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60 Quæ tamen ut vidit, quamvis irata memorque,

Indoluit, quotiesque puer miserabilis, “ Eheu!” 495
Dixerat, hæc resonis iterabat vocibus, “ Eheu!”
Cumque suos manibus percusserat ille lacertos,

Hæc quoque reddebat sonitum plangoris eundem. 65 Ultima vox solitam fuit hæc spectantis in undam :

Heu frustra dilecte puer!” totidemque remisit 500 Verba_locus, dictoque “vale," "vale" inquit et

Echo.
Ille caput viridi fessum submisit in herba :
Lumina mors claudit, domini mirantia formam.
70 Tum quoque se, postquam est inferna sede receptus,

In Stygia spectabat aqua. Planxere sorores 505
Naïdes, et sectos fratri imposuere capillos ;
Planxerunt Dryades : plangentibus assonat Echo.
Jamque rogum quassasque faces feretrumque para-

bant; 75 Nusquam corpus erat : croceum pro corpore florem

Inveniunt, foliis medium cingentibus albis. 510

XVIII. PENTHEUS.

(III. 511-731.)

The enthusiastic worship of Bacchus, introduced from Asia (comp. Introd. XVII.), found in the beginning much opposition in Greece. This historical fact is represented in manifold fabulous legends. The opponents were, however, at length overpowered, and severely punished by the mighty god.

Amongst the opponents of this worship was Pentheus, the grandson of Cadmus, and son Agāve and of Echion, who sprung from the dragon's teeth (thence Echionides,' v. 3, comp. XIV.). His name, IIevēkus, 'the sorrowful,' points to his fate. This monarch, who had succeeded Cadmus on the throne of Thebes, finding many of the Thebans, especially the women, addicted to the service of the new god, warned his subjects against its adoption. The god himself, who had assumed the form of a mean foreigner, a Tyrrhenian, by name Acætes, was taken prisoner by the servants of Pentheus, and brought in fetters before the king. The prisoner told of the might of Bacchus, which he had displayed against some Tyrrhenian seamen. The god, he said, had, in the form of a drunken boy, met the crew of a Tyrrhenian vessel at the island of Chios; the sailors, struck with his extraordinary beauty, resolved to kidnap him, in order to sell him as a slave : on this the god had turned all the seamen into

dolphins ; sparing him (Acotes) alone, because he had not taken part in the guilt of the rest. —Pentheus, however, is obstinate in his opposition, and having himself gone out to put a stop to the festival which was going on on Mount Cithæron, he was slain by his own mother and sisters, who, inflamed with Bacchanalian rage, took him for a boar, and tore him in pieces.

Ovid attaches the history of Pentheus to a prophecy of the Theban seer Tiresias ( auguris,' v. 2); whose fame had been spread through all the Grecian states, by the notoriety of the fate ('cognita res,' v. 1) which befell Narcissus (comp. XVIII.) and which Tiresias had predicted ; yet for all this Pentheus despised his warning prophecy.

Cognita res meritam vati per Achaïdas urbes 511 Attulerat famam, nomenque erat auguris ingens ;

Spernit Echionides tamen hunc, ex omnibus unus 5 Contemtor Superûm, Pentheus, præsagaque

ridet Verba senis, tenebrasque et cladem lucis ademtæ 515 Objicit. Ille movens albentia tempora canis,

Quam felix esses, si tu quoque luminis hujus

Orbus," ait, “ fieres, nec Bacchia sacra videres ! 10 Namque dies aderit, jamque haud procul auguror esse,

Qua novus huc veniet, proles Semeleïa, Liber. 520
Quem nisi templorum fueris dignatus honore;
Mille lacer spargere locis, et sanguine silvas

Fodabis matremque tuam matrisque sorores. 15 Eveniet: neque enim dignabere numen honore ; Meque sub his tenebris nimium vidisse quereris.” 525

Talia dicentem proturbat Echione natus ;
Dicta fides sequitur, responsaque vatis aguntur.

Liber adest, festisque fremunt ululatibus agri; 20 Turba ruit, mixtæque viris matresque nurusque Vulgusque proceresque ignota ad sacra feruntur. 530

Quis furor, anguigenæ, proles Mavortia, vestras Attonuit mentes ?” Pentheus ait. "Ærane tantum

Ære repulsa valent, et adunco tibia cornu,
25 Et magicæ fraudes, ut, quos non bellicus ensis,

Non tuba terruerit, non strictis agmina telis, 535
Femineæ voces, et mota insania vino,
Obscenique greges, et inania tympana vincant?

Vosne, senes, mirer, qui longa per æquora vecti 30 Hac Tyron, hac profugos posuistis sede Penates,

Nunc sinitis sine Marte capi ? Vosne, acrior ætas, 540

O juvenes, propiorque meæ, quos arma tenere,
Non thyrsos, galeaque tegi, non fronde decebat?

Este, precor, memores, qua sitis stirpe creati; 35 Illiusque animos, qui multos perdidit unus,

Sumite serpentis ! Pro fontibus ille lacuque 545
Interiit; at vos pro fama vincite vestra !
Ille dedit leto fortes ; vos pellite molles,

Et patrium retinete decus! Si fata vetabant 40 Stare diu Thebas; utinam tormenta virique

Mania diruerent, ferrumque ignisque sonarent: 550
Essemus miseri sine crimine, sorsque querenda,
Non celanda foret, lacrimæque pudore carerent.

