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a direct reference to Christ, so ment of one day of rest in seven, must should also the day on which that appear peculiarly seasonable and salutary. worship is publicly performed.—The If we do not regard the bulk of mankind Evidence for the Change of the

as mere drudges, whose destiny it is to Sabbath: (1.). The practice of the classes draw from their labours, the

toil in hopeless poverty, while the higher Apostles and first Christians. (2.) means of ease and luxury—if we admit The declaration of the Apostle that all men have a right to personal enJohn in the isle of Patmos. (3.) joyment, and have certain duties to perThe testimony of ancient uninspired form, as rational and accountable bewriters.—Mr. Glen also devotes a ings-it must be allowed, that it is of the chapter to the manner in which the highest importance to their intellectual Christian Sabbath should be obsery- improvement and happiness, that there ed, and another to the advantages rest, devoted to the cultivation of moral

should be regular and fixed intervals of which result from keeping it holy.

and religious truth. This is one end of We now turn to Mr. Macbeth, the institution of the Sabbath.” Macwhose plan is in a great measure beth, pp. 13, 14. similar to Mr. Glen's; some sections But this is comparatively a very of the two treatises being almost confined and inferior end of the identical in their ground-work, and most ancient and venerable institusometimes in their language. Each tion known to human society. As writer, however, has distinctive the means of uniting us in fellowmatter of his own, and even on ship with God, and of recalling to their common topics there is often our minds his creating power and considerable variety of illustration. redeeming love; as the symbol of As we have given Mr. Glen's table that blessedness which awaits the of contents, it will perhaps best faithful, in the land of uninterrupted answer the purpose of justice to purity and rest; there is no apboth authors, and also vary the pointment of Providence, and no : subject to our readers, to glance ordinance of religion, which points over a few particulars in the body more directly to the present dignity of Mr. Macbeth's work. In his of man, and his future destination preface he states, that

to glory. With these views of the “ The subject is one respecting which importance of the Sabbath, Mr. mankind are very much divided in opi- Macbeth proceeds to trace its origin nion; and he is not without hope that the and antiquity to the creation. The present work may prove useful, by call- tradition concerning the space of ing the attention of the reader to a view time employed in the creation of of it, which has not been very generally the world, and the ordinance of contemplated. He is sensible, that there God respecting the sanctification of is much omitted, which might, in the the seventh day, published immeopinion of others, have been introduced; diately after that event, can alone and the discussion of some controverted points may not be so full as a polemical satisfactorily account for the antiwriter would exhibit or expect. But it quity and universality of the cushas been the author's study, to reject all tom of computing time by weeks extraneous matter, to avoid all unneces- consisting of seven days. We besary controversy,--and to state and illus- lieve with both our authors, and trate arguments, which might contribute with all the best writers on the to advance the knowledge and piety of subject, notwithstanding the objecthe reader, rather than display his own acuteness or dexterity.” Macbeth, pp. have as full evidence as the nature

tions of Paley and others, that we

of the case will admit, that the In a short introduction, the tem- practice of computing time by week poral value and expediency of the prevailed among the Patriarchs ; and Sabbath are thus adverted to :- that there can be no reasonable

** In the 'view only of affording relief doubt, that it was a practice coeval to our/ toilsome condition, the appoints with the history of man, and ob

v, vi.

served by him in honour of the This reasoning is undoubtedly creation. Our readers' may refer, just. Revelation became necessary, for a brief but satisfactory view of because our reason could not disthis part of the argument, to Mr. cover the knowledge of those truths Scott's paper above mentioned. in which our present and future

A distinction has been very gene- happiness is involved. As it is given rally adopted, respecting the nature to assist us, where reason entirely of some of the Divine command- fails, or can only conjecture, its ments, which Mr. Macbeth thinks dietates demand implicit submission. has had a very extensive and perni- Even as regards many points of mo. cious influence in relaxing the obli- rals which to us appear among the gations to obey that one in which most obvious, such is the variety of the duties of the Sabbath are en- opinions among men that a positive joined. He alludes to the common ordinance, or appointment of Heaclassification of human duties into ven, could alone give efficacy to the moral and positive ; that is, duties natural distinctions of virtue and founded on the fitness of things, and vice, and establish their obligation duties which became such merely and observance on broad and inby their being prescribed. He con disputable grounds. Mr. Macbeth siders that too much stress has been goes on justly to observe: laid upon

this distinction ; and that “ The will of God, revealed as the rule it is not, to the extent which has of our faith and practice, can alone give a been alleged, founded on the nature

beneficial direction to the fears and the and philosophical relations of the hopes of the human mind, and bind us to human mind.

