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the theologian. And, finding our- ture to have been written with an selves too far committed to recede, express view to future diversities or to advance further to different and stirrings of opinion; we should subjects in the present Number, we certainly say, that from the 37th to shall shortly conclude with the dis- the 41st chapters of the Book of cussion before us, on which we had Job had been of old particularly not intended so fully to enter, add- addressed to the present times. ing one or two direct observations. After all that has been revealed,

1. We cannot ourselves but view compared with all that is clearly the subject of Geology, and .can- seen, all that is plain and palpanot but wish others to view it like- ble around us; must we not say, wise, as a subject of immense dif- enough is provided to make us ficulty. The mere process of dig. intelligent, as well as

well as humble, ging for subterranean phenomena, adorers of the power and wisdom through small spaces, and at vast of the Sovereign Creator? And distances, is a labour which, how. will not the believer allow, that ever to be surmounted by human some obscurities may still have been perseverance, yet leaves to human left behind, both in Scripture and ingenuity a most severe task in ar- in Nature, to try our forbearance, ranging those phenomena. But, and to teach us diffidence before the after arranging the discoveries so presence of the Great Supreme? made, with an apparently sufficient The attempt made by so able and degree of accuracy, then to rea- good a man, and so profound a son upon the question, who placed writer, as Mr. Faber, to clear up the materials there, and when, and those obscurities, is indeed no subhow, seems to us quite' another ject for carping: and we should grade of difficulty. To enunciate, be much rather disposed to offer to as a fact, the circulation of the such a person a kind of dictatorblood, is one thing : to inquire who ship in Scriptural Geology, could made it circulate, and when, and we believe the attempt in question how, is quite another. Indeed, in to be fairly within the grasp any proportion as these remoter geolo- human understanding. gical inquiries are unconnected with

Si Pergama dextra human duty, or human benefit, so Defendi possent, etiam hoc defensa fuismay it not be reasonably suggested, that their resolution has been placed But the possibility of the underat the utmost verge of human know. taking is to us the matter of doubt. ledge---perhaps intentionally left, by And, abstaining intentionally from the Great Author and Revealer of any critical discussion, may we all things, among

“the secret things not still ask, whether a single inthat belong unto the Lord our God?” stance does not warrant our doubt? For our own part, we know not on Does not, for example, the one which of the two subjects we feel a simple annunciation of the Divine deeper consciousness of insufficiency, historian, " AND THE EVENING we might say of intrusion, in enter

THE ing; whether on the plurality of the FIRST DAY,” outweigh the utmost worlds above us, or the strata of power of human ingenuity to stretch earth beneath us. “Who is it that the meaning of the writer, or the darkeneth counsel by words without mind of the Holy Spirit, into an knowledge? Where wast thou, when indefinite portion of time, of which, I laid the foundations of the earth? at last as at first, it is confessed, Declare if thou hast understanding. we know little or nothing at all? Who hath laid the measures there- 2. If it be true that difficulties of, if thou knowest ? or who hath and obscurities are of the very esstretched the line upon it ?" If we sence of this inquisitive science ; it could believe any part of holy Scrip is then to be expected that no prof

of

sent.

AND

THE MORNING WERE

fered explanations will, in point of within the single space literally fact, be found a removal of those assigned by the historian, from difficulties. Thus the supposed ca. “ evening to morning.” tastrophes, successively carrying 3. Seeing, after all, that a necesdown beneath the surface so many sity for Divine interposition naturally strata in their orderly course, seem arises even out of the very attempt to us to have required the same to dispense with it, upon any thing watchful Eye, and unerring Hand, like Scriptural grounds; may we to have guided them to the desired not be excused for resorting immeresults, as if they had all been sum. diately to that which is the fairest med up in that one known convul. and the humblest solution of all insion of the scriptural Flood. explicable difficulties - namely, a Again ; that the vegetation created, primary reference to that Divine (and why in seed?) on the third Power which we know, and that DAY, should have survived so many Divine Revelation which we possubsequent millenaries of universal sess? To contest with the acute overthrow and submersion, and and philosophic Cuvier, what exact should still remain to bedeck and line of operation any conceivable enamel the fields and the valleys of flood of waters would necessarily the seventh or Sabbatic day, seems take, in arranging or deranging the to us, without another intervening lower strata of the earth, were a miracle of vegetable creation on the vain and pedantic presumption on sixth, as great a miracle as all the our own part But, may it not also rest. And, again, the destructive lie beyond the sagacity of Cuvier submersions, more especially sup- himself, to disprove the possibility posed on the fifth and sixth DAYS, of an Almighty Hand, and a Divine without any bearing, that we know Mind, choosing and executing the of, on the general benefit of surviving very plan of stratification in quesor succeeding productions of crea- tion, as His own foreseen result of tion, would appear to tend rather a Flood, which He was Himself to more to perplex than to satisfy the bring miraculously upon the earth ? inquiring mind. Once more; the Should He have chosen that, in such minute point of time in which the a process, vegetable matter should act of creation could have been•go, sink the first and lowest; that marine ing forward, even during the very exuviæ, being already within the waDAYS of work themselves, would tery bosom, should be deposited the seem to bear no proportion to the next; that birds and animals should periods of rest during those same survive the longest, and therefore reDAYS, after the creation had set the main for the third or

