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a much higher state of prosperity wife Josephine, he was connected, than could have been imagined" and whose prejudices he fatally imAnd as to the southern division of bibed. But the truth Aashed on the island, where the revolution his mind too late. He had reduced had not been attended, as in the St. Domingo nearly to a waste, and north, with the general destruction destroyed no small part of its scanty of the mills, boiling-houses, and population, before a new war with other works necessary for the manu- England arrested his career. facture of sugar, it was found in a After this addition to their former very flourishing condition. These calamities, and when it had become facts are stated at large by Mr. evident that the restitution of the Stephen, in a work published two dreadful yoke of West-Indian slavery years later than “ The Crisis,” called could permanently be averted only “ The Opportunity" (p. 10 to 21, by force of arms, it would have &c.), in which, as well as in his been preposterous to expect from “Life of Toussaint,” published about the poor Haytians any early and the same time, he has fully vindi- large advances in agricultural incated the character of the Haytians dustry and wealth, even if new infrom the charge in question, and ternal commotions, and wars between has shewn that St. Domingo, at the governments of Christophe in the period of Leclerc's invasion, was the north and Petion in the south, illustrating the happy effects of its had not soon again, and for a long altered system. This makes it the time, called a large part of the culmore unfair in the Reviewer to cite tivators into military service; and this writer's first impressions of the if the conduct of France, since her case, avowedly the fruit of dubious peace with this country, had not rumour, without notice of their sub- been such as to make the mainsequent correction. The fact proved tenance of large standing armies to be, that at that period the whole necessary to secure their freedom. island was in a rapid progress of When all these considerations, improvement; and although Tous- and others that might be named, saint had possessed scarcely three are taken into account, the case of years of peace, so much had been Hayti repels, instead of supporting, done by him to repair the effects of the Reviewer's injurious imputations former anarchy, and of seven years on the general character of Negroes. of destructive war, that, had he been Among what people of the earth continued in the government, and would industry have prevailed, in the devastations of a new counter- an equal degree, under the same revolutionary war avoided, there is adverse circumstances ? To the reason to believe that St. Domingo destruction of the sugar works, would by this time have been re- and the want of capital to rebuild stored, even as a sugar colony, to them, must be added that chilling all its former value.
sense of the insecurity of property, Unhappily, Buonaparte, like the under which it would be utterly Quarterly Reviewer, was under pri- vain to expect that men should toil vate colonial influence, as he has for its accumulation. Yet
the since frankly acknowledged; and, Haytians have not only laboured like him too, he was deluded into sufficiently to procure for themthe belief that slavery and the selves, in the greatest abundance, driving-whip were necessary to the all the necessaries and some even production of sugar. He lived not of the elegancies of life, but to only to acknowledge, but to lament defray the whole expense of their his error ; and to confess that he establishments, civil and military, had, in this instance, been the dupe and to keep up copious magazines of the ex-proprietors of the French for the purposes of an arduous and colonies, with whom, through his ever-impending war.
If the enemies of their successive chiefs are
be compelled to do by the coercion to be believed, free labour in Hayti of the whip; for they will not labour has enabled them to amass great more severely than consists with the wealth for public and private uses, preservation of health, with the orafter providing for all the immediate divary duration of life, and with the services of the state. But, at least, maintenance and increase of native they have maintained themselves, population ;" points which, unhapand sustained their own government, pily, have been too much disregardand defended their independence ed by our West-Indian economists. against all its foes. This cannot be But, independently of this considenied; for, during the long term deration, if sugar, in our West-Inof nearly thirty years, they have dia islands, though aided by monoclearly had no foreign protection or polies and bounties, has continued support. Which of the colonies, to be raised at a loss, is it any very cultivated by slaves, can make an clear indication of a want either of equal boast? Certainly not Jamaica, good sense or of industry, that it nor any other of the British islands. has not been raised in St. Domingo ? They all lean continually on the Industry is a well-chosen word when mother country, not only for mili- used by the planters and their apotary defence and for the support of logists in these discussions. But their own interior government, but industrious labour, to deserve that for commercial privileges and pre- honourable appellation, must be miums, in the shape of bounties to performed by choice, or at least their own produce, and prohibitory without physical compulsion. It impositions on the produce of other would be an utter mockery to praise a countries, in order to enable them man for this virtue on his descent to continue their boasted agricul. from the treadmill; but to ascribe ture by means of slave labour with industry to the field Negro, with a out loss and ruin.
