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communication with the sea, in the settlement." Such is the strong,
order to receive rum, powder, or but most appropriate, language of
muskets, on easy terms, have ac- the Judge of the mixed Commission
cordingly moved down in large Court. The examinations in this
numbers, carrying fire and devasta- case develop the most complicated
tion with them. Eight villages have tissue of fraudulent expedients for
been destroyed : the peaceable indefeating the ends of justice. This
habitants who did not perish in the vessel had already made several very
ferocious attacks, have been made successful and gainful voyages under
slaves; and such as were fit for the shelter of these ingenious ex
market were bartered and sold to pedients.
the European villain who commands The Directors mention also the
the vessel, who styles himself, some following case :-The Portuguese
times Monsieur Jonquille, at other schooner-boat, San Jose Xalaca,
times Don Jonquillo.” This person, belonging to a lady of Prince's
it is added, has, within eighteen Island, the daughter of Gomez,
months, by means of this nefarious formerly the governor and still a
association of the French flag with member of the governing Junta of
Spanish interests, shipped off five that island, though only of the
cargoes from the same spot.

burden of seven tons, was sent to
Portugal.-During the year 1822 Calabar for slaves. Thirty slaves
thirteen Portuguese slave-ships, were purchased, and, having been
having on board upwards of 1700 put on board the boat, it made sale
slaves, were condemned at Sierra for Prince's Island. But the voyage
Leone, for trading in slaves north proved tedious; provisions began to
of the Line. Some of the cases in- fail, and the allowance of food was re-
volved perjuries without end, and duced to one yam daily for two slaves.
atrocities of the most outrageous At last the provisions and water
and revolting kind, and implicated wholly failed. Ten slaves perished;
in the guilt attending them Portu- and the whole must have shared their
guese functionaries on the coast fate, had not the vessel got back to
of Africa of the very highest class; Calabar, after having been six weeks
and all of the cases afforded proofs at sea. The surviving slaves were
of the most reprehensible disregard, in the most deplorable state of
on the part of the Brazilian authori- emaciation and wretchedness. Nor
ties to the stipulations of the treaties was this to be wondered at; for,
with this country. These public besides their privations, they were
officers appear to have concurred manacled together, and cooped up
with the contrabandists, in giving in a vessel of only seven tons
fictitious names to places north of the burthen; having no shelter but what
Line, borrowed from places south could be afforded by the space be-
of the line, for the purpose of de- tween the water casks and the deck,
ceiving the British cruizers and the a space of seven inches !
Mixed Commission Courts. In the Our Government made use of
case of one vessel, the Conde de these and other circumstances, to
Villa Flor, taken with 172 slaves on press upon Portugal, with an earnest-
board, it was fully proved, “ that ness that does the highest credit to
the governor of Bissao was himself ite zeal in this cause, the necessity
an interested participator in the il- of a more vigorous enforcement of
legal embarkation of slaves, a cer- her own laws, and of her treaties
tain number of the slaves being with this country; but apparently
his property; some of them being with little effect.
entered in the memoranda. as On the separation of Brazil from
shipped and received from his the mother country, Mr. Canning
official residence, as if all decency lost no time in representing to the
was cast off from the government of Portuguese government, that there


the inch

could now remain no pretence for sold to the slave traders. It is refusing entirely 'to abolish the clearly ascertained, by inquiries Slave Trade. To this application, made on the spot, and on the adhowever, the most peremptory nega- jacent coast, by his Majesty's tive was given ; and a threat was cruizers, that the number of slave even held out, that, if Great Britain cargoes taken out of the river should proceed on this principle, Bonny, in the preceding year, Portugal would at once consider all amounted actually to one hundred her treaties with Great Britain as and ninety; and a similar return null and void.

from the Calabar, for the like It appears that in the year 1822, period, made a total, for that river 28,246 slaves were imported into alone,of one hundred and sixty-two.” Rio de Janeiro alone, from the Similar remonštrances were subcoast of Africa. The number em- sequently made ; and, in particular, barked had been 31,240,43;484 the remarkable: facts was pointed having died on the passage. In one out to the French government, that, vessel, containing 492 slaves, 194 notwithstanding all the professionis had died; in another, containing 63], that had been made of a desire to 213 had died; in a third, containing repress the Slave Trade, the Com418, 215 had died, &c. &c. The modore Mauduit Du Plessis, cotonumber imported into Bahia, in the manding the French/naval force on same year, was upwards of 8000. the coast of Africa, had declared France. The largest chapter in that he had no instructions from huis this calamitous detail is devoted to superiors which authorized him to France. The remonstrances to that seize any French vessels, though power had been frequently and manifestly intended for the Slave argently, but unavailingly, renewed Trade, which had not slavesíactually by Sir Charles Stuart, our late mini- on board. The replies of the French ster 'at Paris. On the 7th of April minister to these remonstrances are 1822, he thus addressed the Count de any thing but satisfactory. :No one, Villele :"A succession of fresh however, can doubt for a moment, outrages renders it again my duty that it is completely in the power of to observe to your Excellency, that the French government to put zan the pledge given to his Britannic end to the Slave Trade if it pleases; Majesty by the king of France, for but while the penalties attached to the effectual abolition of the Slave it are merely pecuniary, no degree Trade, remains unredeemed. The of vigilancel on the part of public official advices received by his functionaries can prevent its being Britannic Majesty's Government carried : on, so long as the profits from Sierra Leone, prove that this will pay for insurance. If a daw detestable traffic still exists in full were passed, as - bas obeen already activity on the African coast, cover often though most unavailingly, ed and protected by the flag of remarked, inflicting à disgraceful France."-Sir Charles Stuart, after punishment as the brand, or the adding various specific proofs on galleys on all wbo are in any way different parts of the coast, -re concerned in the traffic, and if marks :* 1« There seems, indeed, adequate rewards were given to in. to be scarcely a spot on that coast, formers and seizors, there is little which does not shew traces of the doubt that in France, as ta England, Slave Trade, with all its' attendant its suppression would be tose