upper stratum ; machine to work: so that rest, far leaving at the same time, or profrom being the exclusive state of viding afterwards for, those unacthe seventh, or Sabbatic day, would countable cracks and fissures through in fact have been the general state the very strata so formed, by methods even of each successive day, after best known to Himself *, are we the opening fiat of creation. From still to suppose, that every difficulty this last consideration, perhaps, in the way of such an arrangement might arise a suggestion, how far should have presented a barrier inHe, with whom a single day is as surmountable to Omnipotence itself? a thousand years, might not within the space of an actual day have • The non-discovery of human bones or done the wbole work assigned to fossils in any strata, or supposed diluvial Him in six thousand years : how soils bitherto found, presents a difficulty far, that is, He might not both proves how short a way either our theories,

alike under every system of geology; and have created, and, if necessary,

or our facts, have hitherto advanced tosubmerged masses, to us enormous, wards a complete geological history, or but to Him “ a very little thing," theory of the earth.

pro

Or, might we not more reasonably to pursue with a far more willing presume, that the very difficulty we pace; namely, the connexion of ancontemplate may be the point pro- cient with recent, sacred with vided to try our humility; at least, fane history, in conspiring to prove to rebut our prying, inquiries into the one great object of all Revelathe how and the when, and that tion to have been salvation through the grand lesson to be learned by a Redeemer. modern oryctology may be this, an First, for Mr. Penn, who, in speakacknowledgment, ec post facto, of ing of the theory of De Luc, with the effects of the Deluge, rather regard to the indefinite length of than a presumption, à priori, that the Mosaic days of creation, says, the Deluge can have had no effect“ What is the motive, which he sets in their production ?

