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pression of the slave trade, by affording means of information, and furnishing convenient harbors and supplies for government ships employed on the coast of Africa; it would have a tendency to diffuse the blessings of civilization and christianity among the surrounding tribes with whom the colony might have intercourse, and probably open a new and profitable source of commerce.

Commencement of their operations. A scheme fraught with so much good did not fail to recommend itself to the charities of the American people. A forcible appeal to their benevolent feelings on this subject produced a considerable sum, by which the society was enabled to commence its operations. Serious difficulties, however, were to be encountered in the outset. The habitable part of the coast of western Africa, southerly of the dominions of the emperor of Morocco, the point to which the society directed their attention, was in the possession, with the exception of Sierra Leone, of several tribes who subsist principally by seizing their fellow-negroes of the interior, and selling them to slave-dealers. A more savage and ferocious set of beings in human form, cannot be found. Lands, for the purposes of settlement, were to be obtained from the head men of these tribes, who were in no wise disposed to favor a scheme calculated to break up their traffick. The slave-dealers industriously circulated among them prejudices designed to defeat the object. The territory sought was in the equatorial regions where the excessive heats were supposed to be fatal to natives of more northern climates. The free negroes, of whom the emigrants were to consist, have a characteristic apathy and aversion to enterprise, which was to be overcome. The few who were in easy circumstances, could hardly be expected to leave their comforts for the un. certainties incident to the emigration, and it was scarcely possible to infuse into the mass of the free negro population a principle of exertion adequate to the object.

Notwithstanding these obstacles, the society steadily prosecuted the plan. In November, 1817, they sent Messrs. Mills and Burgess on a mission of inquiry to Africa. They arrived at Sierra Leone in the March following, and after two months spent in a laborious survey of the coast, with a view to find a suitable place for the projected colony, they re-embarked for America. Mr. Mills died on his homeward passage.

Co-operation of the government. Several important considerations induced the government to aid the objects of

the society. The law of congress, which prohibited the importation of slaves after the year 1808, vested the power of disposing of such as should be brought in, in contravention of the act, in the state legislatures. The principles upon which the act of 1808 was founded, as well as the dictates of humanity, required a different disposition of these unfortunate beings. There was also another class of Africans, for whom it seemed incumbent on the government to provide. Laws had been passed at subsequent periods, prohibiting, under severe penalties, citizens of the United States from being any ways concerned in the purchasing or transportation of negroes from the coast of Africa to any foreign country; and authorizing the employment of a naval force to suppress the traffick. It became an object of importance with the government, to provide a place for the reception of such as might be rescued by virtue of these laws. To make any disposition of them, either as slaves or as free people, in the United States, was incompatible with true policy. With these views, the government, on a representation of the society's board of manag rs, determined to establish an agency on the coast of Africa, particularly charged with the care of re-captured negroes.

Accordingly the Elizabeth was chartered, and carried out one agent for the society, two for the government, and eighty people of color, to commence a settlement. The emigrants were to be employed for a time, at public expense, in making preparations for the reception of re-captured Africans. With much difficulty, they obtained liberty of the neighboring chiefs to form an establisement at Sherboro, a low and unhealthy island, in latitude seven degrees north, twenty-two miles long, and twelve broad, a little to the southward of Sierra Leone. Here, while they were attempting in vain to negotiate with the natives for more land, the three agents, and twenty of the colonists, died. The superintendence then devolved on Daniel Crocker, one of the most intelligent and respectable of the negro settlers. In the spring of 1821, two agents on the part of the society, and two on the part of the government, with twenty-eight laborers, were sent out, with instructions to seek, if necessary, the protection of the British settlement of Sierra Leone. It became necessary to abandon Sherboro, and to remove the remnant of the colony to the British settlement. The agents made another unsuccessful attempt to purchase lands of the natives, two of them died, and the others returned to America.

Settlement at Montserado. In the following December, Doctor Ayers, in behalf of the society, and Lieutenant Stockton, of the schooner Alligator, sailed for Cape Montserado, and with much difficulty succeeded in purchasing of the natives, for goods of the value of six hundred dollars, a tract of land forty miles square, at the mouth of the Montserado river, in six degrees north latitude, two hundred and fifty miles south of Sierra Leone. The tract has a good harbor, is high, fertile, and the healthiest in that region. The colonists were immediately transferred to the new establishment. On their arrival, they were informed by the chiefs of whom the land had been purchased, that the contract was annulled, and that they would not be permitted to settle. They however ventured to land and commence their operations; and while the colonists were building their houses, the agents succeeded in pacifying the natives, and inducing them to ratify the contract. In the August following, the settlement was reinforced by the arrival of the brig Strong from Baltimore, with Mr. Ashmun, society's agent, and thirty-five emigrants, and fifteen re-captured Africans.

