Abbildungen der Seite

ing many thousands of children and year, upward of 37,0001. It now adults under a course of religious numbers 1400 clergymen among its instruction), but indirectly also, in members : it employs 419 labourstirring up the natives to forward the ers; of whom 106 are Europeans, work of education among themselves, and 313 were born chiefly in the by their own voluntary agency. respective countries where they are

6. In the establishment of Chris- employed : it hạs 265 schools, contian ministers, the employment of nected with forty-two missionary natives in the work of instruction, stations in its nine missions; in the erection of churches, and the which schools there are 13,618 gathering of the heathen into the scholars,--of whom 9584 are boys, fold of Christ. For the use of such 2609 girls, and 1425 adults. And congregations the Liturgy of the the word of salvation is not only United Church has been translated published to many settled congreinto the languages of many of the gations formed from among the countries where the Society's mis- heathen, but it is made known far sions are established, particularly and wide, by discussions and conthe Susoo, Bullom, Tamul, Hin- versations with the pilgrim and the doostanee, Bengalee, and Cinga- traveller by the way-side, with the lese; and whilst the Society is thus crowds which frequent the marketthe means of extending the influ- places of the city, and with the ence of our apostolical church, by multitudes which assemble at fairs teaching the native congregations of vast resort, or for the worship of to worship God in the same form of their dumb idols; and, by the blesswords as ourselves, the Society de- ing of God on all these means, not rives also, mutually, great advan- .only is Divine liglit gradually, but tage from its character as an Epis- certainly, diffusing itself throughcopal society, especially in the in. out that gross darkness which has tercourse rol its missionaries with covered the nations, but, in some ancient Christian churches. The places, the little one has become a Syrian Christians, in particular, on thousand, and the small one a strong the coast of Malabar, have receiv- nation, giving full assurance that ed its missionaries with the greatest the Lord will hasten the entire accordiality and respect.

complishment of all his promises in zudn the prosecution of its plans, his time. the Society expended, in its last 11 PCI. "?!!

PRISON DISCIPLINE SOCIETY. Doe on In is now just fifty years since the confinement, an idea may be formimmortal Howard commenced that ed when Howard states that but few illustrious career, which has .confer- gaolers would incur the risk of inred on his country such important fection by accompanying him into blessings, and justly ranked him the cells; that, on his first journey, among the greatest benefactors of the leaves of his memorandum book mankinda Those who are unac. were so tainted, as to be unfit for quainted with the writings of this use; that the vinegar which he extraordinary man can form but an carried with him, as a preservative imperfect conception of the state of against infection, soon lost its prothe prisons of this country at that perties; and that, during these viperiodo Dungeons, dark, filthy, sits, his clothes became so offensive damp, and unventilated chains as to prevent him from travelliig in and fetters of oppressive weight- a close carriage. food, umwholesome and insufficient Although, at this period, the in

were the prominent characteris- fiction of cruelty derived no sand tics of prisons treatment. v. Of the tion from the laws, although forloathsome state of many places of ture, in any shape, formed no part


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


of a criminal's sentence- yet, in period of twenty years subsequent point of fact, imprisonment in the to the death of Howard, when Mr. greater part of the gaols of Great Nield (a man worthy to tread in the Britain carried with it sufferings footsteps of that great philanthrowhich amounted to torture, and at pist) personally inspected the prithe bare contemplation of which sons throughout the kingdom, it humanity shudders. A fatal disor- was his painful task to record many der, known by the name of the gaol of the most prominent defects which distemper, had at different periods his eminent predecessor had so faithof our history made frequent and fully exposed ;-and even to the dreadful ravages. About the mid- present moment there are to be dle of the sixteenth century, an as- found prisons in nearly the same size was held at Oxford, which was condition in which Howard left afterwards denominated, from its them--monuments of the justice of consequences, « The Black As- his statements, and of the indiffersize ;” when, the disease being in- ence with which his recommendatroduced into court, all who were tions have been regarded. present, consisting of the judge, the The evils of a defective mode of sheriff, and about 300 persons, died prison discipline have however now within forty hours. Frequent oc- been thoroughly investigated and currences of a like awful nature made known. The claims of justice might be related ; and even so late- and humanity are recognized. The ly as in the middle of the last cen- folly and the wickedness of that tury the gaol fever was introduced neglect of system has been exposed into the court at the Old Bailey, when which confounds all distinctions of the judges presiding, and a consider- character--which corrupts the innoable number of persons present, fell cent, still further vitiates the crivictims to this dreadful malady. No minal, and hardens the more guilty attempt was made to prevent the which impairs the health while it recurrence of the gaol distemper, debases, the minds and which reuntil, in conformity with Howard's stores to society an offender, to prey recommendation, a law was enact- upon its property, pollute its moed, the effect of which has been to rals, and disturb its peace. insure cleanliness and ventilation, of the progress of information and which has happily been instru- and of public feeling, within these mental in preventing a return of the few years, on this subject, the highcalamity.