driver behind him, would be an inAfter all, if the most authentic sult still more cruel. His excess in public documents, and the reports this species of industry is too often of Parliamentary committees, con- a curse, instead of a blessing, and curring with the representations of a premature grave is its natural rethe Assemblies themselves, deserve ward. any credit, the business of sugar Having had occasion to mention planting, by slave labour, has been, Mr. Stephen's name, it would be on a general average, productive, unpardonable to close the present not of profit, but loss, during the article without adverting to the whole era of Haytian freedom. It able and luminous work which he is not very modest, then, in the bas lately published, entitled, planters of Jamaica and their apolo. “ The Slavery of the West India gists, to arraign, as the Reviewer bas Colonies delineated, as it exists done, their neighbours of Hayti, for both in Law and Practice." The not raising much of the same profit- first part of the work, that which less commodity, though they have respects the Law of Slavery, has no mother country to give them for alone appeared; but so fully and it a monopoly of her markets, and profoundly has Mr. Stephen into pay them bounties on its exporta- vestigated that branch of the subtion. Yet we are desired to infer ject, that its abominations now from the smallness of their sugar stand exposed in the full light of crops, that they are indolent, and day. Whoever has not read this make a bad use of their freedom ! work is as yet but imperfectly ac
It may be perfectly true, as Mr. quainted with the evils of colonial Stephen observes, that “ free men bondage, however deep may be and women will never be brought his abhorrence of it.
And as to work so intensely as slaves may Mr. Stephen has drawn all his statements and his reasonings from terly Reviewer, has passed it by in the colonial laws themselves, or silence. Nothing can shew more from the evidence or the admissions clearly than this their sense of its of colonists, it is impossible to con- impregnable strength. But just in trovert his main positions, without the degree in which they are anxious denying the very enactments of to consign the work to oblivion, in their own assemblies, the books the same degree ought the enemies they themselves have written, and of slavery to exert themselves to the testimony they themselves have make it known. The conviction given. In short, his work forms by which it is calculated to produce far the most triumphant exposure is irresistible; and we are persuaded, of the radical iniquity of the slave that if every member of our legissystem which has ever yet been lature (always excepting the Westgiven to the public. The West Indian body) would but read Mr. Indians and their friends seem Stephen's work with attention, the strongly inclined to suffer it, if pos- final extinction of the execrable sible, to be forgotten. They have system which it exposes could not not dared hitherto to attack it. be very remote. Even their chief organ, the Quar
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE, 582 Lit. and Phil. Intell.-France... Germany... Italy...Prussia (SEPT. apology for a system so manifestly un- Matteo Ripa, a Neapolitan missionary. christian and immoral. We feel deeply Ripa went to China, and resided several grateful that the nuisance is now at length years at the missionary-house at Pekin, abolished.
quadrantal elliptical arc is 5,467,756.0 Preparing for publication :-Plain Ser- fathoms. mons, chiefly for the use of Seamen ; by So great is the perfection to which Chrothe Rev. S. Maddock.
noineters have been brought, that one, now In the press :- Dissertations on the sent out with Captain Parry, did not, in Book of Daniel ; by the Rev. J. Wilson; twelve months, while in the Observatory -Death-bed Scenes ; by the Author of at Greenwich, in its greatest variation, “ The Evangelical Rambler;"_Dunallan exceed in its mean daily rate of going one or the Methodist Husband, in 3 vols. second and eleven hundredths of a second. 12mo. ; by the Author of “ The Deci- Much alarm having prevailed of late resion," " Father Clement," &c.; -- The specting Hydrophobia, it may be useful to Doctrine of Election viewed in Connexion state, that Sir Astley Cooper, in allusion with the Responsibility of Man as a Moral to this subject in one of his lectures, says, Agent; by the Rev. W. Hamilton, D. D. “ the best plan decidedly is the immedi
ate excision of the part ; and where this A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen has been done directly after the injury, it gases, in the due proportion for forming has, I believe, in every instance been sucwater, when issuing from the compound cessful in preventing the disease.” blow-pipe and set on fire, has been found That pest of society the Lottery, has to be capable of immersion, gradually, been shewn, by parliamentary papers lateunder water, without extinguishing the ly printed, to have netted to the public flame.