forth to allure our will to his fantasWe have exceeded our own inten- tical interpretation ? For it is not tion in the above episodical discus- our reason that he addresses, but sion, which precludes our return for our will. It is to conciliate unbethe present to the really important lievers. To conciliate unbelievers, and interesting subject of these by supplying them with every needvolumes. We trust, however, that ful means of light for discerning the the venerable author will excuse the truths which they do not apprehend freedom, as well as our readers the or recognize, is doubtless a high length, of the remarks into which moral and Christian duty, but, to we have been inadvertently drawn strive to conciliate them by a suron the subject of geology. It has render of any particle of truth, to forcibly struck us, in considering modify or change it, to cut and the subject, to be one of very seri- fashion it to the measure and mode ous bearing on the general interests of their disposition to conviction, is of Revelation; and, as it is now a breach of trust of the same kind, expounded, the most hazardous con- as to bid our master's debtor take cessions are made to the infidels, his bill, and write down fifty measures even in combating their opinions. of wheat,'when an hundred meaWithout at all wishing to commit sures' are the just amount of the ourselves to the counter expositions score. We are not intrusted with offered by an above-mentioned ani- any latitude or discretion, for thus mated author and champion of Re- negotiating the good will of ingidevelation as it is, Granville Penn; lity in the article of revealed truth. we still think no Scriptural system We must take care to present it of geology complete which does' pure and genuine ; and unbelievers not embrace a full and fair discus: must then take it as it is, or they sion of the views entertained by must leave it ; but, those who atthat respectable writer, and lately tempt a compromise, by an unaudeveloped with an especial view to thorised concession, are not the chamthe present systems in fashion. In pions, but the betrayers, of that defect of any further reference to truth : non tali auxilio, &c." Mr. Penn, we shall conclude with (Penn's Comparative Estimate of two quotations ;-one from himself, the Mineral and Mosaic Geologies, indicative of his general view, we 8vo. 1822.) must say in much accordance with Next,says the learned Shuckford, in our own, of the concessions now reference to the incipient deviations made to the unbelieving philo- of mankind from the true faith, by a sophy; the other is from an au- too speculative inquiry into the mysthor whose mind we conceive to teries of nature: « The first men have been in much congeniality of Egypt, according to Diodorus with the original bent of Mr. Faber's, Siculus, considering the world and and whose writings will lead us to the nature of the universe, imathe subject which we hope hereafter gined two first eternal gods : so that it was their speculative inquiries did not take a due care not to deinto the nature of things that led viate from what had thus been transthem to errors about the Deity; mitted to them. Some great genius and, if we examine, we shall see or other thinking to speculate, and that from the beginning to the pre- to establish such speculations as he sent times, it has always been the judged to be true, and therefore vain philosophy, and an affectation very proper to be admitted into of science falsely so called, that has their religious inquiries, happened corrupted religion. The first Egyp- to think wrong; and so began a tians had, without doubt, a short scheme of error, which others, age account of the history of the world after age, refined upon, and added transmitted to them—an account of to, until, by steps and degrees, they the creation, of the origin of man- built up the whole frame of their idokiod, and of the method of worship latries and superstitions."—(Shuckwhich God had appointed. As ford's Connexion of Sacred and Abraham had received instruction Profane History, p. 318, vol.i. 1728.) from his forefathers, so also the

(To be continued.) Egyptians had from theirs: but they

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,

&c. &c.

GREAT BRITAIN.

“ The Doctrines of our Saviour, as derived PREPARING for publication :- The Life, from the four Gospels, are in persect Harand a Critical Examination of the Writings 'mony with the Doctrines of St. Paul, as of Bishop Jeremy Taylor ; by Dr. Heber, derived from his Epistles.” Bishop of Calcutta ;-Collegiate and Pa- Sir W. Browne's Gold Medals. The rochial Churches; by P. Neale and J. Le subjects for the present year are : For the Keur;-Cuvier's Animal Kingdom trans- Greek Odetated, with additions ; - Doctrinal and

"Ω παίδες 'Ελλήνων ιτε Practical Sermons (by subscription); by 'EeufePOūTe satpi3, iheuf ecoote 86 the Rev. J. Bull, M.A.

Παϊδας, γυναίκας- -νύν υπέρ πάντων αγών. . In the press :-A Second Volume of Latin Ode—“Aleppo,'Urbs Syriæ, terræ Sermons ; by the Rev. J. W. Cunning- motu, funditus eversa. ban ; - Memoirs of Mrs. Sheridan; • Epigrams—“ Scribimus indocti docMerican Antiquities, and Curiosities; tique" by Mr. Bullock ;-A Sketch of the System of Education at New Lanark; by R. A public meeting lateiy took place at D. Owen ;-History of the Dark Ages, by Brighton, the Dean of Hereford in the C. Chatfield ;-Massillon's Thoughts ;- chair, to consider the propriety of estabYouth Warned, a Sermon by the Rev. T. lishing an infant school in that town, on James;– The Good Samaritan; by the the plan of those in Westminster and Rev. J. Hooper';-Sacred Tactics, an at- Spitalfields. The meeting were of an tempt to exhibit by tabular arrangements, opinion that infarst schools, under proper a general rule of Composition prevailing management and superintendence, would in the Holy Scriptures; by the Rer. T. prove highly useful nurseries for the infant Boys, A.M.

poor, and be subservient to training them

in the very first instance to obedience and Cambridge.--The prize for the Hulsean regular habits. . A Committee was apdissertation for the year 1823, was ad- pointed to carry the object into effect. judged to W. C. Walters, B.A., Fellow The Bishop of Chester, in a sermon of Jesus college. Subject, “The Nature lately published for the benefit of the and Advantage of the influence of the Holy Society for the Improvement of Prison Spirit."

