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Before setting out on his third the holy fathers at dinner, round a table, journey on the continent, Mr. How- which, though it was meagre day with ard paid a very useful visit to the them, was sumptuously furnished with all transports and convict ships, and which he was very politely invited to par

the delicacies the season could afford, of corrected some serious abuses which

take. This, however, he not only deprevailed in them. Soon after his clined to do, but accompanied his refusal arrival at the Hague he met with a by a pretty severe lecture to the elder serious accident, by which he was monks ; in which he told them that he confined to his bed for six weeks, and thought they had retired from the world his life was at times in danger. The

to live a life of abstemiousness and prayer, following are some of the thoughts but he found their monastery a house of which appear in his journal at this revelling and drunkenness. He added,

moreover, that he was going to Rome, and season of affliction.

he would take care that the pope should ** Hague, May 11, 1778. - Do me good, be made acquainted with the impropriety O God! by this painful affliction. Mayl of their conduct. Alarmed at this threat, see the great uncertainty of health, ease, four or five of these holy friars found their and comfort, and that all my springs are way the next morning to the hotel at in Thee.-Oh the painful and wearisome which their visitor had taken up his abode, nights 1 possess ! May I be more thankful to beg pardon for the offence they had if restored to health, and more compas- given him by their unseemly mode of living, sionate to others, more absolutely devoted and to entreat that he would not say any to God. J. H.

thing of what had passed at the papal see. “May 12. — In patience may I possess To this request our countryman replied, my soul, and say, It is the Lord; let him do that he should make no promise upon the what seemeth him good. J. H.

subject, but would merely say, that if he · May 13th. – In pain and anguish all heard that the offence was not repeated, night, my very life a burden to me- he might probably be silent on what was help, Lord: vain is the help of man. ln past.

With this sort of half-assurance, Thee do I put my trust: let me not be the monks were compelled to be satisfied; confounded-All refuges but Christ are but before they took leave of the heretical refuges of lies : my soul, stay thou on that reprover of their vices, they gave him a Rock.

solemn promise that no such violation of "May 14.—This night my fever abated, their rules should again be permitted, and my pains less. I thank God I had two hours' that they would keep a constant watch sleep ; prior to which, for sixteen days over the younger members of their comand nights, not four hours sleep. Righteous munity, to guard them against similar exart Thou in all thy ways, and holy in all thy cesses; and here the conference ended.” works. Sånctify this affliction, and shew pp. 249, 250. me wherefore Thou contendest with me: bring me out of the furnace as silver pu- characteristic of the devotedness of

The following anecdote is quite rificd seven times. J. H.” p. 236.

Howard to his work, and at the At Rotterdam, after his recovery,

same time of the influence of his Mr. Howard attended public wor- faith, which appears indeed to have ship at the Rasp-house, and was

been a practical and operative prinmuch gratified by the serious man

ciple; which, while it prompted him, ner in which the prisoners took part without ceasing, to deeds of bene. in the service. "He mentions his volence, imparted to his mind all ardent wishes that our prisons also, instead of echoing with profaneness pendence on God. Respecting one

the consolations of an implicit deand blasphemy, might resound with of the dungeons of La Maison de the offices of religious worship.

Boureau at Vienna, he writes : , Whilst at Prague, Mr. Howard repaired one day to one of the prin

“ I inquired whether they had any pucipal monasteries, and carried his trid fever, and was answered in the negapurposes of reform among the monks. tive. But in one of the dark dungeons, His visit appears to have given rise found a person with the jail fever. He

down twenty-four steps, I thought I had to rather a singular adventure.

was loaded with heavy irons, and chained “On reaching the convent, he found to the wall : anguish and misery appeared,

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with tears clotted on his face. He was plied he, shall my tongue be tied from not capable of speaking to me; but on ex- speaking truth by any king or emperor in amining his breast and feet for petechiæ the world? I repeat what I asserted, and or spots, and finding he had a strong in- maintain its veracity.' Deep silence entermitting pulse, I was convinced that he sued, and every one present admired the was not ill of that disorder. A prisoner intrepid boldness of the man of humain an opposite cell told me, that the poor nity.” p. 252. creature had desired him to call out for assistance, and he had done it, but was not of the Venetian and Italian prisons

Mr.Howard's account of the state heard. This is one of the bad effects of dungeons. I have frequently been asked is such as must excite the most painwhat precautions I use to preserve myself ful emotions in every feeling mind. from infection in the prisons and hospitals He mentions the circumstance of which I visit. l here answer once for all, his finding between three and four that, next to the free goodness and mercy hundred persons confined for life in of the Author of my being, temperance a prison in the Doge's palace, in and cleanliness are my preservatives. dark and loathsome cells, all antiTrusting in Divine Providence, and be

ous to endure the severe punishment lieving myself in the way of my duty, I visit the most noxious cells, and, while of the galleys, in commutation of thus employed, I fear no evil.'” pp.

their wasting and gloomy captivity. 250, 251.

