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rity, and were themselves amenable to the laws which they should enact.

That there should be no privileged orders, of any description.

That the enjoyment of religious opinions and worship should be perfectly free, and no citizen should be subject to any penalties or disabilities, on account thereof.

And, as a necessary appendage of this system, that the press, and all other sources of information, should be unre. stricted.

The contest between these systems, the measures which the sovereigns of Europe have taken to establish their own, and extirpate the opposite, and the manner in which they have been resisted, form an interesting portion of American history. Confinement of Bonaparte at St. Helena.

On the return of Bonaparte from the battle of Waterloo, a short negotiation took place between him and the existing authorities of France, in which he attempted to confer the crown on his son; but which ended in an unconditional abdication of the throne. In that negotiation it was stipulated that he should be provided with two frigates, to convey himself, his adherents, and his effects, to the United States. The ships were provided, but the vigilance of the English cruisers prevented their putting to sea. Bonaparte, as a choice of evils, rather than fall into the hands of his enemies in France, voluntarily put himself on board the Bellerophon, a British seventy-four, under the command of Captain Maitland. This event presented a new and singular question for the consideration of the allied sovereigns. In what man. ner should the person of the ex-emperor be disposed of? For twelve years he had belonged to the family of kings, and been recognized by them, as one of their number. Peace being established with France, he could in no sense be considered a prisoner of war; the detention of his person, therefore, could not be justified upon any acknowledged principles of national law. He could not be landed on the British shores, or brought within the jurisdiction of their courts, without being liberated by a process which sets at liberty every person detained in custody, without legal authority. In this instance, the great law of self-preservation superseded all other considerations. To release him, would pro. bably produce further convulsions in Europe. The commander of the ship to whom he surrendered, was ordered not to approach within three leagues of the shore, and the British government, in concert with their allies, ultimately determined on the perpetual detention of his person. The island of St. Helena was selected as the place of his confinement. He was conducted to this spot, a rock of about thirty miles in circumference, in the Atlantic ocean, twelve hundred miles from any continent, in the southern tropics, by a squadron of British ships, and there contined, with half a dozen attendants, during the remainder of his life. Fo. reign ships were prohibited access to the island. French, Russian, Austrian, and Prussian commissioners constantly resided there, to witness his safe custody. Twenty-five hundred men, under the direction of Sir Hudson Lowe, civil and military governor of the island, and a squadron of British ships, under the command of Admiral Cochrane, were employed to guard his person. This extreme solicitude, on the part of the allied sovereigns, to confine the person of Bonaparte, bore the highest testimony in favor of his talents, and at the same time indicated, in uneqnivocal terms, the precarious tenure by which, in their own estimation, they held their authority.

Restoration of the Bourbons. The next consideration of the allies, was the organization of the French govern. ment, in such manner as most effectually to eradicate revolutionary principles. To this end, the Bourbon dynasty, with all its appendages, was to be restored. According to the European theory of the monarchal system, the stroke which terminated the life of Louis XVI., devolved the crown on his son, the dauphin, who, in the dungeons of the Congecerie, became king of France, under the title of Louis XVII.' This unfortunate youth, in a short time followed his father to the tomb of the Capulets; and the regal sceptre, with all its hazards, came to the hands of the eldest brother of Louis XVI., then residing as a private gentleman at the village of Hartwell, in England, who became king of France, under the title of Louis XVIII. He continued his residence at Hartwell, enjoying the title, without any other appendages of royalty, until the expulsion of Bonaparte to the island of Elba, in 1814, when, by the aid of the allied powers, he took possession of the throne. Within a year, he yielded it to Bonaparte, without a struggle. The last reign of the emperor continued from April to June, 1815, when Louis was again called from his retreat, to the monarchy of France.

Treaty of Paris. The numerous revolutions, which fol. lowed each other in quick succession, had shaken the belief of the people of France,

in the divine right and hereditary succession of kings. The energy of Napoleon had exhibited a striking contrast with the weakness and inactivity of the Bourbons. The revolutionary flame, though smothered, was by no means extinguished. By the treaty of Paris, of the 20th of November, 1815, between France, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, the limits of France, with few exceptions, were reduced to the state they were in before the commencement of the revolution. Louis XVIII., as the price of his restoration, and to defray the expenses of supporting a foreign army in France, stipulated to pay the allied powers seven hundred millions of francs ;* and the allies, on their part, engaged to furnish an army of one hundred and fifty thousand men, under the command of the Duke of Wellington, to occupy the principal posts in France, for five years, for the purpose of keeping down the revolutionary spirit, maintaining the royal authority in the Bourbon dynasty, and preventing the spread of anti-monarchal principles. The remains of the French imperial army, which survived the battle of Waterloo, were disbanded. Marshal Ney, and General La Badoyere, were shot, and several other officers of distinction exiled, for their fidelity to the emperor. The French people, overawed by these measures, and exhausted by revolutions, submitted : and the opposition to the ancient despotism was so effectually subdued, that the allies, at the end of three years, ventured to withdraw their troops.