Attacked by the natives. The natives in the neighborhood of Montserado had never been reconciled to the establishment of the colony. Instigated by the slave merchants, and indulging the hope of ridding themselves of strangers of of whom they were jealous, and pillaging their dwellings, a general combination was formed, consisting of all the tribes in the vicinity, aided by numerous warriors from the interior; and in the morning of the 11th of November, the colony, consisting only of twenty-eight effective men, was attacked by a body of eight hundred natives, who coming upon them by surprise, gained possession of the settlement; but af. ter one or two discharges from an eighteen pounder, they fled. On the 2d of December, another attack was made in two opposite quarters, by a body of fifteen hundred natives, who again dispersed at the firing of cannon. The bold and successful resistance of the few colonists, with their terrific field-piece, against such an overwhelming force, effectually discouraged the assailants from any further attempts; and with the aid of several British naval officers, peace was restored, the natives consenting to submit their complaints to the governor of Sierra Leone.

In May, 1823, the brig Oswego arrived from Boston, with sixty emigrants, making the whole number then at Montserado one hundred and ninety. Peace and a friendly intercourse were established with the natives, and the colony appeared under more favorable auspices. From the origin of the society, to the end of the year 1823, two hundred and twenty-five emigrants had been transported to the colony ; and of that number there were then living one hundred and forty.

Liberia. The name of Liberia was given to the territory, and the settlement at Montserado denominated Monrovia, in honor of

the president of the United States, under whose auspices it had been conducted. In May, 1824, the board of managers sent out another reinforcement of settlers, consisting of upwards of one hundred, in the ship Cyrus. After a seasoning sickness, which seldom proves fatal, the emigrant negro population were healthy. The board have adopted a system of civil government on republican princi. ples, and suited to the situation and wants of the colony. Monrovia has been made a missionary station, and schools have been provided for the instruction of the children of the establishment. A new settlement has been commenced at St. Paul's river, under favorable circumstances. One hun. dred and twenty sections of land have been surveyed, and allotted to as many families, who are engaged in building for themselves comfortable houses, and improving their lands. The military force has been arranged into two corps, a company of infantry of forty, and an artillery of fifty men, with one eighteen pounder. A friendly intercourse exists with the neighboring tribes, from whom there is nothing to fear. In bringing the establishment to this point, the managers have labored with a commendable and unwearied assiduity. At a meeting in January, 1826, the society, in their resolutions, say, that“they have always looked to the power and resources of the nation, and of the several states, for the accomplishment of the object, and direct that application be made to congress for the necessary aid, and to the several state legislatures, to encourage and facilitate the emigration of their colored inhabitants.” In support of their views, they refer to Sierra Leone. This settlement was undertaken by individuals for purposes, in many respects, similar to that of Liberia. In their hands it languished, and become nearly annihilated. In 1809, the government of Great Britain took it under their patronage, since which, its colored population have increased to sixteen thousand, eleven thousand of whom are recaptured Africans. Lately

Sherboro country, lying between Sierra Leone and Li. beria, has submitted to British jurisdiction.

Aid of government necessary. From the facts brought into view in relation to this subject, the public have become satisfied, that an eligible situation has been selected for the establishment of a colony of colored people, and with the proper means, a respectable one can be there supported : that the necessary expenses far exceed the bounds of private charities, and without the aid of government the institution must languish, and no sensible diminution of the free negro population be effected. That this is a very desirable object, is a point, and almost the only one in relation to Africans, in which the north and south are agreed. The existence of this description of people, to any considerable extent, in the slave-holding states, is incompatible with the public safety. To banish them without providing a suitable retreat, would be revolting to the feelings of humanity; but such provision being made, there could be no well founded complaint against even a compulsory removal, so far at least as the safety of the white population might require. Were the government to consult merely the economy of yielding the necessary support to this colony, compared with the expenses of suppressing the revolts and insurrections consequent on a promiscuous intercourse between the free negro and slave population, the former would be the preferable course. The United States indeed, viewing the complicated evils resulting to European governments from the pos. session of distant colonies, have been averse to the policy. But the object presented by the colonization society, is of an entirely different character, and resting on other grounds. With these views, the society and its friends confidently appeal to the government to take the colony under its protection, and to afford the necessary aids for the removal of a considerable portion of the free negro population of the

Emigration to Hayti. Another mode of disposing of this population has been resorted to, but with little success. The president of Hayti, desirous of increasing the numbers and strength of his subjects, invited them to his dominions, offering them the privileges of free citizens, and a title in fee to as much land and of a good quality, as they would take

country.*

up and cultivate, and to bear the expenses of their trans

In 1830, the population of Liberia amounted to 2,000. Their niilitia consisted of six companies, and about four hundred men, with twenty pieces of

rdnance. Their exports bave amounted to 70,000 dollars, in a year No white man is allowed to reside in the colony, except the agent, or as a physician, teacher, or missionary.

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