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Derby, Stafford, Warwick, Wor- but for his humane labours, and in cester, Glocester, Oxford, and Bir- completing his tour of the prisons mingham. After a rest of ten days, in Wales, and the North and West he again set off, and inspected those of England. He was encouraged of Hertford, Berks, Wilts, Dorset, in his progress by finding that ParHants, and Sussex; and on another liament had passed two bills, the tour, those of Rutland and York. one for paying from the county rate On bis way back, he went to Ips- the fees of discharged felons, the wich, and then on a western tour other for better providing for the to Exeter, Salisbury, and Corn- health of prisoners. Both of these wall. The circumstances of distress, measures were highly important; for privation, and suffering, with which the cases were painfully numerous he became acquainted in these visits, in which a verdict of acquittal havit is impossible for us to detail ; but ing been given in favour of prithey were of such a nature, and his soners, they had been for many kindness in relieving them by the months detained in the wretchedpayment of fees for the liberation ness of a loathsome captivity, mereof the innocent, and his wisdom in ly for want of means to pay the devising plans for the mitigation of jailors' fees; and the ravages made the heart-chilling horrors attendant by small-pox, the jail fever, and on the captivity of the guilty, be- other diseases consequent on bad came so conspicuous, that the House food, loss of exercise, confined air, of Commons desired their Speaker and damp cells, were truly appalto express their thanks to him for
ling. his zeal and benevolence, and for A visit paid by Mr. Howard to the interesting observations which, some of the county jails, where as the result of his experience, he he discovered some poor creatures had communicated to Parliament. whose aspect was singularly deOne of the members, however, no plorable, and who, on inquiry, he doubt some right staunch enemy to learnt had been cruelly brought from “ enthusiasm,” after listening to his the Bridewells, opened to him immenarrative of the dangers to which diately a new subject of inquiry; he had been exposed in visiting the and, as no sooner was a project confilthy, damp, and infectious cells, ceived by him than the execution rudely asked him at whose expense of it was commenced, he travelled he travelled—a question which he again into all the counties he had could scarcely answer without some just returned from visiting, examinindignant emotions.
ing every where the houses of corThe honourable and well-merited rection. We cannot avoid noticing notice of his exertions, by the senate some of the cases which presented of his country, could not but be themselves to his observation on this gratifying to the feelings of Howard; tour of inspection. but it was chiefly so, as it afforded him a hope of the powerful inter
“ In the county bridewell at Shepton
Mallet, there was no infirmary ; thongh ference of Parliament, to ameliorate
the jailor informed his visitor, that but a those miseries which so much affect
few years ago the prison had been so uned his own heart. Accordingly we healthy, that he had buried three or four find him pursuing his labours in in- of its inmates in a week. In the county vestigating the condition of the pri- bridewell, a man was dying upon the floor, sons of the metropolis, the Mar- of the jail fever; a distemper of which sbalsea, the Fleet, the King's Bench another prisoner had died there just beand Compter, and a multitude of fore; and a third soon after his discharge other inferior places of confinement,
from it. Up stairs were some healthier the existence of which would scarce
rooms; but they were only for those who
paid for the use of them." p. 142. ly have been known, except to the “ The county bridewell of Hereford jailors and the prisoners themselves, exhibited as wretched a picture of desola
tion and distress as any he had met with of which for ten long weeks he had been in the course of his travels. It was so the solitary and wretched inmate. He, completely out of repair, as not only to be too, was confined there under sentence of ruinous, but dangerous, a cross-wall hav- transportation ; but he declared, to the ing actually parted from that against which benevolent being who ventured at such it abutted; whilst the day-room contained imminent hazard of his health to explore a large quantity of water, which had pour- the misery of his drear abode, that he ed in through the roof. No fire-place; would rather have been hanged than conoffensive sewers; no yard; no water; no
fined in this loathsome cell: nor can we stated allowance; no employment:—such wonder at his choice. The jail had no is the short but melancholy catalogue of yard, no water, no sewer, no straw; the defects of this miserable place. Six and its keepers, who were the three serof the prisoners who had been sent here jeants at mace, lived at a distance from from the assizes, but a few days before their charge.” pp. 145, 146. this visit, to hard labour, as the sentence We cannot add to our quotations usually, but uselessly runs, for six months, from these records of sorrow, in which already complained of being almost famish- the iron must indeed have entered ed; for though the justices had ordered into the soul of the solitary captive. the keeper to supply each of them daily It is our joy to know, that, through with a twopenny loaf, be had shamefully
the interference of Parliament, many neglected to do so." pp. 142, 143.
