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Inde abiit Pallas, densa circumdata nube Quaque super pontum via visa brevissima, Thebas Virgineumque Helicona petit : quo monte potita Constitit, et doctas sic est affata sorores :

255 5 Fama novi fontis nostras pervenit ad aures,

Dura Medusæi quem præpetis ungula rupit :
Is mihi causa viæ : volui mirabile factum
Cernere : vidi ipsum materno sanguine nasci."

Excipit Uranie : « Quæcumque est causa videndi 260 10 Has tibi, diva, domos, animo gratissima nostro est.

Vera tamen fama est, et Pegasus hujus origo
Fontis,” et ad latices deduxit Pallada sacros.

Quæ, mirata diu factas pedis ictibus undas,
Silvarum lucos circumspicit antiquarum

265 15 Antraque et innumeris distinctas floribus herbas,

Felicesque vocat pariter studiique locique
Mnemonidas. Quam sic affata est una sororum :

“O nisi te virtus opera ad majora tulisset,
In partem ventura chori Tritonia nostri,

270 20 Vera refers, meritoque probas artemque locumque,

Et gratam sortem-tutæ modo simus-habemus.
Sed—vetitum est adeo sceleri nihil omnia terrent
Virgineas mentes, dirusque ante ora Pyreneus

Vertitur, et nondum me tota mente recepi. 275 25 Daulia Threïcio Phoceaque milite rura

Ceperat ille ferox, injustaque regna tenebat.
Templa petebamus Parnasia : vidit euntes,
Nostraque fallaci veneratus numina vultu,
• Mnemonides,'- cognorat enim, — 'consistite,'
dixit,

280 30 Nec dubitate, precor, tecto grave sidus et imbrem'

Imber erat vitare meo : subiere minores
Sæpe casas Superi.' Dictis et tempore motæ
Annuimusque viro, primasque intravimus ædes.

Desierant imbres, victoque Aquilonibus Austro 285 35 Fusca repurgato fugiebant nubila celo :

Impetus ire fuit; claudit sua tecta Pyreneus,
Vimque parat, quam non sumtis effugimus alis.
Ipse secuturo similis stetit arduus arce,
Quaque via est vobis, erit et mihi,' dixit,
dem.'

290

ea

40 Seque jacit vecors e summæ culmine turris,

Et cadit in vultus, discussique ossibus oris,
Tundit humum moriens scelerato sanguine tinctam.”

Musa loquebatur; pennæ sonuere per auras, Voxque salutantum ramis veniebat ab altis. 295 45 Suspicit et linguæ quærit, tam certa loquentes

Unde sonent, hominemque putat Jove nata locutum.
Ales erat, numeroque novem, sua fata querentes,
Institerant ramis imitantes omnia picæ.

Miranti sic orsa deæ dea : “ Nuper et istæ 300 50 Auxerunt volucrum victæ certamine turbam.

Pieros has genuit, Pellæis dives in arvis,
Pæonis Euippe mater fuit: illa potentem
Lucinam novies, novies paritura, vocavit.

Intumuit numero stolidarum turba sororum, 305 55 Perque tot Hæmonias et per tot Achaïdas urbes

Huc venit, et tali committit proelia voce :
• Desinite indoctum vana dulcedine vulgus
Fallere; nobiscum, si qua est fiducia vobis,

Thespiades certate deæ : nec voce nec arte 310 60 Vincemur, totidemque sumus. Vel cedite victæ

Fonte Medusæo et Hyantea Aganippe;
Vel nos Emathiis ad Pæonas usque nivosos
Cedamus campis: dirimant certamina Nymphæ.'

“Turpe quidem contendere erat; sed cedere visum 315 65 Turpius : electæ jurant per flumina Nymphæ, Factaque de vivo pressere sedilia saxo.