the performance of the great duties of ho

liness and justice, benevolence and inte“ Notwithstanding all that has been

grity, and restrain us from their violation, said and written about the eternal fitness

by the consideration of a future and eternal of things, sympathy, a moral sense, and retribution. In this sense, then, all the public utility, as tests of virtue, we cannot

moral duties of religion are positive: that give up the conviction, that the safest the is, their obligations rest upon an express broadest, and the most universal standard

statute of Heaven.” Macbeth, pp. 51, 52. of duty, is the will of God." Macbeth,p.39.

• The dedication of one day in seven, “ We do not believe that the human

to the public worship of God to the commind is, of itself, capable of discovering memoration of his creating power and wisand feeling all the obligations of moral dom, and redeeming goodness and love,duty; that is, we do not believe that the is not an act which reason, of itself, could bare perception of what is good in any have discovered to be obligatory on man; action, constitutes in the estimation of but, when it is revealed to him as a Divine man, the obligation to its performance; ordinance, its wisdom and utility at once or, that the perception of what is bad recommend it, and we are constrained to constitutes the obligation to avoid or resist acknowledge, that it ranks among the it.” Ibid. p. 48.

highest duties imposed upon us. If what “ The doctrine of the eternal fitness of

we have already stated, however, be corthings, as it is generally understood, and rect, the very same character belongs to of the immutable distinctions of right and all the other commandinents of the Decawrong, discovered and established by hu- logue ; and thus the distinction which has man reason, as a rule of duty, is caleulated been made between the Fourth and the at once, we think, to exalt natural religion other nine, is founded on error, calculated above revealed, and to render man inde- to mislead men in their notions of moral pendent of the knowledge of the will of obligation, and productive of very baneful God. We believe, then, that although consequences to the general interests of we admit, and this we most readily do, religion.” Macbeth, pp. 55, 56. that there is an eternal fitness of things,

We must pass over the fifth and and an essential and incommutable dis. tinction between right and wrong, man

three following sections, in which kind are not, in all situations, or in all Mr. Macbeth proves the moral oblicases, able to perceive them, or to feel the gation of the Sabbath from the priobligations to their observance." Ibid. mary end of its institution, reviews tiquity and moral obligation of the from the seventh to the first day of institution, shews from the Old the week. We detach the following Testament that the observance of remarks :the Sabbath had a moral and not

the objections urged against the an

pp. 19, 50.

“ Without dwelling long on the early a ceremonial obligation, and points period of the institution, 1 have simply to out this moral obligation also under observe, that, from the scanty historical the Christian dispensation. The fol- details which we have of the first ages of lowing is a portion of the argu

the world, it is by no means certain, whement in the last of these sections:

ther or not the Jewish Sabbath was the

seventh day, in regular succession, from "Do we then make void the law through the creation of the world : and therefore, faith? God forbid! Yea, we establish the it is impossible to determine, whether it law ; for Christ is the end of the law, for

was the precise day which God blessed righteousness to ever, one that believeth.'

and sanctified, when he rested from his Here again we must recur to a remark which

works. Now, it must be obvious to every we formerly made, and which, it is of im

person of ordinary understanding, that this portance for us to bear in mind; namely,

point must be clearly established, before that every example of duty, and every any opinion respecting the immutability of form of public or private devotion, which the day can be allowed to possess any are recorded in the life of our Saviour, are

weight or influence over the judgment or equally binding on us, as if they were en- conscience of man. But this point it is joined by a particular precept, and en- impossible to establish on satisfactory or forced by the most solemn sanctions.

indisputable grounds, and, consequently, The authority of Jesus Christ, as a moral the objections of those, who, on this acLegislator,was supreme...... ; all the moral

count, deny the obligations of the Chrisvirtues which he taught and practised; all tian Sabbath, lose all their validity and the religious solemnities which he ob

force of application." Macbeth, pp. 133, served, and all the public appointments 134. and usages which he sanctioned, either by precept or by practice, are alike obliga