great horrors ; fer, the arrival of a slave degree effected. Notwithstanding ship in many of the rivers on the this disgraceful apathy of the French Windward Coast being the signal for government, the Directors mention war between the natives, the hamlets with the most dively satisfaction, of the weaker party are burnt, and that the subject beginsa to excite the miserable survivors carried and an interest in France. About to years before this Report was drawn Having given such information as up, a Committee was instituted in the limits of their Report, would Paris for the Abolition of the Slave admit of, respecting the state of the Trade, consisting of many dis- Slave Trade under the different flags tinguished individuals. Their pro- of France, Spain, Portugal, the ceedings have been marked by an en- Netherlands, Sweden, and the lightened zeal; and they have been United States, the Directors next employed in diffusing such informa- advert to some additional facts and tion as was likely to awaken a more observations. , . extensive feeling in favour of the Sir Robert Mends, in a letter to African cause. In addition to this, the Admiralty, dated the 26th June they had offered a prize of one 1822, makes the following importhousand francs for the best work tant observations : The facts on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, which have come to my knowledge, considered particularly as it regards in my opinion go far to establish the interests of France. The Royal this point, that the Slave Trade will Institution of France, also, had never be suppressed till the right of offered a prize for the best poem on search be freely admitted, and every the subject of the Abolition of the ship found with slaves on board, Slave Tradle. l', 1 sps,!!

or evidently engaged in slaving, be 16. Sweden.--An instance of a vessel liable to condemnation to such ship found trading under the Swedish of war-as may seize her."... While Hag, on the African coast; led to a the Slave Trade lasts, as.a-man can correspondence is with the Swedish readily convert the person of another government, which had produced a into cash, «. with much less trouble most satisfactory ordinance against than he could raise the hundredth the traffic in slaves.

part of the value by labour," " it "The United States. The various gives rise to every sort of dissipation negociations which this Government and licentiousness, leading the mind, had entered into with the Govern- of the more active of the natives ment of the United States, termi- away from the less productive and nated in a treaty, by which the slower pursuits of agriculture and high contracting parties mutually commerce." But, wherever the bound themselves to treat slave traffic in -slaves has been checked, trading by any of their subjects, the natives appear to have shewn a under any flag, or in any part of fair and reasonable desire of cultithe world, as piracy. It is a most vating the natural productions of gratifying circumstance, as Mr. their country. Our resident officers Canning well observed, “that the and merchants agree in asserting, two greatest maritime nations in that these would be raised to any the world should so far compromise extent for which a market could be their maritime pride, as to act to found. I presume this is as much gether for the accomplishment of as could be expected from any such a purpose ; especially as the people in a state of nature." realization of this arrangement would ...I am informed, it is almost im probably not be the termination of possible to credit the extent to its benefits. It would be felt, in which the Slave Trade has been all future discussions respecting the carried on in the Bonny; there Slave Trade, that the united re having actually sailed from that monstrance of such powers would river, between the months of July thus i receive no small force, in and November last year, 126 slave bringing others to a common under- vessels, -eighty-six of which were standing with them, in support of a French, and the others Spaniards. virtuous and beneficent confederacy An immense number have already for the cuniversal Abolition of the sailed this year; and I find many Slave Trade.":1

more are expected, and have ascers


tained, from good authority, that fectly competent to the subject: they will generally be under the Nor let it be supposed, that any French flag.". Within a very short description of it has been too aniperiod,o the ships of war on this mated; it is impossible it could be coast have boarded forty-five ves- 60. It is necessary to visit a slavesels engaged in the Slave Trade ; ship, to know what the trade is. of which, sixteen were captured, ** Wherever this baneful" trade having on board 2,481 slaves. These exists, the civil arts of life recede, care facts substantiated by unques- commerce disappears, and man stionable proofs.