Tunc, sine sorte prior quæ se certare professa est, Bella canit Superùm, falsoque in honore Gigantas

Ponit, et extenuat magnorum facta deorum, 320 70 Emissumque ima de sede Typhoea terræ

Colitibus fecisse metum, cunctosque dedisse
Terga fugæ, donec fessos Ægyptia tellus
Ceperit, et septem discretus in ostia Nilus.

Huc quoque terrigenam venisse Typhoea narrat, 325 75 Et se mentitis Superos celasse figuris ;

* Duxque gregis,' dixit,' fit Jupiter : unde recurvis
Nunc quoque formatus Libys est cum cornibus Ammon.
Delius in corvo, proles Semeleïa capro,
Fele soror Phoebi, nivea Saturnia vacca,

330 80 Pisce Venus latuit, Cyllenius ibidis alis.'

Hactenus ad citharam vocalia moverat ora:
Poscimur Aonides. Summam certaminis uni
Dedimus.-Immissos hedera collecta capillos

Surgit Calliope, et prætentat pollice chordas, 339 85 Atque hinc percussis subjungit carmina nervis, Quæ magnam Cererem dicunt et munera magna.

Finierat doctos e nobis maxima cantus. 662 At Nymphæ, vicisse deas Helicona colentes,

Concordi dixere sono. Convicia victæ 90 Cum jacerent; 'Quoniam,' dixit, 'certamine vobis

Supplicium meruisse parum est, maledictaque culpæ
Additis, et non est patientia libera nobis ; 667
Ibimus in pænas et, quo vocat ira, sequemur.'

Rident Emathides spernuntque minacia verba, 95 Conatæque loqui et magno clamore protervas 670

Intentare manus, pennas exire per ungues
Adspexere suos, operiri brachia plumis;
Alteraque alterius rigido concrescere rostro

Ora videt, volucresque novas accedere silvis ; 100 Dumque volunt plangi, per brachia mota levatæ

Aere pendebant, nemorum convicia, picæ.” 676

Nunc quoque in alitibus facundia prisca remansit, Raucaque garrulitas studiumque immane loquendi.

XXIII. CERES.

(V. 341-661.)

In an ancient Homeric hymn the myth of the rape of Persě phònê (Proserpine), by Pluto, the monarch of the under-world, and of the consequent wanderings of her mother Ceres, is related in its earlier form ; but Ovid, who indulges his playful fancy in varying the particulars of the tale, refers it to the influence of Amor and his mother Venus. When Typhõeus (he says), who was buried beneath Sicily, shook the land so that the earth threatened to burst and let in light to the realm of the Shades, Pluto, sovereign of the voiceless dead (rex silentum, v. 16), stepped into the upper-world to secure the darkness of his domains from the beams of the sun. The dart of Amor strikes him, and Proserpine, the virgin daughter of Ceres, is forcibly carried off by him to the realm of the dead. The bereaved mother, in deep sorrow, wanders day and night over the globe, seeking her daughter; but not finding her, she ceases to excite and maintain the fruitfulness of the earth : the grain perishes in the ear; and great distress afflicts all lands. In this state of things Arethūsa, who by a subterranean channel comes from Greece to Sicily, and had observed the rape, tells her the fate of her daughter. Proserpine, however, having broken her fast in the underworld, cannot entirely quit it, but is allowed to divide her residence, and spend a part of the year among the blessed gods, the rest in the under-world. Thus, at the beginning of spring, when flowers and herbs sprout afresh from the earth, Proserpine comes up to visit her mother; but at the end of autumn, when the grain is committed to the earth, she returns to the under-world. Ceres is satisfied with this arrangement, and gives to Triptolěmus (afterwards of high renown as king of Attica), the son of the king of Eleusis (from whom she had met with a friendly reception during her disconsolate wanderings over the earth), the car drawn by dragons, which glides through the air, that he may thus carry further the seed distributed by the goddess, and partly re-establish, partly introduce agriculture in the countries of the earth. The inhabitants of Attica maintained, that from a field by Eleusis the cultivation of grain was propagated amongst all nations. In all probability, the method of cultivating corn had, before the time of Triptolēmus, been introduced into Attica from Egypt. Erectheus had promoted and improved the practice; but in process of time it was in danger of being again lost, or, as the myth says, while Ceres was mourning for her daughter Proserpine, the earth bore no fruits. What is meant by this, is that the successful cultivation of corn depends on a correct determination of the proper time for sowing; a determination which was rendered difficult by the uncertain division of the year, inasmuch as the names of the several months did not always precisely coincide with the seasons, which depend on the position of the sun. Consequently a husbandman, who did not himself know how to observe the position of the stars, and was unable thence to re gnize the season, as determined by the position of the sun, might easily miss the right seed-time, and so lose the desired harvest. And as among the country people this mistake of seedtime became general, the cultivation of grain was at a stand-stillCeres was mourning. Now it was with a view to fix the time for sowing, that Triptolēmus attached the cultivation of corn to the worship of Ceres, by chief festivals, the greater and less Eleusinia, the times of which were annually determined with exactness by the priests, who observed the stars. The greater Eleusinia were held in autumn, when the winter sowing takes place, and Proserpine returns to the under-world ; the lesser Eleusinia in the spring, the time for the summer sowing; and then Proserpine again ascends from the under-world. Thus through these institutions he became a benefactor to his country, and a benefactor, too, to other nations, that adopted his precepts.

