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in the mind of the inspired writer vagant hypothesis. I allude to a in this passage, but by no means, I work recently published, entitled, think, so perfect and technical a “ Tactica Sacra, being an Attempt poise of thought and expression as to develop, and to exhibit to the that for which the Bishop contends, Eye by tabular Arrangements, a geand on which he even grounds a neral Rule of Composition prevailing doctrinal argument, alleging that in the holy Scriptures; by the Rev. the Holy Child of the Acts is the Thomas Boys, A. M. of Trinity Jehovah of the Psalms. I believe College, Cambridge, Curate of Wedthe fact, and I most heartily concurford, Herts." I entertain the high. in the doctrine ; but I should hesi- est respect for the principles of this tate to urge this parallelism on a writer ; but the hypothesis upon Socinian, in proof of my argument, which his publication is built, is Indeed, if parallelism is to be car- of so hazardous a character that it ried to the extent the Bishop con- ought not to pass unnoticed. tends fòr, we may have points of The object of Mr. Boys's work is Calvinism and Arminianism argued “to reduce whole Epistles to the on the same principles, and the form of regular parallelisms.” We whole Scripture put to the torture have not only the minor parallelisms and crotcheted in search of equi- which Bishop Jebb contends for, and ponderants and correlatives. which Mr. Boys still further extends;
Admiring, however, as I cordially but, existing with these, and superdlo, the pious, learned, and valuable added to them, a larger scale of publication to which I have alluded, parallelism, including large masses and feeling greatly indebted to its of Scripture, even whole Epistles. author for the new and interesting The sacred writer, before penning mine of “sacred literature " which a single sentence, arranges his whole he has opened to biblical readers, intended book into one grand paralI should have been satisfied with lelism, and then constructs minor the large, but measured, approba- parallelisms as suits his plan. But tion awarded to it in the pages of the best way of conveying to the the Christian Observer*, and by no reader an idea of Mr. Boys's hymeans have thought it necessary to pothesis, is to give one of his own obtrude the present remarks upon illustrative specimens. The'Epistle the public, bad not another writer to Philemon, being the shortest, will undertaken to improve upon the best allow of quotation. Mr. Boys Bishop's principles and carried them arranges its alleged parallelisms as out into a most singular, and, I fear follows :I must add, dangerous and extraAm_3. Epistolary. B... Prayers of St. Paul for Philemon-Philemon's hospitality. C... Authority: D...9, 10. Supplication. E.-10. nesimus a convert of St. Paul's. F..ll, 12. Wrong done by Onesimus, amends made by St. Paul. G....12. To receive Onesimus the same as receiving Paul. Hr.13, 14. Paul, Philemon.
I.16. Onesimus. H...16. Paul, Philemon. G...17. To receive Onesimus the same as receiving Paul. Fan.18, 19. Wrong done by Onesimus, amends made by St. Paul. E.m.19. Philemon a convert of St. Paul's. D.....20. Supplication. C..21. Authority. B....22. Philemon's hospitality. Prayers of Philemon for St. Paul. Anm23-25. Epistolary. See Review of Jebb's Sacred Literature, Christian Observer, 1821, p. 762.
The reader will easily compre- capital-letter parallelisms have unhend this “ tabular arrangement.” der them Roman and Italic sınallIt is intended to shew that the letter parallelisms still more curious Epistle to Philemon is “an intro- and complicated. It would not be verted parallelism of eighteen mem- doing justice to the author, or his bers ;" * A, the last member, cor- argument, not to copy a single responding with A the first, B with specimen. Thus the short bi-memB, C with C, &c. But this is not ber B, of the parallelism B, B all; for these Roman and Italic comprehends under it, rformet. I thank
inmand faith which thou hast B.
ime Towards the Lord Jesus, honom. And towards all saints. Gromb. That the communication of thy faith may become effectual, by the
acknowledging of every good thing which is in you in Christ Jesus. fr..7. For we have great joy and consolation in thy love, because the bowels of s...7.