treasury no more than 24,8091. in the The late Colonel Lambton, just before past year; whilst the payments to the his death, completed his calculations of a Bank for managing this demoralizing trigonometrical survey in India, extending concern have been 2,5911. for paying from lat. 8 deg. 9 min. 38 sec. to 19 deg. 553,6001., the amount of prizes ; being 3 min. 23 sec., whence he inferred, from 104 per cent. on the profits. The vacomparing in pairs the Indian, English, rious expenses of the system being deFrench, and Swedish lengths of measured ducted, how very small a compensaarcs of their meridians, that the general tion remains (even in a pecuniary view) average fattening of the terrestrial ellip- for the evils inflicted on society by this soid is 1 in 310.31; the measure of a de- nefarious gambling; though, even had gree on the equatorial circle is 60,850.17 the gains been much more considerEnglish fathoms; and the length of the able, this would have furnished no just have resided in this house since its estaProfessor Gruithausen of Munich has blishment; they are about forty; and published the Third Part of an Essay “on among them is that of Ripa, the founder. the Inhabitants of the Moon.” He under- Those who have suffered martyrdom are takes to shew, that the vegetation on the represented with the instruments of their moon's surface extends to 55 degrees of death; others have chains round their south latitude, and 65 degrees north lati- necks, as a sign of their having suffered tude ; that indications of the existence of imprisonment. There were six Chinese living beings are found from 50 degrees in the college when I visited it, one of north latitude to 37 degrees south latitude; them was insane, and another blind." and that there are appearances of artificial
where his skill in painting recommended In Kensington parish, the following no- him to the Emperor and court. While tice is conspicuously displayed :-“ Take living in that remote land, he conceived notice, that, by order of the Magistrates, the plan, which he afterwards executed, of no drove of cattle will be allowed to pass establishing a college in Europe for the through this parish on the Lord's-day.” education of young Chinese as Christian -We need not comment on an order so missionaries to their countrymen. Sevemuch to the credit of the parties who ral trials were made, and at last Naples was have issued it.
fixed upon for this institution, as the cliA new sect or society has been formed mate appeared to be the most favourable at Manchester, the members of which and congenial to them. The youths destinprofess, as one of their leading tenets, to ed for this place are smuggled out of their abstain wholly from animal food, and to country at the age of thirteen or fourteen, live entirely on vegetables. They have for by means of the Roman Catholic missome time rigidly followed this practice, sionaries, who send them first to Macao, founded on their literal interpretation of whence they are conveyed to Europe, gethe command “ Thou shalt not kill." nerally in Portuguese vessels bound to FRANCE.
Lisbon, from which place they proceed At a late meeting of the Royal Society to Italy. The expenses are defrayed partof Arras for the Encouragement of Sciences, ly by this institution, and partly by the Letters, and Arts, a memoir was read on College de Propaganda Fide at Rome. the culture of dry or mountain rice, in “ The college,” says M. Viesseaux, “ is France. It had been introduced into the situated on the slope of the hill of Capo Lyonnois, but was lost, during the Revo- di Monte, in a quiet retired spot, which lution. It has been once more introduced, commands a fine prospect of the bay. by a young man who returned from a The house and the adjoining church are voyage to Cochin China, who obtained it, simply but neatly constructed; the apartby stealth, from the vigilant guardians ments are comfortable and airy; and the planted by the Cochin China government whole place is kept remarkably clean, and to retain the exclusive possession of it. in the best order, so as to form an agree
At the last sitting of the Asiatic Society able contrast with the generality of Neafor Paris, the President announced the politan establishments. The rector, a Chinese text and the Latin translation of Neapolitan missionary, and a sensible a philosophical discourse of Mericeus, well-informed man, politely shewed us who lived in the fourth century prior to every thing deserving attention. We enthe Christian era, as being nearly com- tered first the hall, which is hung round pleted in its lithography and printing. with the portraits of the Chinese who GERMANY
PRUSSIA. causes altering the surface. The author M. Humboldt, in a discourse on volinfers that there are artificial roads in va- canoes, lately read before the Royal Acarious directions; and he also describes a demy of Sciences at Berlin, remarks, that great colossal edifice, resembling our ci- the substances which melt in the deep reties, on the most fertile part, near the cesses of the earth, and are thrown up as moon's equator!