Into the tale of the rape of Proserpine and the grief of Ceres, Ovid has interwoven several other legends : a) The nymph Cyånê is changed into water by Pluto, whom she opposes ; v. 69 -97. b) Ceres changes a boy, who mocks at her, into a spotted lizard ; v. 98—121. c) Ascalăphus, because of his treachery, is changed by Proserpine into a screech-owl ; v. 193—210. d) Arethūsa tells Ceres, how she became changed into a fountain ; v. 222—301. e) The Scythian king Lyncus is changed into a lynx; v. 302-321.

Prima Ceres unco glebam dimovit aratro, 341
Prima dedit fruges alimentaque mitia terris,
Prima dedit leges; Cereris sunt omnia munus :

Illa canenda mihi est. Utinam modo dicere possem 5 Carmina digna dea! Certe dea carmine digna est.

Vasta Giganteis injecta est insula membris 346 Trinacris, et magnis subjectum molibus urget Ætherias ausum sperare Typhoea sedes.

Nititur ille quidem pugnatque resurgere sæpe ; 10 Dextra sed Ausonio manus est subjecta Peloro, 350

Læva, Pachyne, tibi, Lilybæo crura premuntur,
Degravat Ætna caput: sub qua resupinus arenas
Ejectat, flammamque fero vomit ore Typhoeus.

Sæpe remoliri luctatur pondera terræ, 15 Oppidaque et magnos devolvere corpore montes : 355

Inde tremit tellus, et rex pavet ipse silentum,
Ne pateat latoque solum retegatur hiatu,
Immissusque dies trepidantes terreat umbras.

Hanc metuens cladem tenebrosa sede tyrannus 20 Exierat, curruque atrorum vectus equorum 360

Ambibat Siculæ cautus fundamina terræ.
Postquam exploratum satis est, loca nulla labare,
Depositique metus; videt hunc Erycina vagantem

Monte suo residens, natumque amplexa volucrem, 25 “ Arma manusque meæ, mea, nate, potentia,” dixit,

Illa, quibus superas omnes, cape tela, Cupido, 366
Inque dei pectus celeres molire sagittas,
Cui triplicis cessit fortuna novissima regni.

Tu Superos ipsumque Jovem, tu numina ponti 30 Victa domas ipsumque, regit qui numina ponti: 370

Tartara quid cessant? Cur non matrisque tuumque
Imperium profers ? Agitur pars tertia mundi.
Et tamen in cælo, quæ jam patientia nostra est,
Spernimur, ac mecum vires minuuntur Amoris.

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