At nunc a puero Thebæ capientur inermi, 45 Quem neque bella juvant nec tela nec usus equorum,

Sed madidus myrrha crinis mollesque coronæ, 555
Purpuraque et pictis intextum vestibus aurum.
Quem quidem ego actutummodo vos absistite !

cogam
Assumtumque patrem commentaque sacra fateri.
50 An satis Acrisio est animi, contemnere vanum

Numen, et Argolicas venienti claudere portas ; 560
Penthea terrebit cum totis advena Thebis ?
Ite citi,”-famulis hoc imperat—"ite ducemque

Attrahite huc vinctum! Jussis mora segnis abesto!” 55 Hunc avus, hunc Athamas, hunc cetera turba

suorum

Corripiunt dictis, frustraque inhibere laborant ; 565
Acrior admonitu est irritaturque retenta
Et crescit rabies, remoraminaque ipsa nocebant.

Sic ego torrentem, qua nil obstabat eunti, 60 Lenius et modico strepitu decurrere vidi ;

At quacumque trabes obstructaque saxa tenebant, 570
Spumeus et fervens et ab objice sævior ibat.

Ecce, cruentati redeunt et, Bacchus ubi esset,

Quærenti domino Bacchum vidisse negarunt; 65 Hunc,” dixere, “tamen comitem famulumque sa

crorum

Cepimus,” et tradunt manibus post terga ligatis 575
Sacra dei quondam Tyrrhena gente secutum.

Adspicit hunc oculis Pentheus, quos ira tremendos
Fecerat, et, quanquam poenæ vix tempora differt,

70 “O periture tuaque aliis documenta dature

Morte," ait, “ede tuum nomen nomenque parentum
Et patriam, morisque novi cur sacra frequentes.” 581
Ille metu vacuus,

“Nomen mihi,” dixit, “ Accetes, “ Patria Mæonia est, humili de plebe parentes. '75 Non mihi, quæ duri colerent, pater, arva juvenci,

Lanigerosve greges, non ulla armenta reliquit : 585
Pauper et ipse fuit, linoque solebat et hamis
Decipere et calamo salientes ducere pisces ;

Ars illi sua census erat. Cum traderet artem, 80“ Accipe quas habeo, studii successor et heres," Dixit, "opes," moriensque mihi nihil ille reliquit

591 Præter aquas : unum hoc possum appellare pater

num.

Mox ego, ne scopulis hærerem semper in îsdem,

Addidici regimen dextra moderante carinæ 85 Flectere, et Oleniæ sidus pluviale capellæ

Taygetenque Hyadasque oculis Arctonque notavi,
Ventorumque domos et portus puppibus aptos. 596
Forte petens Delon, Chiæ telluris ad oras

Applicor, et dextris adducor litora remis,
90 Doque leves saltus udæque immittor arenæ.

Nox ubi consumta est, Aurora rubescere primum
Caperat ;- exsurgo, laticesque inferre recentes 601
Admoneo, monstroque viam quæ ducat ad undas.

Ipse, quid aura mihi tumulo promittat ab alto, 95 Prospicio, comitesque voco repetoque carinam. “ Adsumus en !” inquit sociorum primus Ophel

tes, Utque putat, prædam deserto nactus in agro, 606 Virginea puerum ducit

per

litora forma. Ille, mero somnoque gravis, titubare videtur, 100 Vixque sequi. Specto cultum faciemque gradumque:

Nil ibi, quod credi posset mortale, videbam ; 610
Et sensi, et dixi sociis : “ Quod numen in isto
Corpore sit, dubito ; sed corpore numen in isto

est. Quisquis es, o faveas nostrisque laboribus adsis; 105 His quoque des veniam !”-“Pro nobis mitte pre

cari!”

Dictys ait, quo non alius conscendere summas 615
Ocior antennas, prensoque rudente relabi.
Hoc Libys, hoc flavus, proræ tutela, Melanthus,
Hoc probat Alcimedon et, qui requiemque modum-

que
110 Voce dabat remis, animorum hortator Epopeus,

Hoc omnes alii. Prædæ tam cæca cupido est. 620 “Non tamen hanc sacro violari pondere pinum Perpetiar,” dixi : "pars hic mihi maxima juris,"

Inque aditu obsisto. Furit audacissimus omni 115 De numero Lycabas, qui Tusca pulsus ab urbe Exsilium dira pænam pro cæde luebat.

625 Is mihi, dum resto, juvenili guttura pugno Rupit ; et excussum misisset in æquora, si non

Hæsissem, quamvis amens, in fune retentus. 120 Impia turba probat factum. Tum denique Bac

chus-
Bacchus enim fuerat,- veluti clamore solutus 630
Sit sopor aque mero redeant in pectora sensus,
Quid facitis ? Quis clamor ? ” ait, Qua, dicite,

nautæ, Huc ope perveni ? Quo me deferre paratis ?” 125 “ Pone metum, Proreus, et, quos contingere

portus, Ede, velis,” dixit : “ terra sistere petita.” 635

• Naxon,” ait Liber, “cursus advertite vestros : Illa mihi domus est ; vobis erit hospita tellus."

Per mare fallaces perque omnia numina jurant, 130 Sic fore, meque jubent pictæ dare vela carinæ.

Dextera Naxos erat: dextra mihi lintea danti 640
Quid facis, o demens ? Quis te furor .... ?"

inquit Opheltes.
Pro se quisque tenet: lævam pete !" Maxima

nutu Pars mihi significat, pars, quid velit, aure susurrat. 135 Obstupui, “Capiatque aliquis moderamina !” dixi,

Meque ministerio scelerisque artisque removi. 645
Increpor a cunctis, totumque immurmurat agmen ;
E quibus Æthalion, “ Te scilicet omnis in uno

Nostra salus posita est : ait, et subit ipse meumque 140 Explet opus. Naxoque petit diversa relicta.

G

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