ly, valuable Reports of the Society But although Howard accom- for Prison Discipline bear ample tesplished much, and great was the timony. Parliamentary interference, sum of human misery which he re- the exertions of the magistracy, and moyed, it required the labours of a diligence of inquiry, have combined succeeding generation to remedy the to bring the subject prominently begeneral imperfection of our gaols, fore the public mind. The princiand especially as respects the moral ples on which punishments are enconsequences of imprisonment. Of forced have undergone the delibethese, Howard was fully sensible. rate investigation of the legislature. He says, that “ if it were the aim It is the general feeling that the unand wish of magistrates to effect the convicted should be treated with as destruction, present and future, of much lenity as is compatible with young delinquents, they could not the safe custody of his person, and devise a more effectual method than the good order of the prison; whilst to confine them so long in our pri- upon those on whom the law inflicts sons-those seats and seminaries of punishment, a salutary system of idleness and vice." But these re- discipline ought to be enforced ; presentations appear to have pro- that in the treatment of the conduced but little effect ; for, at a victed, no severity should be allowed that is not warranted by the laws, vent them from seeing, conversing, and consistent with justice; that the or holding any intercourse with each prevention of crime is the ultimate other; and the prisoners of each object of imprisonments and that to sex are to be divided into distinét attain this end, it is necessary to classes : female prisoners are in all insure the reformation as well as cases to be attended by female ofthe punishment of the prisoner. ficets: a matron is to be appointed Uniform severity, it is generally ad- to superintend the female prisoners : mitted, hardens the offender, and prayers are to be read at least every prepares him for the perpetration of morning, and also portions of the further crimes. It is necessary not Scripture to the prisoners, when only to inspire terror, but to kindle assembled for instruction : provision hope ; to impress upon the mind is to be made for the instruction of not only a sense of guilt, but the prisoners of both sexes in reading love of virtue; and to implant those and writing: no prisoner is to be principles, and cherish those feel- put in irons by the keeper of any ings, which religion only can im. prison, except in case of urgent part. Most cordially do we rejoice and absolute necessity; and every in these results, and we congratu- male prisoner is to be provided with Jate the individuals and the Society a distinct bed, hammock, or cot, and, to which we are chiefly indebted for if possible, in a separate cell. them. We are also most happy to The operation of this law is learn from the Fifth Report of the unhappily confined to a few city Society, (the sixth has not yet been and' borough prisons, in addition published, that the efforts of the to county gaols; it being thought friends of prison discipline continue advisable, in order to insure the steadily progressive.

execution of the act, to render it The Committee justly congratu- obligatory in those instances only late the public on the passing of the which admit of the possibility of consolidated Prison Act, which de- introducing such 'classification and clares that it is expedient that such such arrangements for labour as the measures should be adopted, and law prescribes. The consequence such arrangements made in prison of this limitation is to exclude from discipline, as shall not only provide the operation of the act a considerfor the safe custody, but shall also able number of small prisons under tend more effectually to preserve the local jurisdiction. In many of these health and improve the morals, of gaols the want of space is such as to the prisoners, and shall insure the render classification impracticable, proper measure of punishment to and in some cases even to preclude convicted offenders : and that due the separation of the sexes, much classification, inspection, regular less that of the tried from the unlabour and enployment, and reli- . tried, or debtors from felons." With gious and moral instruction, are es- the exception of the larger gaols of sential to the discipline of a prison, this class, no employment is proand the reformation of offenders. It vided for the prisoners, who geneis not necessary to give the various rally pass

their time in entire idleclauses of this act. The following ness, and in mutual corruption, To are among other important regula- a very small proportion only of tions which it contains :-Due pro- these prisons is any chapel attached. vision is to be made in every prison It is seldom that any Divine service for the enforcement of hard labour is performed: no religious or moral in the cases of such prisoners as instruction is provided, nor is any may be sentenced thereto, and for attempt made at reformation. The the employment of other prisoners: allowance of food is frequently scanty the male and female prisoners are to and insufficient; in lieu of which there be confined in separate buildings, is given sometimes a small sum of or parts of the prison, so as to pre money, the mode of expending wh


[ocr errors]

is improperly left to the choice of such as are absolutely requisite for
the prisoner who has not the means the purpose of confinement only."
of applying it to the best advantage. The Committee, however, warmly
In many districts, no clothing is recommend the labour and employe
provided fot the destitute, and straw ment of all prisoners, whether tried
is substituted for bedding. The si- or untried. With the convicted,
tuation of the sick is also distress- labour ought to be compulsory :
ing. The removal of the evils of and although the untried are not
which these defective prisons are obliged to work, still they may,
the source, had engaged the serious without difficulty, be induced to
consideration of the Committee, who labour at employments not severe
had no doubt but that this desirable or disgraceful, by the allowance of
object might be accomplished with- a slight increase of diet, or a share
out great difficulty, by means of a in their earnings.
suitable legislative enactment. The Committee proceed to advert

