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thereby in appearance at least, sanctioning the new principle of executive patronage.

The case of Major Barney, naval officer of the port of Baltimore, excited much interest. He was the son of Commodore Barney, and fought by the side of his father at the battle of Bladensburgh, in August, 1814, in defense of the city of Washington; and distinguished himself in the de. fense of Baltimore, in the succeeding September. He had enjoyed the office for a considerable period, faithfully performed its duties, and was entirely dependent on its emoluments for the support of a numerous family. His removal was for no other apparent cause, bnt to make room for Mr. Carr, editor of the Baltimore Republican, a partizan news. paper in the late canyass. It drew from the pen of Mrs. Barney, a daughter of the late judge Chase, a severe and animated address to the president, which did honor to the talents of her sex, and interested them in behalf of the proscribed officers. Mr. Carr's nomination passed the senate by a majority of one vote.

| Retrenchment. Much was expected from the committee : on retrenchment, appointed at the commencement of the

session. The public had been made to believe that there were many sinecure offices created or continued by the late administration that ought to be abolished. The committee on this subject, in the latter days of Mr. Adams, reported that there were many offices of this description, but were not able to point them out for want of the co-operation of the cabinet, and expressed a' full belief that when they could avail themselves of such co-operation, much might be done to reduce the government expenditures. The present com. mittee, consisting of some of the same members, and with the same views, entered on the subject in earnest, depend. ing on the zealous co-operation of a reforming administration. Unfortunately for the issue of their researches, they found no salaries in the numerous offices attached to the executive departments, to be reduced or dispensed with. Within the halls of congress they found nothing subject to their pruning knife, except a draughtsman, who had been employed by the speaker, in consequence of a resolution of the house several years ago, directing him to procure maps and charts for the use of congress. His services, they thought might be dispensed with, and reported a discontinuance of the office. This occasioned a debate, at intervals, of several weeks; at length it was discovered that such drafts were necessary, and that this was the most economical mode of procuring them, and the office was continued. Nice calculators estimate the expenses of this debate equal to a ten years salary of the officer. The abortive labors of a reforming administration and two committees of retrenchment, satisfied the people that whoever might govern, they must pay : that a new set of hungry officers were at least as avaricious as the old; and that when the watchwords ECONOMY and RÉFORM had done their office in deceiving the people they would go into disuse.

Veto. A bill having passed both houses, authorizing a subscription to the stock of the Maysville turnpike road, in Kentucky, on being presented to the president for his signature, was returned with a document of great length assigning his reasons for not approving it. After stating the great importance of internal improvements, and the president's zeal to promote the object, the document concludes with the opinion that no money is to be drawn from the treasury for that purpose until the public debt is wholly extinguished; and not then without an amendment of the constitution, authorizing the collection of a surplus revenue, and a distribution of it among the states in proportion to their representation in congress. Two other bills of the same nature were returned without his signature, referring to this document for the reasons. The veto, as it was termed, occasioned a stormy debate in the house of representatives, at the close of the session, which terminated in a rejection of the bill for the want of a constitutional majority. The principle relating to internal improvements was fully discussed, and was supposed to be settled in the congress of 1823-4, by the passage of an act making a liberal provision for surveys. Since that time, several important works have received aid from the public treasury, which must have failed without it. Several are in an unfinished state, commenced under a well grounded expectation of receiving assistance from the government, which must be abandoned if denied the expected aid. The principles adopted by the president on the Maysville road bill are at variance with the

act of April, 1824, with General Jackson's own votes on the subject in the senate, and with the opinions of every branch of the government since. They go as well against the improvement of harbors and river navigation, as against roads and canals. The whole system to which the friends of internal improvement have looked for the rapid increase of the wealth and population of the country, and the multiplication of its conveniences and resources, is prostrated. The veto is so considered by the opponents of the system, and hailed as one of the most important measures of the administration, and as they term it, capping the climax of the whole.