Disposition of the Bonaparte family. The family of Bonapartes, which Napoleon had raised from obscurity to kingly authority, were glad to seek their personal safety in retirement. Joseph, king of Spain, found an asylum in the United States, at the village of Bordenton, on the left bank of the Delaware, where, with the title of Count de Survelliers, he enjoys a dignified retirement ; and intermeddling in no shape with the politics of the country, sustains the character of a respectable citizen, and an amiable private gentleman. Louis, and Jerome, ex-kings of Holland, and Westphalia, became private citizens in different parts of Europe. Murat, their brother-in-law, in endeavoring to regain his kingdom of Naples, was seized by the inhabitants of Calabria, condemned by a military tribunal, and executed. Lucien, the only one who had not been vested with kingly

* One hundred and thirty-one millions of dollars.

authority, remained at Rome until March, 1817, when he applied for passports to the United States. A solemn conference on this subject was held at Paris by the allied powers of England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, when it was determined that his removal to America would be hazardous to their repose ; that neither he nor any of his family should be permitted to leave Europe, and that to prevent their escape, they should be removed from Rome into the interior. What this isolated individual, without friends or funds for any important enterprize, could do to jeopardize the monarchies of Europe, is difficult to conceive. The anxiety of the allied powers on this occasion, formed a striking contrast with the liberal spirit of the American republic, which freely permits its citizens to depart whenever they please, and invites to its shores, emigrants of every character, entertaining no fears that their machinations can disturb the foundations of its government.

Congress of Vienna. After settling the affairs of France, the allied monarchs held a general congress at Vienna, to regulate the concerns of the minor European governments. With little regard to the interests or wishes of the people, they were transferred from one to another in such manner as in the view of the allies, would most effectually prevent the further progress of revolutionary principles. The Belgic provinces were united with the states of Holland, both constituting the new kingdom of the Netherlands, and given to the prince of Orange, the former stadtholder of Holland, who had distinguished himself in the cause of the monarchs and who now became one of their number, under the title of king of the Netherlands.

Various dispositions were made in relation to the principalities of Germany ; the Italian states were placed under the tutelage of Austria ; 'and the Russian autocrat took charge of the despotism of the north.

Previous to their leaving Paris, the emperors of Russia and Germany, and the king of Prussia, personally entered into a solemn covenant with each other, denominated the

This memorable instrument bears date at Paris, the 26th of September, 1815; signed, Francis, Frederick William, and Alexander. They solemnly declare, that “they have no other object in view, than to show, in the face of the universe, their unwavering determination to adopt for the only rule of their conduct, both in the administration of their respective states, and in their political relation with


every other government, the precepts of justice, of charity, and of peace.”

They stipulate,

“1st, That in conformity with the words of the holy scriptures, which command all men to regard one another as brethren, they will remain united by the bonds of a truce and indissoluble fraternity ; and considering each other as copatriots, they will lend one another on every occasion, and in every place, assistance, aid, and support, and regarding their subjects and armies, as the fathers of their families, they will govern them with the spirit of fraternity, with which they are animated, for the protection of religion, peace, and justice.

“2d. The only governing principle between them and their subjects, shall be that of rendering reciprocal services; of testifying by an unalterable beneficence, the mutual affection with which they ought to be animated, of considering all as only the members of one Christian nation, the three allied princes looking upon themselves as delegated by providence to govern three branches of the same family, to wit, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, confessing likewise, that the Christian nations, of which they and their people form a part, have really no other sovereign than him to whom alone power belongs of right, because in him alone are found all the treasures of love, of science, and of wisdom ; that is to say, God, our divine Savior Jesus Christ, the Word of the Most High, the Word of life. Their majesties therefore recommend with the most tender solicitude to their people, as the only means of enjoying that peace which springs from a good conscience, and which alone is durable; to fortify themselves every day more and more, in the principles and exercise of the duties which the divine Savior has pointed out.

“3d. All powers which wish solemnly to profess the sacred principles which have dictated this act, and who shall acknowledge how important it is to the happiness of nations, too long disturbed, that these truths should henceforth exercise upon human destinies all the influence which belong to them, shall be received with as much readiness as affection in this holy alliance.

The king of France soon became a party to this strange combination. The British ministry, jealous of the increasing power of Russia, and not fully understanding the precise import of a treaty containing only general expressions of good will to the human family, declined becoming a party

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