In reference to the merits of the to the principal improvements that tread-wlieel, as an instrument of had taken place in the prisons prison-labour, the Committee, after throughout the kingdom during the mature consideration, can discover year. Our limits forbid our follownothing in the proper use and ing up this detail; but we are remoderate application of this punish- joiced to perceive that an earnest ment, that is irreconcileable with desire very generally prevails among the feelings of humanity, and those the governors of prisons, to førprinciples of prison discipline which ward the progress of - improve it is the object of this Society to ments. The ladies, i who have, recommend. From documents laid with so much honour tor thembefore Parliament, the healthiness selves, and benefit to the crimiof the tread-wheel exercise is satis mal, visited Newgates thad, conti factorily proved. The opinions of nued their labours with unabated the medical officers in attendance at perseverance. There is in the conthe vatious prisons, concur in de- duct of their plans so pritoh of quiet claring that the general health of feeling and unobtrusive goodness the prisoners has in no degree suf so much that shuns publicity and fered injury-by the exercise; but avoids praise that but few are that, on the contrary, the labour fully acquainted with the efficacy has in this respect been productive of their labours, and the extent of of considerable benefits. The mis- their benevolence. Never, perhaps, chievous consequences of which it was there exhibited a more striking is stated that the tread-wheel is the illustration of the power of kindsource, attach not so much to the ness than has been evinced by their nature of the labour as to the de- exertions to instruct the ignorant gree in which it may be forced. and reclaim the guilty., But a few

Among the subjects which have years have elapsed since it was peroccupied the attention of the friends sonallyi dangerous for the visitor to the improvement of prison dis- of Newgate to pass through the cipline, is the compulsory labour of female part of that prison. Whata untried prisoners. On this subject contrast I does the present state of the Committee justly remóark, i in Newgates now present! Idlériess, the words of Blackstone, that “this dissipation, and licentiousness, bayé imprisonment; is only for safe cus- been suoceeded by industotilorder, tody, and not for punishment. and restraint. Great benefits have Therefore, in this dubious interval also resulted from the formationstad between the commitment and trial, ladies' associations in variousrother a prisoner ought to be used with parts of the kingdoms. The As. the utmost humanity; and neither sociation for the Improvement of be loaded with needless fetters, nor Prison Discipline, in Ireland consubjected to other hardships than tinue their useful labours with the

best effects; and to their unwearied round with pleasure on many who are efforts may, in a great measure, be variously settled, and are conductattributed much of the attention ing themselves, exemplarily. But which the subject of prison discip- for the care thus extended, these line has received from the Irish lads must inevitably have recurred public.

to criminal practices for support. The Committee had continued to in the Temporary Refuge they extend essential relief to distressed are trained up in habits of industry, boys, on their discharge from the instructed in moral and religious prisons of the metropolis, who have duty, and after a time provided expressed a desire to abandon their with suitable situations. The Comcriminal courses. There are few mittee are persuaded, that, were situations of such entire destitution the beneficial effects of the Temas that of a boy thus circumstanced. porary Refuge generally known, His character is lost: and, friendless funds would not be wanting to and without protection, he has no enable them to extend the relief means of obtaining employment, or of they now so inadequately afford. It prucuring subsistence. The Commit- is with considerable reluctance that tee mention the following instance. they are compelled again to urge on Eight boys were released on the public liberality the low state of their same day from Newgate. The finances; but on the success of their Court had sentenced them to be appeal, the prospects of the Society, flogged; and the 'sentence was as and especially the further relief of usual, carried into effect on the day distressed boys, materially depend: of their discharge. The boys were There is great reason to con then immediately turned into the gratulate the friends of the instistreets with their backs sore from tution, on the progress of its views the flagellation, and in such a state and principles through various parts that two of them, who were received of the continent of Europe. We by the Committee into the << Tem- cannot 'enumerate all the

particuporary Refuge," were obliged, im- lars; but it would be unpardonable mediately on their admission, to be not to mention one foreign instiplaced in the infirmary'; one of tution, the Russian Prison Society. them," a lad of fifteen, having re- A spacious building (erected by the ceived seventy lashes. Difficult as Empress Catherine after the plan of it at all times is for a destitute boy, Howard, and hitherto used as an discharged from confinement; to hospital for twelve hundred seamen,) obtain a situation, how much is that has been converted into a prison difficulty increased under circum- calculated to insure proper classifistances so degrading to the cha- cation and employment. All the racter of the individual ! for, laying prisons of the capital have been aside other considerations, who, the placed under the superintendence Committee ask, would receive into of the Society, and the number of his service a lad bearing in his per- the sick has decreased one-half in son the stigma of guilt and the three years. “A law has passed for effect of punishment and whose reducing the weight of irons worn want of strength, occasioned by that by prisoners throughout the empire. punishment,necessarily disables him, Criminals sentenced to exile in for a time at least, from obtaining Siberia have an allowance of a livelihood by honest industry? clothing suitable to the change of Limited as have been the funds of climate : the heavy chains worn this institation, it has been happily during their journey have been instrumental in saving a consider- changed for others of a less painful able number of youths, who, on description; and female convicts their liberation, were in urgent have been altogether exempted want. The Committee can look from this species of restraint. "The

« ZurückWeiter »