when you have an opportunity, not in criticising, or meddling with, or counselling, the play of others.

Lastly, If the game is not to be played rigorously, according to the rules above-mentioned, then moderate your desire of victory over your adversary, and be pleased with one over yourself. Snatch not eagerly at every advantage offered by his unskilfulness or inat. tention ; but point out to him kindly, that by such a move he places or leaves a piece in danger and unsup. ported; that by another he will put his king in a perilous situation, &c. By this generous civility (so opposite to the unfairness above forbidden) you may, indeed, happen to lose the game to your opponent, but you will win what is better, his esteem, his respect, and his affection ; together with the silent approbation and good will of impartial spectators.


Commerce among nations as well as between private persons should be fair and equitable, by equivalent exchanges, and mutual supplies ; the taking unfair advantages of a neighbour's necessities, though attended with a temporary success, always breeds ill blood ; to lay duties on a commodity exported which our friends want, is a knavish attempt to get some. thing for nothing. The statesman who first invented it had the genius of a pickpocket, and would have been a pickpocket, if fortune had suitably placed him ; the nations who have practised it have suffered for it fourfold, as pickpockets ought to suffer. Savoy by a duty on exported wines lost the supplying of Switzerland, which thenceforth raised its own wine, and (to waive other instances) Britain, by her duty on exported tea, has lost the trade of her colonies.


Of embargoes upon corn, and of the poor. In inland high countries, remote from the sea, and whose rivers are small, running from the country, and not to it, as is the case with Switzerland, great distress may arise from a course of bad harvests, if public granaries are not provided, and kept well stored. Anciently, too, before navigation was so general, ships so plenty, and commercial transactions so well established,


even maritime countries might be occasionally distressed by bad crops. But such is now the facility of communication between those countries, that an unrestrained commerce can scarce ever fail of procuring a sufficiency for any of them. If indeed any government is so imprudent as to lay its hands on imported corn, forbid its exportation, or compel its sale at limited prices, there the people may suffer some famine from merchants avoiding their ports.

But wherever commerce is known to be always free, and the merchant absolute master of his commodity, as in Holland, there will always be a reasonable supply.

When an exportation of corn takes place, occasioned by a higher price in some foreign countries, it is common to raise a clamour, on the supposition that we shall thereby produce a domestic famine. Then fol. lows a prohibition, founded on the imaginary distresses of the poor. The poor, to be sure, if in distress, should be relieved; but if the farmer could have a high price for his corn from the foreign demand, must he by a prohibition of exportation be mp to take a low price, not of the poor only, but of every one that eats bread, even the richest ? The duty of relieving the poor is incumbent on the rich ; but by this operation the whole burden of it is laid on the farmer, who is to re. lieve the rich at the same time. Of the poor, too, those who are maintained by the parishes have no right to claim this sacrifice of the farmer ; as while they have their allowance, it makes no difference to them whether bread be cheap or dear. Those working poor, who now mind business only five or four days in the week, if bread should be so dear as to oblige them to work the whole six required by the commandment, do not seem to be aggrieved, so as to have a right to pub.

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