The uniformity of practice which tory on us, and on all men, as if they had existed between St. Paul, St. Peter, been announced to us, and impressed and the other primitive disciples, upon us, by the most express and autho. is strongly in proof both of the ritative accompaniments of the power and Divine obligation and the change majesty of God...... The example of our of day. Mr. Macbeth remarks on Lord's Apostles, on this and all similar

this subject, after Dr. Dwight,points of public duty, carries with it, also,

“ Whence did these persons, thus sethe recommendation and sanction of a

parated, derive this agreement in their obgeneral precept. Admitting then, all that

servance of the first day of the week? The our opponents contend for—that there is only answer that can be given to this no express written law in the New Testament for the observance of the Sabbath- guided them. Had they been uninspired,

question is, From the inspiration which we maintain, that we have what is equivalent to it; a confirmation of the original

their agreement, in a case of this nature,

where they acted independently of each statute which enjoins it, by the uniform

other, would have proved, that they deexample of our Lord and his Apostles.

rived the doctrine, and the practice That example was followed by the first grounded on it, from a common source. converts to Christianity, and by all who

Their character, as inspired men and aposubsequently embraced it; and no doctrine of the New Testament has been more

stles, proves, beyond doubt, that the com

mon source from which they thus harmouniversally believed, none held to be more efficacious, for the growth of holiness, and niously derived a religious institution, was the diffusion of the virtues of the Gospel,

God." Macbeth, pp. 156, 157. than the punctual observance of that Com- The tenth section treats of the mandment which enjoins us to remember manner in wbich the Sabbath is the Sabbath-day, to keep it holy.' ” Mac- to be sanctified. Mr. Glen, as our beth, pp. 125-127.

readers have seen, has a section on Mr. Macbeth urges very success. the same subject. Hitherto both fully, in the ninth section, the usual treatises have been chiefly argumenarguments to account for, and to tative : in what remains they are vindicate, the change of the Sabbath, hortatory and practical. Both au

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thors earnestly address themselves of God preached,--the domestic duto the hearts and consciences of ties of watchful inspection of the their readers, and make a close ap- conduct of our families, the inplication of the principles of the struction of our children and serGospel to their different characters. vants, and the worship of God in Each has also a concluding chapter the family,--and the private duties on the advantages attending the of devout meditation, self-examinasanctification of the Sabbath. tion, reading the Scriptures and de

“ We believe,” says Mr. Macbeth on vout books, and prayer; also, in this subject, “ that none but such as have general, works of piety, necessity, become dead to all sentiments of virtue and mercy. He then sums up the and piety, by the debasing influence of in- benefits, such as the refreshment of fidel principles, or profligate habits, will the body, the prevention of irreligion deny, that the observance of the Sabbath and infidelity, the promotion of our - that the dedication of one day in seven, to a respite from secular labour, and to the progress in holiness, the enjoyment attainment of religious instruction-the of the Divine favour, and the inenlargement of moral enjoyment, and the crease of our consolations in the contemplation of the great and momentous pilgrimage of life. On this last topic concerns that belong to our everlasting he remarks: peace, is calculated in the very highest

In the present world, the Christian is degree, to promote the spiritual and tem

exposed to various trials, which are apt to poral happiness of all ranks and profes- press upon his spirits, and to unnerve his sions of men.” Macbeth, pp. 227, 228. exertions. From the power of remaining

“ It is in the sanctuary of God's house corruption within him,--for it is never alone that we behold this pleasing spec- wholly subdued while he continues on tacle of a mingled multitude, composed of earth, he is sometimes ready to exclaim the high and the low, the rich and the with the Apostle, Owretched man that poor, assembled on the first day of the I am, who shall deliver me from the body week, having their hearts warmed by the of this death ?' And, from the temptasame gratitude, animated by the same

tions and distresses which assail him from hopes, and united in the same bonds of without, arising from the relations and cirbenevolence and peace. It is there only cumstances in which he is placed, he may that they appear possessed of the same be led, at an unguarded moment, to sin substantial and glorious privileges, in vir- against God, by yielding to the one, or retue of which they can draw near to the pining at the other. Throne of Grace with confidence, as chil.

“ Now, in these cases, religion alone dren to a Father, who is able and willing can administer relief, by reminding us that to help them in every time of need." "the Lord will never cut off his people, Macbeth, p. 239.

nor forsake his inheritance;' that he will We have taken the above pas- strengthen them, yea, will help them, sages from Mr. Macbeth's work, for yea, will uphold them with the right hand the sake of unity of plan in our se- of his righteousness;' that he who hath ries of extracts; but it would be begun a good work in them will perform unjust to Mr. Glen not to allow him it until the day of Jesus Christ.'' But it also to address our readers in bis is especially on the season which he has own words. We shall, therefore, the springs of consolation are opened, and

consecrated for his immediate service, that extract his concluding remarks on the Divine promises exhibited, explained, the advantages of keeping holy the and applied. Yes, by the devotional exSabbath-day. He had premised ercises in which we then engage, our hopes that the evils to be abstained from are brightened, our confidence increased, on that day are, every thing sinful, and our souls replenished and refreshed. all worldly business, all worldly