Discipline and the Reformation of JuveThe following is the subject of the Hul- nile Offenders, wisely and most humanely stan dissertation for the present year :-- points out the duty of assisting prisoners

upon their discharge, especially juvenile result of his remarks on the German caves offenders, to obtain some means of liveli- as follows: hood without resorting to their evil prac- “ The facts I have enumerated go to tices. “The period at length arrives, establish a perfect analogy, as far as relates when the prisoners must be removed from to the loam and pebbles, and stalagmitic all further discipline and restraint. But, incrustations in the caves and fissures of when thus liberated, whither are they to Germany and England, and lead us to go? to what place can they direct their infer an identity in the time and manner steps or views? They may have seen the in which these earthy deposits were introerror of their ways; they may be desirous duced; and this identity is still further of abandoning the course they have unhap- confirmed by the agreement in species, of pily run. But how are they to regain the the animals whose remains we fmd envepath of honest livelihood ? Character is loped by them, both in caves and fissures, gone · professions are not believed: even as well as in the superficial deposits of the most compassionate, they who most similar loam and pebbles on the surface of sensibly feel and lament the frailties of the adjacent countries; namely, by the our nature, are nevertheless afraid to re- agreement of the animals of the English ceive under their roof a practised criminal, caves and fissures, not only with each the hitherto supposed awsociate of the other, but with those of the diluvial gravel vilest and most abandoned characters. of England, and of the greater part of This is the sad scene which presents itself Europe : and in the case of the German to many a discharged and repentant pri- caves, by the identity of their extinct bear soner. His course, alas! is almost certain with that found in the diluvial gravel of His former haunts and companions are Upper Austria; and of the extinct hyæna ready to receive him, and scarcely does with that of the gravel at Canstadt, in the there appear to be any other alternative. valley of the Necker ; at Horden, near With such facilities and inducements on Herzberg, in the Hartz; at Eichstadt, in one side, with such difficulties and obsta- Bavaria ; the Val d'Arno, in Italy; and cles on the other, we cannot wonder, nei- Lawford, in Warwickshire. To these ther ought we too severely to condemn may be added the extinct rhinoceros, elethese ill-fated outcasts, if they relapse phant, and hippopotamus, which are comonce more into their former habits; if the mon to gravel beds as well as caves; and last state of such offenders become worse hence it follows that the period at which than the first. The Committee, there. the earth was inhabited by all the animals fore, of Prison Discipline, would have but in question, was that immediately anteceimperfectly discharged their labour of love, dent to the formation of those superficial if they had not directed their attention to and almost universal deposits of loam and the prisoners, at this the most decisive gravel, which it seems impossible to acperiod of their lives. And here the friends count for unless we ascribe them to a of humanity cannot too warmly applaud transient deluge, affecting universally, sitheir humane exertions. In the very feel- multaneously, and at no very distant peings and spirit of the religion of Jesus riod, the entire surface of our planet. Christ, they have established a "Tempo- Professor Buckland states, that human rary Refuge ;' into which youthful prison- remains found in caves are all of compaers may be received on their first discharge ratively low antiquity, and attended by from prison. In it they are taught some

circumstances which indicate them to useful employment or trade, by the prac- be of postdiluvian origin. Human retice of which they may earn their liveli. mains have not been found in any antehood, when they are again thrown upon diluvian deposits. Mr. Buckland also the world. Nor is this all. They, at the inquires into “ the evidence of diluvial same time, are instructed in the principles action afforded by the accumulation on the of religion, in the knowledge of their duty earth's surface of loam and gravel, conboth to God and man. With this view, taining the remains of the same species of the service of our church is regularly ad- animals that we find in the caves and fisministered twice on each Sabbath, and

sures, and by the form and structure, of once on every other day of the week. hills and valleys in all parts of the world.” Can any one receive the very mention of These evidences of a general inundation such an establishment, without applauding are deduced from the dispersion of the the motive? Can be hear of such a deed, bones of elephants ; by deposits of loam without the wish, and an effort, we trust, and gravel; and from proofs of diluvial to uphold and increase its utility?” action, in Scotland, Wales, Ireland, on the

Professor Buckland, in his “ Reliquiæ continent, in North America, in Africa, Diluvianæ," lately published, sums up the and Asia, and at high levels.

The Pro

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