Others he saw constantly wearing On this third visit to the conti- heavy chains of seven and twenty nent, Mr. Howard's attention was pounds' weight about their legs, to particularly directed to the hospitals. prevent

their escaping by swimming. In truth, there was not any thing

At Rome, he states, that the pri

son was not without its torture-chamconnected with the alleviation of the

and, in the castle of San Anwoes of his fellow-creatures to which he did not direct his attention.

gelo, there was one of the state priWhilst at Vienna, he had the ho had been confined for twenty years,

sons occupied by a bishop, who nour of being introduced to the Queen of Hungary, and dining with the prison of the inquisition he says,

and was then deranged in mind. Of her on several occasions. Indeed, that the chambers of its silent and his company was now much sought melancholy abode were inaccessible after by persons of distinction; and to him; and yet, like Buchanan at the following instance proves his Goa, he hovered about the gloomy fearless disregard of personal con- court and the priests' apartments for sequences, in the avowal of his ha. two hours, till his continuance there tred to tyranny and oppression, in began to excite suspicion. Had he whatever society he might be cast.

kept his station much longer, he “ Dining one day at the table of Sir might probably have become but Robert Murray Keith, our ambassador at too well acquainted with the dreadthe Austrian court, the conversation turned ful secrets of its interior. But, in upon the torture ; when a German gentle- the midst of so much to distress his man observed, that the glory of abolishing mind, it must bave yielded him no it in his own dominions belonged to his Imperial Majesty. • Pardon me," said small gratification io find in the Mr. Howard, his Imperial Majesty has hospital of St. Michele, instituted only abolished one species of torture, to by Pope Clement XI. for 200 orestablish in its place another more cruel; phan and destitute children, the for the torture which he abolished lasted very sort of arrangements which he at the most a few hours ; but that which would have wished. It contained a he has appointed lasts many weeks, nay prison for the indolent and dissolute; sometimes years. The poor wretches are and one of its rooms contained an plunged into a noisome dungeon, as bad as the black hole at Calcutta, from which inscription, expressive of the grand they are taken only if they confess what purpose of all civil policy with reis laid to their charge. * Hush!' said gard to criminals : “ Parum est cothe ambassador: your words will be ercere improbos pænâ nisi probos

rted to his Majesty.' What!' re efficias disciplina.' It is of Httle

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advantage to restrain the bad by visited the midland counties, and punishment, unless


render them then set out on his northern tour. good by discipline. Mr. Howard This, his sixth journey, was finishafterwards adopted this as the motto ed about June. He, after spendof his second work on prisons. ing a fortnight at home, set off

In the Italian prisons, many were on another journey to Scotland and found confined for attempting, ac- Ireland. In the details of his obcording to the common practice of servations in these journeys, we canthe country, to stab with stilettos: not undertake to follow him ; inand some of these were heard con- deed he is so constantly on the wing, soling themselves with the reflection, and his flights are so rapid, that when that, although they had stilettoed, we look for him in one place, he is they had not robbed ; so confused heard of in quite another direction. were their opinions respecting the After several journeys to North nature of crime—a confession, by Wales, and various counties which the way, not without a parallel in he had but sparingly visited before, the legislative guilt of our own coun- having travelled in the course of two try, which marks with the same se- years nearly eleven thousand miles, verity of punishment the stealing he prepared, with the assistance of forty shillings in a dwelling-house Dr. Aikin, his second work on priand taking away the life of man. sons, consisting of 220 quarto pages, We sincerely hope that this reproach and entitled “ an Appendix " to his may not attach to our statute-book former work. He also gave to the much longer, but that the projected public, from the Warrington press, a attempts at reforming the criminal very scarce and valuable French pamcode may be ultimately successful; phlet on the subject of the prison and that the temptation to forswear of the Bastile, both in the original themselves may rest no longer on and translated by himself; to which, the minds of our juries.