The views set before us of the heavenly pleasures, all worldly thoughts ; and Canaan, our meditations on the glory to that the duties to be practised are,

be revealed, and the intercourse we hold

with the Father of our spirits, combine to a devout and joyful attendance on

cheer and support us amid the trials of our the public service of God, includ- pilgrimage, and stimulate us with renoing prayer, praise, partaking of the vated real and vigour to perform the duties, Lord's supper, and hearing the word and to prosecute the journey, of life.

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“ Again, the sanctification of the Sab- deemed sacred among the ancient bath prepares us for looking with comfort heathen, with the same quotations on the approach of death. For if we keep

in proof of the point from Linus, that day as we ought, we are not only re

Hesiod, Homer, and Callimachus. galed with the assurance, that beyond the

The coincidence was unavoidable; confines of time, there remaineth a rest

for the old authorities were necessary for the people of God;' but are convinced that, having laid hold on the hope set

to be produced, and new ones were before us, and withdrawn our affections neither to be expected, nor even from earthly objects, for us to be absent wished for. We impute no unjusfrom the body is to be present with the tifiable plagiarism to authors who Lord.' And with this conviction, we can have to write on exhausted topics, contemplate, without regret, our depar- that they are obliged to use in comture from a world whịch faith has enabled us to overcome, and from which our hearts laborious hands of their predeces

mon the materials laid up by the have been already abstracted.” Glen, pp. 235-237.

sors. The new book may circulate

where the old is unknown or negBoth our authors have an appen, lected: it may also be free from dix of notes, some of which are re- its defects; it may likewise combine, markably coincident ; for instance, in a compendious form, the different note B. in each volume, is de- excellencies of several distinct treavoted to a critique on the phrase tises, and add something at least of “ God blessed the seventh day, and its own to the common stock. In hallowed it,” with an examination this view we are thankful to both of Dr. Kennicott's translation of our authors for their labours; and that passage, taken from his disser- we trust each of their volumes will tations on the oblations of Cain and prove, by the blessing of God, useAbel. So again in note A. of Mr. ful for checking the deplorable evil Macbeth, and note D. of Mr. Glen, which they so strenuously and Christhere is the same line of argument, tianly deplore. to shew that the seventh day was

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LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE

&c. &c.

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GREAT BRITAIN.

A. Chalmers ;-Olympia and the Ruins of PREPARING for publication:-Aids to Re- Elis; byJ. S. Stanhope ;–An Anglo-Saxon flection; or, Aphorisms extracted from Grammar; by the Rev. J. Bosworth ;The the Works of Archbishop Leighton; by Economy of the Eyes; by Dr. Kitchener; S. 1. Coleridge ;-Ezekiel's Temple, with The Influence of the Holy Spirit, traced a ground plan and bird's-eye view; by through successive Periods of tlse Church S. Bennett :-A complete History of Lon- of God, from the Formation of Man to don, from Public Documents; by J. Bay- the Consummation of all Things'; by the ley :-Original Letters illustrative of Eng- Rev. T. T. Biddulph, M. A. Douglas, i lish History, from the autographs; by Dr. on the Miracles ; abridged and revised by Ellis ;The Library Companion ; by the the Rev. W. Marsh, of Colchester ;- The Rey. T. F. Dibdin

:---The complete Works Cross and the Crescent; an Heroic Me. of the Rev. P. Skelton, with his Life; trical Romance; by the Rev. J. Beresford, edited by the Rev. R. Lynam ;-The Re- M.A. ;-Edinburgh Sacred Classics; to mains of Hearne; by P. Bliss. Dar consist of a Series of the most interesting 3

In the press --Tour through Franee, Religious Works in the English Language, Holland, &e., with eight Original Letters -Gesta Romanorum; or, Moral Stories, of Bonaparte ; by C. Tennant:Voyageinvented by Ibe Monks; translatedikonte to Brazil, and Residence theres by Mose the Latin, and Austrated with Notes by Graham - Memous of the Founders and the Reva. Sran, with the preliminary Benefactors of Oxford and Cambridge ; by Observations of Warton and Douce ; CHRIST, OBSERV. No. 267.

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