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CHAPTER XIV.

Debts due for the sale of lands. Western banks. Charges against

the secretary of the treasury. Report of a committee thereon.
Piracies in the West Indies; their principal haunts. Armament
for their suppression under Commodore Porter. Key West; its
situation. Foxardo affair. Charges against Commodore Porter ;

CHAPTER XIX.

State of parties consequent on Mr. Adams' election. First session

of the 19th congress. Propositions to amend the constitution.

Report on discriminating tonnage duties. Of engineers on in-
ternal improvements. Panama mission. Mr. Benton's report
on executive patronage. Debate respecting compensation for
slaves killed at New Orleans.

Page 362

HISTORICAL SKETCHES, &c

CHAPTER I.

Peace Establishment Objects for which à military force is maintained in

time of peace-Meeting of a board of general officers at Washington, for reducing the army--Their instructions and report-A proposed meeting of disbanded officers at Harrisburgh-Its objects-Division of the United States into military districts--War with Algiers-Its causes- Treatment of the American Consul by the Dey-Capture of several vessels; and slavery of their crews--Sailing of Decatur's squadron-Capture of an Algerine frigate and brig-Decatur appears before Algiers-Negotiation and treaty with the Dey-Decatur's visit to Tunis and 'Fripoli-Obtains satisfaction from those regencies for injuries to American commerce during the war with England-Arrival of Commodore Bainbridge with the second division of the fleet-Return of the expedition--Its beneficial results-Loss of the Epervier-British war with Algiers-Lord Exmouth's expeditionSuccess, and treaty-American negotiations with Great BritainBritish commissioners refuse to treat on the subject of neutral rightsDispute relating to the fisheries-British claims on the subject of the colonial trade-Propositions of the American commissioners rejected--The subject postponed Convention of 1815-Effects of this negotiation on American policy.

Peace establishment. The transition of any country from war to a state of peace, is attended with many embarrassing circumstances. Those of the peace of 1815 in the United States were of apeculiar character. In European monarchies, military officers are appendages of the crown. Having once obtained a commission, the holder is an incumbent for life. If in arranging a peace establishment, his active service is not required, he retires on half pay, bound to repair to the standard of his sovereign at any future call. The armies and navies kept up in time of peace are so numerous, that their reduction to what is denominated a peace establishment at the close of a war, is attended with no serious difficulties. Not so in the United States. The genius of their government is essentially pacific. No useless corps of pensioned officers is to be retained. At the close of the war, they, with their soldiers, are to be discharged, and must resume the character of citizens, except only such numbers as a prudent re

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