although a work proscribed by the We cannot follow Mr. Howard court of France, he fearlessly afthrough the remainder of his exten- fixed his name. This work containsive tour, in which he unveiled some ed a complete exposure of the sea of the secrets of the torture-cham- verities of this inquisitorial jail, bebers of the continental prisons, and ing written by one who had formerly discovered such scenes of suffering been a prisoner there; and the pubas deeply affected his heart, and licity thus given to them, he conadded 'fresh determination to his sidered was likely to be attended zeal. He found that guards were with great benefit to the cause of placed before the prisons where tor- humanity. ture was applied, to prevent passers Just before the publication of by from stopping and listening to these works, Mr. Howard had been the cries and groans within. He appointed by Parliament one of the also mentions the case of a woman Commissioners for the erection of who had been confined in the horrid two penitentiary houses in the coundungeons of Liege forty-seven years. ties of Middlesex, Essex, Kent, In this third tour on the continent, or Surrey. His humbleness of he had travelled 4636 miles. On mind would scarcely allow him to returning home, it being his son's accept this office; but the strong Christmas vacation, he spent the solicitation of his friends, partitime with him at Cardington ; after cularly of Sir William Blackstone, which he set out on another tour of who was the principal promoter inspection to the English jails in of the design, at last prevailed the western counties. In the spring upon him to do so. But his usual he went his southern tour. On his disinterestedness was displayed in return from that, he went in an this as in every other part of his easterly direction; after which he conduct; and he declined the com

that, upon

pensation which had been affixed to persons high in rank or office, by whose to the discharge of the duties of means he might more effectually. prosecute a commissioner. His coadjutors in his researches, he preferred, whenever he this work were Dr. Fothergill and could, entering the different prisons as an

unknown individual, whose visits were not another gentleman, whose name does

expected, and therefore could not be prenot appear in the narrative. Mr.

pared for. It was his general custom Howard and Dr. Fothergill had se- also, whenever he had obtained access to lected Islington for the site of this a place of confinement by means of pernew structure ; but their colleague sons in authority, to remain for some days had set his mind on Limehouse, and longer in the town, for the purpose of readhered, notwithstanding the advice visiting every part alone and unexpected. of Mr. Justice Blackstone, to his

· Thus careful was he,' observes his own ideas, with so much pertinacity,

friend and biographer, Dr. Aikin, 'to the sudden death of Dr. coolness of investigation did he execute a

guard against deception; and with such Fothergill, Mr. Howard thought it design which it required so much ardour best to resign his office.

of mind to conceive.'” pp. 302, 303. Dr. Brown closes his eighth chap- It appears from a letter which is ter with the following interesting subjoined to this chapter, that in view of the simple habits of the the midst of the active public laphilanthropist in his journeys. bours of his singular life, the cha

“ In England, he adopted the same rities of his own neighbourhood were mode of travelling as he had done upon never forgotten. While every fahis former tours, still ordering his meals culty of his being seemed to be aband wine, as any other traveller would do, sorbed in devising plans for the reat the inns where he stopped; but direct- lief of the distresses of the most ing his servant to take them away as soon as they were brought in, and to give what wretched and outcast of all the huhe himself did not eat and drink to the man race, he yet could individualize waiter. But on the continent he per- the objects of his private bounty, formed the greater part of his journeys in and administer to their wants with a German chaise, which be purchased for as constant and minute an attention the purpose, never stopping on the road as though he had no other object to but to change horses, until he came to the engage his time and thoughts, and town he meant to visit; travelling, if ne

had been but the benefactor of his cessary, the whole of the night, and sleep- village, and not of the world. ing, from habit, as well in bis vehicle as in a bed. He always carried with him a

Having reason to believe that the small brass tea-kettle, a 'tea-pot, some

continent of Europe would furnish cups and saucers, a supply of green tea, many scenes which he had not hia pot of sweetmeats, and a few of the best therto visited, the inspection of loaves the country could furnish. At the which might be of advantage to the post-house he would get some boiling wa- favourite plan of his never-wearied ter, and, where it was to be procured, pursuit, he set out on a fourth joursome milk, and make his humble repast, while his man went to supply himself ney to visit the prisons and hospiwith more substantial food at the auberge.