the saints are refreshed by thee, brother. Now, can any thing be imagined rallelism, which includes passages more farfetched, unfounded, and ab- .of considerable length and whole surd; than such an analysis? St. Epistles. Then come the minor Paul, purposing to write a letter on parallelisms, which form the mema matter of important business, and bers of the larger. And, lastly, under the special influence and come the results and inferences, the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, sits facts being previously established. down to plan every sentence and line , When I consider the importance of in platoon order, with a minuteness these results, thought and language and puerility utterly beyond all that fail me. I will only mention one: we were accustomed to in our boy- an entirely new and independent hood, in the elaborate eggs, wings, series of testimonies upon that alland hatchets of the Greek antho- important subject, the proper Deity logies. How any man could for a of our Lord and Saviour Jesus moment admit such an idea into his Christ; who, with ineffable glory, mind, and still more how he could unites in his person the two-fold persuade himself to work it up into name Son of God and Son of Man. a half-guinea quarto publication, As often as we repeat the word pawill probably astonish every sober rallelism, we toll the knell of infireader, and not least so every ra. delity. At the very sound of pational parallelist. Yet Mr. Boys rallelism, let the host of the Philizealously propounds this doctrine, stines tremble in their tents. Paand moreover thinks that his dis- rallelism opens upon them from an covery will greatly aid the cause of unobserved and inaccessible emibiblical criticism and interpretation ! nence, that commands and rakes
“ Some,” he remarks, “ will say their whole position.” that more of the results of parallelism Under these impressions, Mr. should have been given : more in- Boys has carefully arranged nearly stances where parallelism illustrates the whole of St. Paul's Epistles, and the sense, fixes doubtful meanings, has made considerable progress with decides controverted points. Many the other Epistles, and other parts instances I am prepared to give. I of Scripture. He hopes to see the apprehend, however, that in offer- whole of the Bible in time paraling them in the first instance, I lelised, and augurs great benefit to should be off my ground. The first sound doctrine from the result. He object is to establish the fact : to is convinced that “ parallelism is prove the prevalence in the sacred the biblical rule and method of rewritings of the larger kind of pa- gular composition.” The absurdity of such an hypothesis is, I conceive, us in a state of spiritual death. Yet evident at the first glance; or, if I apprehend, that where there is the more be wanted, the short Epistle spirit of devotion, there it is of the above quoted will be quite sufficient first importance to inform the mind; for most readers : but to have the otherwise we can only look for a fullest idea of the extent of the zeal that is not according to knowabsurdity, it would be necessary to ledge: and not only this, but that follow the author through some of where there is not the spirit of dethe longer portions of Scripture. But votion, there instruction upon points such a task is, I trust, utterly su- of fact and argument is often made perfluous; and my chief object, in the means of giving it. Devotion trespassing even thus long upon the is the flame; knowledge, doctrine, patience of my readers on such a and sound argument the materials subject, is to warn biblical students by which it is fed. We must throw of the danger of cherishing idle on those coarser-looking materials speculations and hypotheses. The at due intervals; or the purer and scheme of Mr. Boys certainly will more etherial fiame will soon go out. not find many patrons among sober You delight in your Bible. You critics and ripe scholars ; but the find nothing so edifying as the readinnumerable crudities which have ing of that sacred book. Give me been tolerated at different times in leave to ask, then, When your Bible well-disposed, but weak and ill- is before you, do you always know judging minds, forbid the hope that what you are reading about? I no individual will be found to take venture to answer, No. You unup the “new system,” and to pa- derstand single verses and sentences; rallelize the Bible from Genesis to or can make out their meaning by Revelations, book by book, chap- the help of commentators. But of ter by chapter, verse by verse, the general bearing and tendency clause by clause, to the utter sub- of what you are reading, the topics version alike of the sacred Scrip- which the sacred writer means to tures and of common sense. Mr. urge, the drift of the passage, in a Boys, being himself a firm believer word, what it is about, of this you in his system, is naturally anxious are often ignorant. It is the obto inculcate it upon others; and he ject, then, of parallelism to shew you particularly appeals to devotional this. Hitherto you have travelled on, readers of the Scriptures, consider- like a man making his way through ing, as he honestly does, that it a thicket; arrested perhaps occawill tend greatly to their edification. sionally by a flower growing at your
“ I know," he says, “ there are feet, but utterly ignorant of the persons who will be disposed to re- general character of the country gard the sort of discussions which through which you are passing. But the present work contains as unin- parallelism takes you up ; first sets teresting and unprofitable. They you on an eminence, and gives you want something that will excite de- a bird's-eye view of all the adjacent votional feeling; and unless they country, and then carries you can have this, they think their souls through it by an open path.” cannot receive benefit. I wish to Such is Mr. Boys's view of the speak of such sentiments with re- importance of his system of paralspect, for they do not entirely differ lelism to devotional as well as to from my own. As far as this at merely critical readers. I am far least we are of one mind, that, un- from wishing to wound his feelings less there be in the heart the feeling in the free remarks which I have and the spirit of devotion, all that thought it my duty to offer upon it; can be done in the way of enlighten- but I cannot view it merely as a ing our understandings may leave harmless absurdity, ber "se of the disrespect' which (most uninten- contain, or remarkable for the turn tionally on the part of the author) of the expression with the parallel it offers to holy Scripture; because passages in other parts of holy writ; of the injurious effects which it may that is, with the passages in which have upon ill-disciplined minds; and the subject matter is the same, the because of the door which it opens sense equivalent, or the turn of the to the eneers and cavils of the un- expression similar. These parallel believing and profane.
