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was broght againe in your sackes Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. mouthes: carie it againe in your hand, lest it were some ouer sight : Nor having seen in your pages any
13. Take also your brother and reply to the query of one of your arise, and go againe to the man. correspondents, who wishes to know
14. And God Almightie giue at what period, in the history of the you mercie in the sight of the man, Anglican Church, sprinkling in bapthat he maie deliuer you your other tism superseded the practice of imbrother, and Beniamin: but I shal mersion, I beg leave to offer the be robbed of my childe, as I have following remarks.
pondent will find a fuller reply to Bishop's Bible. 1568. fol. his inquiry in Wall's History of In11. And their father Israel sayde fant Baptism. unto them : if it must nedes be so, With regard to the lawfulness nowe then do thus. Take of the either of sprinkling or of affusion, best fruites of the lande in your in common with immersion, your vesselles, and bryng ye man a pre- correspondent, I conclude, entersent, a curtsie of bawme, and a tains no scruple. It is highly pro. curtsie of hony, spyces and mirre, bable that all three methods were nuttes and almondes.
employed even in the times of the 12. And take double money in Apostles, though it was only upon your hande, and the money that extraordinary occasions that the rite was brought agayne with you, per- was administered in
way adventure it was some oversight. than by immersion during the first
13. Take also your brother with four centuries. In England, dipyou, and arise and go agayne unto ping has always been prescribed by the man.
the rubric. The Salisbury Missal 14. And God Almightie geve you of 152, the last formuláry that mereye in the sight of the man, that was in force before the Reformation, he may deliver you your other expressly requires this mode, and brother
, and [this] Beniamin : and gives no discretionary permission thus I am as one that is quite robbed for any other. The rubric of Edof his chyldren.
ward the Sixth's Prayer-book conDouay Bible. 1609. tinues the injunction generally; but 11. Therfore Israel their father allows, that, “ if the child be weak, said to them: If it must nedes be it shall suffice to pour water upon So, do that you wil: take of the it.” This allowance, as might have best fruites of the land in your been expected from the nature of vessels, and carie to the man for our climate and habits of life, was presents, a courtesie of rosen, soon followed by a very general and of honey, and of incense, of preference for the more convenient mirhe, of terebinth, and of almondes. practice, the point not being con
12. Duble money also carie with sidered essential to the validity of you: and recarie that you founde in the sacrament. The habit, thus your sackes, lest perhaps it was widely introduced, received new done by an errour :
countenance from several of our 13. But take also your brother, English divines who had fled to and goe to the man.
Germany, Switzerland, and other 14. And my God Almightie places on the continent, during the make him favorable unto you: and Marian persecution, and brought sende backe with you your brother, back with them a decided prefer. whom he keepeth, and this Benia- ence for affusion, or rather of sprinkmin : as for me I shal be desolate ling, as used in the Calvinistic without children.
Churches. During the latter part of the reign of Elizabeth, and during the reign of James I. and
Charles I., very few children were everlasting life. On the part of dipped in the fonts. Under the Jesus Christ, his righteousness; that Commonwealth sprinkling was the is, says the Homily, “the satisfacregular practice; and, as if express- tion of God's justice, or the price ly to prevent immersion, the fonts of our redemption by the offering were superseded by basins, which of his body and shedding of his were brought to the minister into blood, with fulfilling of the law perthe reading desk. At the Restora- fectly and thoroughly." Upon our tion, the order for immersion, in the part true and lively faith in the office for public baptism, was re- merits of Jesus Christ. All human newed; but with the proviso that works and deservings are thus shut the minister is to be first certified out from the office of justifying us ; that the child “ may well endure it.” for, as continues the same Homily, Thus the matter still rests. The “ all the good works that we can difference between King Edward's do are imperfect, and therefore not rubric' and the present is, that in able to deserve our justification ; the former the minister is apparently but our justification doth come free. to take for granted that the child is ly by the mere mercy of God, and sufficiently strong to be immersed, of so great and free mercy, that unless weakness is distinctly speci- whereas all the world was not able fied; and in the latter, that it is too of themselves to pay any part toweak, unless he is specially certi- wards their ransom, it pleased our fied that it is strong. In the case heavenly Father, of his infinite of private baptism, weakness is im- mercy, without any our desert or plied in the very permission, and deserving to prepare for us the most therefore “ pouring” only is en- precious jewels of Christ's body joined. In the baptism of adults, and blood, whereby our ransom either dipping (probably partial dip- might be fully paid, the law fulfillping, dipping the head,) or pouring ed, and his justice fully satisfied." is allowed; but, it is not added, The Holy Spirit also sustains an inwhether the alternative is at the finitely important part in the work option of the catechumen or of the of our salvation, for he is our Enpriest, though it would appear to lightener and Sanctifier. For, be it be the latter.
