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the court was delayed several days, for the want of a quorum, and the body was not full during the term.

This unusual course was attributed to a wish, on the part of those who were to come into office, to give the president elect an opportunity of selecting a judge, it might be to reward a partisan, and if, thereby, a vacancy, was made in some other department, to extend executive patronage. Subsequent events gave countenance to such suspicions.

An unsuccessful attempt was made in the house, to alter the judiciary law, so as to require a concurrence of five judges of the supreme court, to declare any state law or constitution void. A like result attended a resolution introduced by Mr. Smyth, of Virginia, to amend the constitution, so as to extend the term of the presidency to six years, and render the incumbent ineligible for a second term.

General Scott. The appointment of General Macomb, as successor to General Brown, to the command in chief of the army, occasioned a dispute of a serious nature, between the war department and General Scott. The latter was senior brigadier, by a regular appointment, and had been major general by brevet, since the year 1814. He claimed that his brevet commission, being an honor conferred upon him for signal services in that year, gave him a full title to the rank and command of a major general, from that period. That he was thereby senior to General Macomb, and the president and senate could not, by appointing the latter to the chief command, transfer the seniority. With these views of his rank, he refused to receive or execute any orders from General Macomb, and was in consequence suspended. He applied to the war department for a court inartial, to settle the question as to the effect of a brevet commission, and to congress, to explain it by a declaratory law. Both applications were unsuccessful, it being the opinion of the department, and of congress, that, be that question as it may, the president and senate had power to appoint a commander in chief, whose authority extended over the officers of every rank and grade in the army.

During the period of his suspension, General Scott, vi. sited Lafayette, in France, and submitted his case to that experienced officer, for advice. The latter, without deciding, precisely, the question of brevet rank, advised him to submit to the decision of the president, and resume his station in the army; which he accordingly did, to the satisfaction of his friends and the public.

The third of March, 1829, terminated the labors of the twentieth congress, and the administration of 1825.

Character of the administration. No administration, since the commencement of the government, has been so severely scrutinized as that of the second Adams. It commenced with an opposition, consisting of a majority of the people, and about an equal division of both houses of congress, which increased during the period, and effected a change at its close. That the nation has increased in its revenue, commerce, navigation, manufactures, population, and general wealth, cannot be doubted. This, however, is to be attributed rather to the natural course of events, than to any extraordinary merits of the administration. That they have done nothing materially to interrupt the progress of national prosperity, is what the candid of their opponents are willing to accede. That peace has been preserved, and a respectable station maintained with foreign powers, must be admitted. The latter being the effect of an able diplomatic representation, Mr. Adams is entitled to the credit, at least, of making a judicious selection. The tone and character of the government, has been well sustained, by a talented cabinet.

The subjects of discussion with foreign powers have been few, and have terminated unsuccessfully. This is to be imputed, not to the want of talent or zeal in the administration or its agents; but to the reluctance of those powers to accede to the demands of this. The claims for indemnities for spoliations have been prosecuted without success. With Great Britain, several important questions have been discussed, but without coming to any result satisfactory to the American government. The three principal points on which the governments are at issue, the colonial trade, the free navi. gation of the St. Lawrence, and the northeastern boundary, have been ably sustained, and terminated in these results : that a participation in the trade to the British West Indies is not to be obtained, but upon such terms as ought not to be accepted; that the free navigation of the St. Lawrence, for the citizens of the United States, bordering upon its upper waters, through the British territories to the ocean, is not to be expected, except by purchase or conquest. The extensive system of defense, recently commenced by Great Britain, in the Canadas, show that either conquest or purchase must be dear. The question of the northeastern boundary, embracing about one third of the territory of tho state of Maine, has been thoroughly examined, and is in a train of amicable adjustment before the king of the Netherlands, as an umpire.

During Mr. Adams' term, eighty-four millions of revenue were collected and disbursed, passing through the hands of several hundred agents, with less percentage loss than usually attends operations of a similar nature, by vigilant individuals, the estimate being less than one half of one per cent. This is highlycreditable to the great bodyof officers concerned in managing the national finances. At the same time the "searching operations” which immediately succeeded, discovered several frauds, and peculations on the treasury disgraceful to the perpetrators.

Few removals took place during his administration, none but for alledged official misconduct. Succeeding to the presidency without competition with the previous incumbent, no hostility existed between Mr. Adams, and the office holders under his predecessor; and of course no inducement to a system of proscription, and a prostitution of the power of appointment and removal, to the purpose of rewards and punishments. Not confined in his appointments exclusively to those who had been instrumental in his elevation, he had a greater range, and a better opportunity to make a judicious selection.

The administration were the decided friends and able advocates of a system of internal improvements unon a liberal scale. In their view, great national objects, as well as private and local advantages, were to be obtained by facilitating the intercourse between the distant parts of the union. They were likewise the firm supporters of the principle of protecting domestic industry, by the imposition of duties which should exclude foreign articles as fast as a home supply on fair terms, could be furnished. Believing these points to be essential to the prosperity of the nation, they labored with great assiduity and success in establishing them.

The events attending the political change of 1829, evince that when a prize of such magnitude as the presidency of the United States is set up, free to be contended for by all their citizens, the struggle will be arduous. All the human passions will be called into operation. The character of the means will not be regarded, so be it they conduce to th nd. In other nations, struggles for the supreme power have ever been attended with bloodshed. In this, the same passions operating, the virtue and intelligence of the people

with the most alarming examples in their own hemisphere before them, have hitherto stopped short of the last resort; whether with the increasing magnitude of the object this will continue to be the case is as yet problematical, and dependent upon the good sense, virtue, and moderation of the American people.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Commencement of the administration of 1829—Inaugural address Tenure

of office-Former practice in relation thereto-Meeting of the senate-Nominations-New principle relating to appointment and removal--Adjournment of senate--Removals and appointments in the recess--Meeting of the Virginia convention to revise their constitution--Their proceedings--The revised constitution adopied-First meeting of the 21st congress-Message ---Subjects recommended-Mr. Foots resolution relating to public lands. Debates on various subjects occasioned thereby-Latitude of debate-State of the public domain, and policy relating to it-Reporı of committees relating to the bank-Indian affairs-Debates thereon-Policy of the adininistration relating to them--Proceedings of Georgia-Mr. Mallary's bill_relating to the revenue--Mr. M'Duffie's amendment–Tariff discussion-Proceedings of the senate relating to appointments and removals-Subsidizing the press-Major Barney's case-Report of the retrenchment compiittteeMaysville act-Veto thereon-New principles relating to internal improvements--Rising of congress-President's proceedings in relatiou to a duel New organization of parties.

Inaugural address. On the 4th of March, 1829, General Jackson was inducted into office with the accustomed cere. monies, and in the presence of a numerous and brilliant as. sembly, delivered an inaugural address, explanatory of the principles on which the government would be conducted during his presidency. The paragraph which excited most interest on this occasion, was in the following terms: “The recent demonstrations of public opinion inscribes on the list of executive duties, in characters too legible to be overlooked, the task of REFORM, which will require particularly the correction of abuses that have brought the patronage of the federal government into conflict with the freedom of elections, and the counteraction of those causes which have disturbed the rightful course of appointment, and have placed or continued power in unfaithful or incompetent hands." This paragraph, somewhat enigmatical indeed, as applicable to removals and appointments, gave the public to expect that a reform would take place only where the in. cumbents were unfaithful or incompetent, and that in a manner that should not prejudice the elective franchise. little thought that the proper way to prevent the patronage of government from coming into conflict with the freedom of elections, was for the successful candidate to remove from office those who had voted for his rival, for the purpose

It was

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