“ In the borough jail at Carmarthen, the of these miseries no longer exist, keeper of which, one of the town sheriffs, and the rest are in many places conlived at a distance, the food, &c. of the siderably mitigated; but then, for prisons was put in at an aperture in the these ameliorations and this interbottom of the door, through which a lit- ference, we must look as the prime tle girl, the daughter of the only felon or
mover to John Howard, who led debtor the jail contained, could just contrive to creep to fetch water, or whatever the way in this new path of Chriselse might be wanted, by its solitary occu
tian charity : in which however, we pant. At Cardiff, the jailor informed Mr. rejoice to add, he has been most Howard, that an exchequer debtor con- usefully and gloriously followed by fined in the old prison for ten years, for a
other Christians of both sexes, who debt of seven pounds, had died but a short are to this day prosecuting to pertime before his visit. Had he survived but fection the plans of wisdom and a few weeks longer, there can be no doubt mercy which originated from him. but that he would soon have been set at
It was natural to expect that the liberty by the generous commiserator of
esteem and veneration in which Mr. the prisoners' woes, who could now but look with a sigh upon the dungeon, in
Howard was held in Cardington and which he had so long been immured. In its neighbourhood would be exceedthe bridewell for this county, at Cow- ingly augmented by his unwearied bridge, the keeper told him that many had acts of benevolence. Accordingly died cf the jail fever; a man and a woman we find the inhabitants of Bedford but a year before, when he himself and requesting him to become their Rehis daughter were ill of it; and this prin- presentative in Parliament. After cipally from the want of a proper circula
some difficulty, he was prevailed tion of air, of sewers, and of water to keep the prison clean." pp. 143, 144.
upon to stand an election, and, as « In the town jail at Plymouth, one
was distinctly proved afterwards beof the rooms for felons, called the Clink,
fore the House of Commons, he would seventeen feet by eight, and about five most certainly have been returned, feet and a half high, had neither light nor but for the gross partiality of the air, but what was admitted through a returning officers. It appears, howwicket in the door, seven inches by five ever, from his journal, that he rather in its dimensions, to which Mr. Howard was informed that three men, who were of this event, as he says it left him
rejoiced in, than regretted, the issue confined here near two months, under sentence of transportation, came by turns for
more at liberty to pursue without breath. At the period of his visit, the interruption the plans he had so door had not been opened for five weeks,
much at heart. when he himself with diffi culty entered,
No sooner did the bustle of the to see a pale inhabitant of this living grave election begin to subside, than Mr.
Howard set out again on his tours, soners; and, by pleading this perand visited the principal prisons in mission before the Commissary of Scotland and Ireland, and intended Police, he inspected the Grand and to have communicated his observa. Petit Chatelet and Fort l'Eveque. tions to the public by means of the These contained abodes of misery, press, but thought it more advisable from the description of which every first to go abroad, and inspect the feeling of human nature revolts: condition of the jails and houses of and we cannot wonder that from confinement on the continent. He every fresh discovery of the gloom therefore immediately commenced of these subterranean abodes, where a tour into France, Flanders, Hol- the light was darkness, and cheering land, and Germany. In Paris, he “ hope never came that comes to made a bold but hazardous attempt all,” the mind of Howard should to enter and explore the precincts derive new vigour in the prosecuof the Bastile.