Its effects on the west. No measure more hostile to the interests of the west could be devised. One of the principal difficulties incident to a new country, is the want of convenient channels of communication. These, on an extensive scale, require the aid of the general government. Indivi. dual enterprise or state funds cannot be expected to accomplish them. It is the only mode in which the west can be benefited by the expenditure of the public moneys. Hitherto the great mass of the public treasure has been expended in the Atlantic states, and for objects more immediately beneficial to them. On the plan of internal improvements, the west were beginning to be benefited, and probably in the end would receive their full share. The principles advanced in the Maysville document, carried to their extent, are calculated to retard improvements in the west, half a century:

The notion that the moneys of the United States, destined to objects of internal improvements, are to be distributed to the several states in the ratio of representation, to be expended under the authority of their legislatures, and within their respective limits, is so inconsistent with any rational scheme, that it has been considered rather as a finesse to get rid of the whole subject. Two considerations are sufficient to show the futility of the project. A channel of communication, whether by land or water, to be of any public convenience must be continuous, and in most cases pass through more than one state. It is not to be expected that several states, having different views and interests, will unite in the same operation. The other is, that the states need. ing the most, will probably draw the least money. Indiana and Illinois, for instance, requiring heavy expenditures to connect the navigation of the lakes with the Mississippi, will draw but a small portion of the funds.

The veto, in unision with the opening message, recommends an appeal to to the people for an amendment of the constitution, authorizing internal improvements, and defining and restricting the manner in which the power should be exercised. The slightest observation of the difficulties attending propositions to amend the constitution in times past, is sufficient to show that to be a hop ess project, and the subject may as well be entirely abandoned, as placed upon the event of such a contingency. Two important bills; one making an appropriation for light-houses, and the ima provement of harbors and river navigation, the other authorizing a subscription in aid of the canal around the falls of the Ohio, were retained by the president until after the adjournment of congress, and thereby prevented from becoming laws; and another sent back approved by the president, accompanied with a message explanatory of its meaning.

After an interesting session of six months, con Ess rose on the 31st of May. Few acts of public importance were passed. The most material were, the act relating to the Indians ; Mr. Mallary's bill for the more effectual collection of the revenues ; several acts reducing the duties on tea, coffee, cocoa, salt, and molasses. The session was interesting, not for the number or importance of the laws enacted, but for the discussions which took place, and the principles of the administration which were developed.

Duel. A duel having taken place in the course of the winter, between Hunter, a midshipman, and Mr. Miller, a citizen of Philadelphia, in which the latter was slain, and the fact being made known to the navy department, the president, with great promptness, and much to the satisfaction of the public, ordered Hunter, and three other officers concerned with him in the transaction, to be immediately discharged from the service.

New principles of American policy. In a government constituted like that of the United States, party distinctions must always be expected. The holders of offices cannot retain them for any long period, against the numerous aspirants, unless they can induce a belief that they are exclusively the friends of the people, and are pursuing a course of measures for their good, which their opponents are endeavoring to counteract; while they, on the other hand, with equally patriotic and disinterested views, are laboring to establish a different opinion. The contest between Adams and Jackson, and their friends, at first merely personal, has latterly assumed something of a distinctive political character. The administration, claiming to be exclusively the advocates of state rights, maintaining that the general government, in the exercise of its powers, is to be confined within the strict letter of the constitution ;* that the state legislatures have right to judge when congress exceed their powers, and judging that they do in a given instance, to prevent the execution of such law within their limits.t

Message. | Haynes' speech.

That congress have no power to raise or disburse money for the object of internal improvements,* and no power to lay duties for the purpose of protecting domestic industry : ř

That the general government have no power to protect the Indians in the enjoyment of the rights secured to them by treaty, against the encroachment of the state authorities.

It is not intended that every individual of the administration, or of the public who support it, maintain all these principles, but they are the general leading characteristics of the party.

Jefferson dinner. Names are of great value in support of doubtful or disputed principles, often perhaps of more real efficacy than argument. That of Thomas Jefferson has been resorted to on the present occasion. By a recurrence to his family records, it was found that the birthday of that deceased patriot, happened on the 13th of April, 1743. Eighty-seven years afterwards, on the recurrence of the same day in 1830, a splendid fete was held at the city of Washington, at which the president, heads of departments, members of congress, and numerous other gentlemen of character and talents, supporters of the administration, attended. The foregoing principles and sentiments were advanced and advocated in the toasts and speeches on this occasion, and the authority of the man, whose birthday they celebrated, brought to their support. The Pennsylvania delegation, the warm advocates of General Jackson, and supporters of the measures of his administration, to the extent which their principles would admit, learning that sentiments were to be advanced contrary to their views of na. tional policy, on the subject of internal improvements, and the protecting system, absented themselves.

The former system. The other party, to which the title of national republican is sometimes, though not permanently attached, maintain,

That congress, the executive, and judiciary, in the exercise of their respective functions, must necessarily judge of the extent of their own powers, subject only to the control of the people in the exercise of their elective privilege, precisely on the same principles that a private agent must judge of the extent of his authority, subject to the control of his constituents :

* President's veto. | Toasts of 13th April. Reports of committees on Indian affairs.

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