passages are easily found by the There is indeed another species marginal references in Bibles of the of “ scripture parallelism ” which I larger forms.”......“ It is incredible could earnestly wish the Reverend to any one, who has not in some author on whose hypothesis I have degree made the experiment, what animadverted, and all his readers, a proficiency may be made in that deeply to study-not a parallelism knowledge which maketh wise unto of mere technical arrangement, but salvation, by studying the Scripthat juxta-position of spiritual things tures in this manner, without any with spiritual, that exquisite analogy other commentary or exposition of all the disclosures of holy writ than what the different parts of the by which they reflect a flood of sacred volume mutually furnish for light upon each other, and lead the each other. I will not scruple to mind in devout and adoring love and assert that the most ILLITERATE gratitude, to the all-wise Inspirer CHRISTIAN, if he can but read his of their hallowed contents. Mr. English Bible, and will take the Boys evidently knows well how to pains to read it in this manner, will turn the sacred volume to this higher not only attain all that practical account; and let him not endanger knowledge which is necessary to his this best study of the Oracles of salvation ; but, by God's blessing, God, for the sake of a puerile hy. he will become learned in every pothesis, “ with a constant refer- thing relating to his religion in such ence to which he has gone through a degree, that he will not be liable the Old Testament as often as three to be misled either by the refined or four times, and the New Testa- arguments or by the false asserment as often as five or six times.” tions of those who endeavour to inI will only remind both him and his graft their own opinions upon the readers of the following excellent Oracles of God. He may safely remarks of Bishop Horsley incul- be ignorant of all philosophy, except cating the study of the parallelism what is to be learned from the sacred to which I have alluded, a paral- books; which indeed contain the lelism not of brackets and crotchets, highest philosophy adapted to the in which
lowest apprehensions. He may safe“ Verse nods to verse, each sentence has ly remain ignorant of all history, a brother,
except so much of the first ages of And half the chapter just reflects the the Jewish and of the Christian other;"
church, as is to be gathered from but a sound, rational, and scriptural the canonical books of the Old and comparison of phrase with phrase, New Testament. Let him study and thought with thought, the ob- these in the manner I recommend, scure with the lucid, doctrines with and let him never cease to pray for duties, promises with commands. the ILLUMINATION OF THAT SPIRIT " It should be a rule,” says Bishop by which these books were dictated; Horsley, “with every one who would and the whole compass of abstruse read the Scriptures with advantage philosophy and recondite history and improvement, to compare every shall furnish no argument with which text, which may seem either im- the perverse will of man shall be portant for the doctrine it may able to shake this LEARNED CHRIS
TIAN's faith. The Bible, thus stu- glorified him not as God, neither died, will indeed prove what we were thankful, but became vain in Protestants esteem it-a certain and their imaginations, and their foolish sufficient rule of faith and practice, heart was darkened.” But this a helmet of salvation, which alone knowledge is but partial ; and, parmay quench the fiery darts of the tial as it is, it is not generally made wicked.”
E. use of by mankind.
God as the Cre
ator of all things; their supporter FAMILY SERMONS.--No. CLXXXVI. and governor ; and the author of all Job xxii. 21–23.- Acquaint now
their mercies. If a slight thought thyself with Him, and be at peace; of his beingor attributes pass through thereby good shall come unto thee. their minds, it is soon forgotten, Receive, I pray thee, the lary from and leaves behind it no traces of his mouth, and lay up his words devout love or veneration. Though in thine heart. If thou relurn to they believe in his existence, they the Almighty, thou shalt be built cannot be said to be acquainted with up. Thou shalt put iniquity far him: and the little they know, infrom thy tabernacles.
stead of being followed up by a de
sire after further information, is lost In meditating upon this interesting to all practical purposes. They pass passage of Scripture,we shall first con- through life almost as though there sider the nature of the counsel here were no God; they habitually forgiven ; and, secondly, the benefits get him “in whom they live, and which will result to us from follow- move, and have their being.” Such ing it; and, in so doing, may our is the wilful ignorance of the large hearts be directed to Heaven in se- majority of mankind, even of what cret prayer, that, while listening to the they might know by the mere light injunction in the text, we may be of reason, reflecting upon the works inclined to obey it, and thus obtain of God, and assisted by the obscure the inestimable blessings which God remains of early revelations handed has graciously connected with a down from age to age. compliance with this command.
But still this light is very imperFirst, then, we are to consider fect; and it is only in the Gospel of the counsel here given, which con- his Son that we can become fully sists of three parts; namely, to ac- acquainted with him. We are na. quaint ourselves with God,—to be turally ignorant of many of his atat peace with him,--and to receive tributes; but in that Divine record the law from his mouth.
they are clearly revealed, and their Acquaint thyself with God." important relation to ourselves is The knowledge of our Creator lies also pointed out. We read of him at the foundation of all religion; as “ a great God, mighty and terfor, “ he that cometh to God must rible," "holy and reverend,” “gloknow that he is, and that he is a rious and fearful,” yet “ merciful rewarder of them that diligently and gracious, and full of compasseek him." We are naturally ig. sion;" a God too pure to behold norant of him. Something might iniquity, who has given us a perfect indeed be learned respecting him law to walk by, who weighs all our from his works ; for “ the invisible actions, and who will judge us acthings of him from the creation of cording to our works. We learn the world are clearly seen, being not only his power, wisdom, and understood by the things that are eternal existence, but also his mysmade, even his eternal power and terious nature as three persons in godhead;" so that, adds the Apostle, one God; each of the three persons men are “ without excuse, because bearing an infinitely gracious office that, when they knew God, they towards us miserable sinners; the