tion of his work. The prison at “ Eren to the gloomiest of those dun. satisfaction: the regulations were
Ghent seemed to yield him some geons did he wish to penetrate ; and, in the hope of being able to draw from these excellent. The men and women abodes of hopeless misery some informa
were duly separated : each prisoner tion for the completion of his great design,
was allowed a bedstead and blanhe would not have hesitated to trust him- ket, and had regular work, and self in the power of the keepers of a pri- wholesome food ; and spirituous lison like this, in the strongest of these quors and gaming, the pests of all cages, surrounded by an insurmountable the London jails, were entirely prowall and an impassable ditch, which pre- hibited. The rules of the prison vented the possibility of escape. With
were, in short, such as made their this view, and I am here adopting the unassuming account which he himself has
inmates better men and women begiven of so bold and so dangerous an en
fore they left its walls, and realized terprise," he knocked hard at the outer the legitimate purposes of confinegate, and immediately went forward, ment, correction and improvement. through the guard, to the draw-bridge be- The magistrates regularly inspected fore the entrance of the castle; but while this prison. No wonder Howard he was contemplating this gloomy man- called it “ a noble institution." sion, an officer came out of the castle, much surprised, and he was forced to re- in terms of justly merited commen
OfAmsterdam, Mr.Howard speaks treat through the mute guard, and thus regained that freedom which for one lock
dation. After describing its exceled up within those walls it would be next
lent prison-regulations, he shews the to impossible to obtain.” • In the space effect of them from the circumstance of four centuries, from the foundation to that there were but six delinquents the destruction of the Bastile, perhaps,' and eighteen debtors in the whole observes one of his biographers upon this singular, but characteristic adventure, 250,000.
city, the population of which was Mr. Howard was the only person that was ever compelled to quit it reluctantly.' It
“ He was credibly informed, that there was, however, in all probability, most
had not been a single execution in the city fortunate for himself, and for the cause of during the ten years immediately precedhumanity, which he had so nobly espous- ing his visit ; and that, for a hundred years ed at all personal risks, and through all
past, there had not been communibus annis, personal privations, that he quitted it as
more than one in each year. How strikhe did; for, had he advanced but a few ing, how disgraceful the contrast, when steps further, his landable curiosity might
we consider that, in less than one-fourth have cost him dear.” Pp. 161, 162.
of that period, namely from the year 1749 To the other prisons in Paris he to 1771, the number of persons executed was enabled to gain access by avail
within the city of London alone amounting himself of an order which per- Surely, the time will at length arrive,
ed to 678, averaging nearly thirty a year! mitted the charitable to distribute though we see not as yet the dawn of its their alms themselves to the pri- approach, [we trust that in this remark
Dr. Brown is mistaken,) when our legis- ed home, and, without resting a single lators will remove this stain from a code day, set off on his journey to finish of laws which might otherwise be a model his second inspection of the English for the world; and learn, though late, that of offenders that offences are to be check he made at every stage of his proit is not by a prodigal waste of the blood jails. We have not space to follow him
in the detail of the discoveries which ed, but that it is only by the adoption of a mode of discipline suited to reclaim evil-gress, or of those abuses, corruptions, doers from the error of their ways, that and painful sufferings, which would this object may be accomplished, and that in all probability never have been the injury they do to society can in any brought to light but for his exertions. measure be repaired.” pp. 170.
On completing this journey, he reIn following the philanthropist solved to give the result of his obthrough the Prussian, Austrian, and servations to the public, which he Hessian gaols, while we are admir- did through the press of the celeing his indefatigable spirit, we now brated Mr. Eyres of Warrington in and then get a glimpse, in his letters, Lancashire. In preparing his papers of the principles and supports which for the press, he had the advantage of animated his course. Thus, he says, the important assistance of Dr. Price
“ Though conscious of the utmost and Dr.(then Mr.) Aikin. In this emweakness, imperfection, and folly, I would ployment, as in every other, Mr.Howhope my heart deceives me not, when I ardaffords a fine specimen of devotedsay to my friend, I trust that I intend ness to his object, and of general deci. well. The great Example,-the glorious sion of character. Indeed, whatever and Divine Saviour ; – the first thought he had before him, he did it singly humbles, abases, yet, blessed be God, it and thoroughly, and therefore well. exalts and rejoices in that infinite and He was one of those few characters boundless source of love and mercy."
who might receive the same admi
ration which was bestowed upon Every allusion which he makes to Lord Chatham for energy this theme seems to revive his en
cess; and who, in reply to an infeebled and exhausted powers; and, quiry respecting the practicability like the fabled giant, who, in his of his doing so much, replied, that it conflict with his foes, as often as he was by doing one thing at a time. touched his mother earth, felt new Mr. Howard's undivided attention vigour impressed into his frame, to his publication called “The Howard, at every fresh view of Scrip- State of Prisons" is thus described : ture truth, and Scripture promise
“For the purpose of being near the scene and prospect, appeared to renew his of his labours, he took lodgings in a house strength, and to advance with aug. close to his printer's shop; and so indemented energies to the work which fatigable was he in his attention to the busihe had so nobly undertaken.