ever remembered, that the freeness of our justification, by faith only, in virtue of the obedience unto death
of Christ, does not take away the FAMILY SERMONS.—No. CLXXXIV. duty and necessity of personal holiRomans iv. 4, 5.-Now to him that ness and good works. The same
worketh is the reward not reckoned Homily forcibly adds, that “ faith of grace, but of debt; but to him doth not shut out repentance, hope, that worketh not, but believeth on love, dread, and the fear of God, Him that justifieth the ungodly, his to be joined with faith in every man faith is counted for righteousness that is justified; but it shutteth them
out from the office of justifying." The Apostle Paul, say the Homi- This declaration is truly scriptural. lies of the Church, mentions three Throughout the Bible good works things which go together in our are enjoined; but no where are they justification before God. Upon the spoken of as meritorious to our juspart of God the Father, his great tification before God. Boasting is mercy and grace, the original source excluded: the reward of eternal of all the benefits conferred upon life is wholly of grace, and not of us; for it was because God loved debt; as the Apostle teaches in the the world, that he gave his only text. “ Now to bim that worketh begotten Son, that whoso believeth is the reward not reckoned of grace, on him should not perish but have but of debt; but to him that work
eth not, but believeth on Him that enjoyment, these things alone could justifieth the ungodly, his faith is not have sufficed to make him lastcounted for righteousness."
ingly happy; for “ what shall it In explaining this passage, I pur- profit a man if he gain the whole pose first to inquire into the nature world and lose his own soul ?" But of the reward which the Apostle when to these inferior benefits was speaks of, and to shew that it is in- added, what infinitely outweighed finitely desirable ; secondly, to dis- them all, the favour of God, and tinguish the two ways which he the prospect of eternal happiness in mentions of gaining it ; thirdly, to heaven, this was indeed ' exexamine in which of these ways it ceeding great reward.” Abraham is necessary that we ourselves should had true faith in God; he proved seek it; and, fourthly, to answer this faith by his self-denial and obesome difficulties which may seem dience to God's commands; and his to arise from the subject.
reward was, that “ the Lord was First, then, we are to inquire into the portion of his inheritance and the nature of the reward which the of his cup." When all the scenes Apostle speaks of, and to shew that of this short-lived world should for it is infinitely desirable. He had ever have closed, this reward would opened the chapter with an allu- still retain its infinite value: it was sion to Abraham, the father of the inseparably connected with faithful, who “ believed God, and inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, it was counted to him for righteous- and that fadeth not away :" it was ness." To Abraham God had given the true happiness and perfection the promise: “I will make of thee of human nature; the restoration a great nation; and I will bless thee to all, and more than all, that had and make thy name great, and thou been lost by the Fall of our first shalt be a blessing.' There was parents; a reward so exceedingly also a spiritual promise made to great, that eye hath not seen, nor him : “ În thee shall all the fami- ear heard, nor can the heart of man lies of the earth be blessed ;" that conceive its magnitude. It includis, through Christ Jesus, who was ed every other benefit. Pardon of to spring from Abraham, as St. sin, peace with God, victory over Paul plainly shews, where he says, temptation, sanctification by the “ The Scripture, foreseeing that God Holy Spirit, with all necessary supwould justify the heathen through plies both for the soul and the body faith, preached before the Gospel in this world, and in the world to unto Abraham, saying, In thee come life everlasting, were so many shall all nations be blessed. So streams from this inexhaustible founthen they which be of faith are tain of blessings. In bestowing Himblessed with faithful Abraham.” He self as the exceeding great rewas promised a country ; and that ward of his faithful servant, the not merely a temporal possession, Creator bestowed all subordinate but, as the same Apostle shews, benefits. The man who chooses “ a heavenly one ;" for “ he looked God for his portion, secures whatfor a city which hath foundations, ever is really good or desirable. Is whose builder and maker is God.” he cast down ? his Almighty ProHis promised reward is summed up tector is able and willing to support in one short declaration : “ Fear him. Is he in danger? God is his not, Abram ; I am thy shield, and shield. Is he guilty? There is no thy exceeding great reward.” AH condemnation to them that are in possessions short of this were frail Christ Jesus. Is he unable in his and perishable; though he was own strength to withstand the force rich, and powerful, and had the of temptation ? The Holy Spirit is promise of a numerous posterity, promised to them that ask him, to with every other temporal hope and strengthen them with all might in
the inner man. Is he in a world of of the Divine nature would secure change and uncertainty? His God to perfect obedience the reward of and Saviour are the same yester- righteousness.
Pardon would not day, to-day, and for ever :" be necessary, for there would be promise made to him shall fail : his no danger of punishment; mercy expectation shall not be cut off; for would not be required, for justice He who is bis eternal portion and alone would secure the promised reward, will do for him “ exceed- reward. This is the case of the ingly abundantly above all that he man who worketh; that is, of him asks or thinks ;” having given his who should unerringly fulfil the conown Son for him, He will with Him ditions of the law under which he is also freely give him all things. placed, whatever be their nature.