lava from volcanoes, are the metals of the ITALY.
earth and alkalies, owing to the casual M. Viesseaux gives the following ac- access of oxygen to such substances imcount of the Chinese college at Naples, mediately before an irruption. He supthe only institution of its kind in Europe. poses, that the deeply-cleft crust of the The founder of this establishment was D. earth in the primitive world radiated heat
from its fissures sufficient to occasion phagi, vases, and columns of large dimenwhole countries to produce, for centuries, sions. Hard by were huts, or booths, in palms and arborescent ferns, and to sus- ruins, and the remains of forges. tain animals of the torrid zone, where
INDIA, &c. now frost and snow almost perpetually The attention of Government having reign.
been drawn to the necessity which exists The King of Prussia has just 'granted for medical officers being conversant in more than half a million of crowns for the native languages, an order has been building of a museum. Among the objects issued, by the Governor of Bombay, that of art which are to be deposited there, is no medical officer shall be allowed to take a fine collection of paintings.
charge of the office of vaccinator in any of NORWAY.
the provinces under this government until Professor Hansteen, of Christiana, who he has passed an examination in Hindoohas been engaged in experiments on mag- stanee, or Mahratta, or Guzerattee. netic action, has made public some new The following is the translation of a observations, from which he concludes, petition presented to the Rev. Dr. Morthat every vertical object, such as a tree, rison, by some Chinese settlers near Maa wall, a steeple, has a relation to the lacca, for the establishment of a school at state of a magnet. He considers the their village : lower part as the boreal pole, and the “ The Fuh Keen men, whose names are upper as the austral ; and observes, that mentioned below, earnestly entreat that a an horizontal magnetized needle placed at school may be established at their village, the foot of any vertical object whatever, to promulgate heavenly principles and oscillates with more velocity when at the practical virtue, that education and renonorth than at the south of the object; vation may become illustrious. We oriand vice versa at the upper extremity. ginally belonged to Fuh Keen province, RUSSIA.
but our ancestors removed to a village in The last Annual Report of the General the neighbourhood of Malacca, where some Assembly of the University of Moscow, families have lived during a space of one mentions various additions to the museum hundred and ten years; some fifty, and and library. A lithographic press had been some thirty years. Now, although we are established in the university. The com- able to procure food for our children, yet, mittee of censorship had examined and in consequence of being always employed approved 156 MSS., and the committee in tilling the ground and planting, we of inquiry had examined fifteen persons. know not how to instruct them; and, if The number of students in the university children are not educated, how can they was 605; and that of young persons un- be fit for any useful purpose ? Benevolent der instruction, in the district schools of sir, we rejoice that you are come to MaMoscow, amounted to 10,914. The pro- lacca: not only the widower and the wifessors of the university are in number dow, the orphan and the destitute, have forty-eight.
been moistened by your rich beneficence, EGYPT.
but also in every place righteous schools Mr. J. Burton, who is employed by the (the Chinese for benevolent or free-schools) Pacha of Egypt in making geological re
have been established by you for the pursearches, has discovered, in the desert east pose of disseminating heavenly principles of the Nile, on the coast of the Red Sea, and true virtue, and many have been instiand in the parallel of Syout, a beautiful tuted and renovated. Our poor village, little temple, of the Ionic order, with an Kan Tang, being situated at some disinscription, “ For the safety of our ever- tance from the town of Malacca, our chilvictorious, absolute, and august lord, dren are not able to attend the college Cæsar, and for the whole of his house, morning and evening for the purpose of this temple and all its dependencies have being instructed; therefore we have invited been dedicated to the sun,” &c. In the our neighbours to subscribe their names, same track he came to a mountain called and to use earnest entreaties that a righthe Mountain of Smoke, the summit of teous school may be opened in our village, which is covered with roads and paths and that a teacher may be sought for to leading to large quarries of antique red communicate instruction. At a future porphyry. He found immense blocks, time, when our children become men, they rudely chiselled, lying in every direction : will feel a deep sense of your vast and unothers, ready squared, lay fixed on props, limited virtue.” that were marked and numbered. He The conflagration of the ship in which found also an endless number of sarco- Sir Stamford Raffles had just set sail for