becomes doubly ferocious. It is 4. Their lordships being already scarcely to be believed, that an atacquainted with the desperate at- tempt was made to blow up a vessel,

tack made by the French and with upwards of 300 slaves on Spanish slave-ships in the river board, almost all of them in frons, Bonny, in last April, on the boats by her crew hanging a lighted of this ship and the Myrmidon, match over the magazine, when which ended in the capture of the they abandoned her in their boats, whole of those ships; I feel it in- and the Iphigenia took possession cumbent on me to mention a com- of her. Were this a solitary ina bination said to be entered into, by stance of the feeling which it elicits, the officers and crews of the whole it ought of itself to induce every of those vessels, by which they European government to take effec bound themselves to put to death sual measures for its suppression ; every English officer or man be- but, while succeeding years bring longing to the navy who might fall forward a repetition of similar deeds, into their hands on the coast of varied alone in form and guilt,

Africa. This was in perfect unison hypocrisy itself scarcely dares to with all and everything which the couple the name of Christian with slave dealing has engendered. Of a that of its protectors. similar nature was the agreement ra In bringing this report to a between the Spanish captains and close, it would afford me much real

themselves blindly to obey every what I have seen and heard on the order, of whatever nature it might coast of Africa, to hold out to their be, and, in case of the vessel being lordships any idea of the Slave, taken, not to receive any wages. Trade appearing to diminish: thie Such is the depravity to which this reverse is, I believe the fact for it Slave Trade debases the mind and is seen with fearless impudence the character of the desperate banc establishing itself throughout imditti engaged in it. These outlaws mense territories, in open defiance and robbers assume any flag, as of every restraint, particularly by best suits their purpose at the time; the subjects of France, Spain, and and would equally trample on the Portugal, whose ships engaged in Lilly that protects them, as on the it' are numerous beyond belief; Crucifix which they impiously carry and many of the former, if not the in their bosoms.

greater part, commanded by officers br." It is needless, sir, to swell this of the navy, who delight in appearreport with repeated instances of ing in their naval"uniforms when the cruelty and savage feeling to visited by the English. ot tyniojduz which this tradé gives rise, in every 10 To the testimony, therefore, of shape of cool premeditated murder those officers who have preceded me and shameless atrocity which avarice in this command, I am cothpelled and a total disregard for the victims to add my own, that the traffic in of it can suggest,

as it best suits in- slaves has not decreased; nor do terested purposes. This has been to see how it can, whilst it is suplaid before the world by writers per ported by European protection, in

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the most open and avowed manner, Slave Code of the Cape of Good and defended by force of arms. Hope. The accounts received Were the British ships employed during the last year, of the state on this coast for its suppression and progress of Sierra Leone, are allowed to act with freedom, it very satisfactory. The trade of would in a short time be so cut up the colony appears to increase, parand harassed, as not tomake it worth ticularly with the interior. Crime the risk, trouble, and disappoint- has diminished; cultivation has exment which would inevitably follow, tended; substantial erections have But; till then, we must submit to been multiplied ; churches have the mortification of seeing the either been built or are building, in anxious hopes of our country on every village ; religious institutions this subject disappointed, and the have increased; the blessings of efforts of the navy rendered ineffec- education have been more widely tual.”

diffused ; and the influence of The Slave Trade at the Mauri- Christianity appears to prevail more tius had been kept in check by the and more among the inhabitants. In vigilance of Commodore Nourse Columbia the great work of emanciand Captain Moresby. Radama, pating the slaves in that state was the King of Madagascar, appeared proceeding rapidly to its consumto have faithfully executed his en- mation.! Slavery cannot endure, gagements with the British Govern- at the utmost, beyond the existing ment, and to have suppressed all generation. The children born slave-trading in his dominions. Sir since 1818 are all born free; and, Thomas Stamford Raffles had com- besides the effect of various other municated to the Board some most causes, which have been actively important regulations, for the entire operating there to produce emancisuppression of the Slave Trade, and pation, the tax which was raised for the extinction of slavery itself, at that specific purpose has already Singapore. Some improvements effected the redemption of many had also been introduced into the adults. 3

313 113


14.1. The First Report of this Society spirit evinced by the colonies in referead at a general meeting of its rence to the wishes and suggestions friends on the 25th of June, 1824, of his Majesty's Government, the details, the proceedings of the in- Committee remark :stitution from the period of its “ It was no more than might formation, in January 1823, to that have been expected, that while a time. Many of the leading parti- chance remained of dissuading or culars having already appeared in deterring the Government from perour pages, we shall not give a regu- severance in its purposes of reform, lar abstract of the Report, but shall the proprietors of slaves filling content ourselves with a few pas- offices in the colonies would not sages, strongly recommending to be sparing of their objections, nor our readers a careful perusal of the the White population in general of whole. The speeches delivered at their clamours and alarms. And the public meeting, and which are even if governors or public bodies, subjoined to the Report, eminently acting in the colonies, were perdeserve attention, and some of fectly well disposed to carry those them, in addition to the important reforms into effect, they would facts and arguments with which still find that the delegation of they abound, are marked by an legislative power on topics so delieloquence worthy of the momen- eate, was a burden hard to be suga tous subject to which they refer. tained. An imperative order would In allusion to the gontumacious relieve them from embarrassment

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