ness which had fixed his temporary abode In Switzerland, the correctional there, that during a very severe winter, system seems to have been produc- he was always called up by two in the tive of all the effects ascribed to it morning, though he did not rėtire to rest in Holland. The chief employment night. His reason for this early rising was,
until ten, and sometimes half past ten at assigned to the men was that of rasp- that he found the morning the stillest part ing logwood; and the industrious of the day, and that in which he was the habits produced by this punishment least disturbed in his work of revising the were productive, in many cases, of sheets as they came from the press. At a great improvement of character. seven, he regularly dressed for the day, Many, he says, came out of these and had his breakfast ; when punctually prisons sober and honest. Their la- at eight he repaired to the printing-office, bour, besides, nearly supported the and remained there until the workmen institutions themselves.
went to dinner at one, when he returned
to his lodgings, and patting some bread Having completed his second and raisins, or other dried fruit, in his journey on the continent, he return- pocket, generally took a walk in the out, CHRIST. OBSERv. No. 270.
skirts of the town, during the time of their “ Those gentlemen, who, when they are absence, eating, as he walked along, his told of the misery which our prisoners hermit fare, which, with a glass of water suffer, content themselves with saying, on his return, was the only dinner he “Let them take care to keep out,' prefaced, took."
perhaps, with an angry prayer, seem 'not "When he had returned to the printing- duly sensible of the favour of Providence office, he generally remained there until which distinguishes them from the sufferthe men left work, and then, I am inform- ers: they do not remember that we are ed, repaired to Mr. Aikin's house, to go required to imitate our gracious heavenly through with him any sheets which might Parent, who is ‘kind to the unthankful and have been composed during the day; or, if the evil.' They also forget the vicissitudes there were nothing upon which he wished of human affairs; the unexpected changes to consult him, would spend an hour with to which all men are liable ; and that some other friend, or return to his lodgings, those whose circumstances are affluent, where he took his tea or coffee, in lieu of may in time be reduced to indigence, and supper ; and at his usual hour retired to become debtors and prisoners.” p. 211. bed." pp. 208, 209.
For the more minute details of But this incessant labour did not Mr. Howard's observations and the trench upon his religious duties plans which he suggests for the imeither private or social. The follow- provement of “ prison discipline"ing passage should not be disjoined a phrase which, thanks to Mr. Howfrom the above.
ard and his successors in this work " He did not do this, however, with- of mercy, has of late become famiout closing the day with family prayer; liar to the ear—we must refer to his a duty which he never neglected, though own publication. As the result of there was but one, and that one his do- his remarks,pressing upon Parliament mestic, to join him in it; always declar- the necessity of a judicial inquiry ing, that where he had a tent, God into the whole system, he concludes should have an altar. And this was the his work, by giving another proof of case, not only in England, but in every his decision, and a fresh pledge of part of Europe which they visited together; it being his invariable practice, wherever his zeal, in offering to assist that and with whomsoever he might be, to tell inquiry, by undertaking, in reliance Thomasson to come to him at a certain on the Divine protection and guihour, at which, well knowing what the dance which had hitherto supported direction meant, he would be sure to find him, another extensive foreign jourhim in his room, the doors of which he ney to the Prussian and Austrian would order hiin to fasten; when, let who territories, and the most considerwould come, nobody was admitted until able free cities of Germany. his devotional exercise was over.” p. 209.
In the mean time, having distri. In March 1777, the work, which buted copies of his work with a consisted of 520 quarto pages, was liberality bordering upon profusion, printed, and dedicated to the House to almost every person of conse. of Commons. Its price appears to quence, he returned to Cardington, have been fixed so low, that the sale and spent some time there with his of the whole impression could not son, his friends, and his poor tenants. have reimbursed its author the ex- His son was at this time about nine penses of its publication. It contained, as might be expected, a com- form his mind to religious principles
years of age, and he endeavoured to prehensive and luminous account of and habits. About this time his the state of the distress and disci- sister died; in consequence of which pline of prisons at home and abroad; event, he obtained an addition to and the brief but affecting apology his property of upwards of 15,0001. which Mr. Howard offers for his This he devoted entirely, considercalling the attention of the public ing it a “providential supply," to forto this new topic, is so marked by ward his plans of benevolence; and the spirit of genuine Christian bene- it enabled him to determine to leave volence and Christian humility, that his patrimonial estate unencumbered we cannot withold it from our readers. to his son.