And are not benefits like these With this the Apostle next coninfinitely desirable ? Is not such a trasts the reward of grace. He reward above all estimation ? Let considers the case of one who, us then, secondly, consider the two whether from imperfection or wilways mentioned by the Apostle of ful transgression, breaks the law of gaining it—the way of debt, and the his Creator ; of one who “ worketh way of grace ; for “ to him that not;" that is, who worketh not as worketh is the reward, not reckon- the conditions of the covenant ed of grace but of debt; but to him require ; who mistakes, or fails, or that worketh not, but believeth on flagrantly trespasses, and thus places him that justifieth the ungodly, his himself out of all right to demand faith is counted for righteousness." the fulfilment of the promise which
First, we have here the way of rested upon his obedience, and who debt. A servant, who has perfectly further has exposed himself to all fulfilled his duties to his master, has the threatenings of the violated a full right to his promised wages. agreement. Claim to reward he The man who puts his name to a now has none; nor has he even any covenant, and keeps to the condi- right to hope that he shall escape tions of the agreement, is entitled the penal consequences of his transto demand his share of the benefits gression. If either punishment is of the contract. The reward in to be remitted, or reward bestowed, these cases is not of favour but of it must be solely in virtue of some right. Now the Apostle supposes new allotment; and that not an the case of a human being who allotment of mere justice, but of should thus perfectly fulfil his obli- mercy: it must be a grant of bounty gations to God, and he shews that from the offended to the offending he would stand justified ; justified party; it must be of grace, and not by the terms of the covenant into of debt ; it must include pardon which bis Creator had been pleased and reconciliation for the past; and to enter with him. God was not whatever hope or reward it may indeed obliged to enter into such a hold vut for the future, must be covenant: it was of free favour alone founded on a new basis. The of. that he created our first parents, fender is “ ungodly;" he “worketh that he endued them with happi- not " as the law demands; he is ness, and secured it to them on the therefore under the curse of that condition of their obedience. But law; and he has no refuge but in though it was his own infinite be- the unmerited 'mercy of the Lawnevolence alone that caused him to giver whom he has despised. This enter into an agreement with his mercy may be exercised in any way creatures for their advantage, yet which its Author may appoint; and the covenant being once fixed, the the way in which God has been promise would become a matter of pleased to exercise it, the Apostle justice on their fulfilment of the teaches us in the text : it is, “ to conditions. The equity and purity him that belicveth on Him that jus, tifieth the ungodly;" for though works, otherwise grace is no more ungodly, yet by the merciful ap- grace ; but if of works, then it is pointment of the Supreme Law- no more of grace, otherwise work giver, his « faith is counted to him is not work.” for righteousness." He is not in- The reward then being of inesdeed personally entitled to the re- timable value, and there being but ward of righteousness; he has not two methods possible for its atworked out his salvation according tainment, it is of infinite moment, to the stipulations of the broken in the third place, that we should law: but a new covenant has been examine, in which of these ways it propounded to him ; a covenant of is necessary that we ourselves should grace and mercy; a covenant found. seek it. And can we feel any doubt ed on the all-sufficient death and upon the subject? Can frail, and merits of the incarnate Son of God; imperfect, and sinful, and guilty and the way in which its blessings creatures hesitate one moment in are made over to him is solely deciding in which alone of these through faith. Though his past ways they can approach their Crelife may have been most unrighte- ator? Shall any human being since ous, yet when he repents of his the Fall of Adam, claim pardon, sins, and humbly turns to God, he justification, salvation, and eternal is “accounted righteous before God, life, as of debt? Let conscience, for the merit of our Lord and Sa enlightened by the word of God, viour Jesus Christ, by faith," which answer the question. In what way he could not be “ for his own works does the Apostle, in the very chapor deservings.” Such is the lan- ter that precedes that from which guage of our church, in the Eleventh the text is taken, speak of the Article; and it is grounded on the whole human race? Does he not frequent declarations of Scripture. tell us, that “ All have sinned and Thus says the Apostle Paul, “ We come short of the glory of God;" are justified freely by God's grace, that, as it is written, both in the through the redemption which is in Old Testament and in the New, Christ, whom God hath set forth to “ There is none righteous, no not be a propitiation through faith in one;" that “ there is none that unhis blood.” He justifies the un- derstandeth, that seeketh afterGod;" godly; he weighs not his merits, that " they are all gone out of the but pardons his offences; he blots way, they are together become unout his sins in virtue of the atoning profitable,” and “ there is no fear blood of the Saviour, and he makes of God before their eyes ?” And him heir to an eternal inheritance can creatures thus justly exposed of glory, purchased by the same all- to God's wrath and condemnation, perfect sacrifice.
ask for the reward of obedience? These, then, are the two methods Which of our works, or words, or which the Apostle mentions for ob- thoughts, shall we dare to present taining the reward of God's favour before God as perfect and meritoand eternal life ;-the way of debt, rious in all its motives and conse. and the way of grace; unerring quences. The way of debt is thereobedience, or mere mercy; the fore wholly inapplicable to our case. meritorious claim of spotless sanc- The Apostle, in fact, mentions it tity, or the free offer of unmerited only as a supposition : if indeed pardon; the all-perfect righteous- such a man as he describes in the ness of man, or the sovereign plea first clause of the text, could be sure and love of God. The Scrip- found, then the reward would be tures point out no third way; the his due; but who is the man that Apostle strongly rejects such a sup- shall dare to inscribe his own name position: for " if,” says he, “it is under the passage?“ Who hath by grace, then it is no more of given to God?" If there be found