tals of Denmark, Sweden, Russia, The publication of the result of his for and Poland, and to revisit many of mer travels had caused him to be held in those of Holland and Germany. such deserved estimation, not only through- At some of the latter he had the out his own country, but in every part of gratification to find that many of his Europe, that, upon entering on the tours suggestions had been attended to; whose progress has here been traced, he but in the former the utmost misery might allowably assume that tone of authority which enabled him to pursue his Russia particularly the state of the

and distress were still prevalent. In inquiries with more ease to himself, and more effect in securing the object for prisons was dreadful; and here our which they were undertaken. Upon these, philanthropist had occasion to exeras upon his former journeys on the conti- cise his characteristic decision, in nent, though he often thought it advisable order to ascertain the truth of a to furtish himself with recommendations statement which had reached him

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respecting the abolition of capital dit on the individual whose benevopunishments in the Russian domi- lence was the occasion of the inci. nions. His mode of pursuing his dent. inquiries was quite in character. “ A public society in Russia had testi

fied to Gen, Bulgarkow the high sense they “ He did not, however, look for exact entertained of his worth, by presenting him information to the courtiers of the em- with a gold medal for the services he had press, or to the chief ministers of justice, rendered to his country, by endowing and because he judged that they would be dis- enlarging some of her noblest and most posed to exalt by their representations the useful charities, especially a seminary, glory of their sovereign ; but, taking a hackney-coach, he drove directly to the without fortunes. With a liberality which

upon a very large scale, for young ladies abode of the executioner. The man was does him honour, he evinced how well astonished and alarmed at seeing any per- this mark of public gratitude was beson having the appearance of a gentleman stowed, by declaring that what he bad enter his door, which was precisely the

done regarded his own country only; but state of mind his visitor wished to find

that there was a gentleman, whose exhim in; and he endeavoured to increase his confusion by the tone, aspect, and

traordinary philanthropy was well known

to the world, who had extended his humamanner which he assumed. Acting, there

nity to all nations, and was, therefore, fore, as though he had authority to exa

alone worthy of this distinction; and he mine him, he told him, that, if his answers to the questions he should propose were

accordingly sent the medal to Mr.

Howard." p. 326. conformable to truth, he had nothing to fear. He accordingly promised that they

The prisons at Moscow appear to should be so; when Mr. Howard asked, have been in a most offensive and . Can you infict the knout in such a man- filthy state ; and in every room of ner as to occasion death in a short time?" the government prison stood a sol

Yes, I can,' was the answer. • In how dier with a drawn sword. The hosshort a time?' • In a day or two.' Have pitals, however, seemed to be better you ever so inflicted it?' • I have.' " Have attended to. you lately?' • Yes; the last man who was

On his way back through Holpunished with my hands by the knout land, Mr. Howard remained a short died of the punishment. “In what manner do you thus render it mortal ? time at Amsterdam; and the curious • By one or more strokes on the sides, fact which he notices, in reference which carry off large pieces of flesh.' to the comparative numbers of exeDo you receive orders thus to inflict the cutions in that city and in our own punishment ?' 'I do.' At the close metropolis, during the eight preof this curious dialogue, Mr. Howard left ceding years, is surely such as ought the executioner, fully satisfied that the to excite the deepest attention. In bonour of abolishing capital punishment Amsterdam the executions of crimihad been ascribed to the infliction of a cruel

, lingering, and private death, in lieu nals, during the eight preceding years, of one sudden and public.” pp. 321, 322. had amounted to but five; whereas

in London, during the same period, Mr. Howard afterwards had him- the number was 302!! Surely we self an opportunity of witnessing the must look for the cause of such a infliction of this barbarous punish- vast and distressing disproportion to ment on a man and woman ; the other circumstances than the prolatter receiving twenty-five strokes, bability of greater depravity in our the former sixty; both nearly expir- fellow-subjects, or even the dispaing under the torture, and the wo- rity of population ; and must imman alone recovering. We gladly pute much of it to that criminal spare our readers the description of code which demands and accomthe knout and other instruments of plishes such an effusion of human torture which he examined. A blood. very interesting circumstance, how- Mr. Howard's fourth journey on ever, occurred to him while in Rus- the continent having terminated, he sia, which must have gratified his returned home to receive his son feelings as much as it reflected cre- from school, to spend his vacation

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