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brother Cadmus in search of her, charging him never to return home till he had found his lost sister ( exsilium addit,' v. 5) Accordingly, when Cadmus could not discover any traces of her whom they had lost, he renounced his home, and, seeking a dwelling-place in Greece, inquired of the oracle of Apollo at Delphi where he should settle. The answer was, that a cow should show him the proper place to settle at. Obeying its directions, he founded the city of Thebes, which became the capital of the land that by its subsequent name (Bouwria, from Bows) alluded to this occurrence. The prodigies that preceded the foundation of Thebesthe slaughter of the monstrous dragon, and the growth from the dragon's teeth of the men who helped Cadmus to build the new city-serve as poetic ornaments of the fable.

The appearance of Cadmus in Greece was, according to the mythic legend, of great importance. It was he who introduced alphabetic writing from Phoenicia into Greece. We should probably, however, recognise in Cadmus not an historical, but much rather a fabulous personage, whose name is the Phænician name of the East (Kadm). That he was sent out to seek his sister Europa, who had been carried away from Phoenicia, and that, on not finding her, he took up his residence in Greece, is evidently a dressing up of the old tradition, that a Phænician tribe had penetrated into Europe, and settled in Greece.

Jamque deus posita fallacis imagine tauri 1 (111.)
Se confessus erat, Dictæaque rura tenebat ;
Cum pater ignarus raptam perquirere Cadmo

Imperat, et pænam, si non invenerit, addit 5 Exsilium, facto pius et sceleratus eodem.

Orbe pererrato-quis enim deprendere possit Furta Jovis ?-profugus patriamque iramque parentis Vitat Agenorides, Phæbique oracula supplex

Consulit et, quæ sit tellus habitanda, requirit.
10 “ Bos tibi,” Phoebus ait, “ solis occurret in arvis,

Nullum passa jugum curvique immunis aratri :
Hac duce carpe vias et, qua requieverit herba,
Monia fac condas, Boeotiaque illa vocato.”

Vix bene Castalio Cadmus descenderat antro : 15 Incustoditam lente videt ire juvencam,

Nullum servitii signum cervice gerentem.
Subsequitur pressoque legit vestigia gressu,
Auctoremque viæ Phoebum taciturnus adorat.

Jam vada Cephisi Panopesque evaserat arva : 20 Bos stetit et, tollens spatiosam cornibus altis

Ad cælum frontem, mugitibus impulit auras,
Atque ita, respiciens comites sua terga sequentes,
Procubuit, teneraque latus submisit in herba.

Cadmus agit grates, peregrinæque oscula terræ 25 Figit, et ignotos montes agrosque salutat.

Sacra Jovi facturus erat : jubet ire ministros
Et petere e vivis libandas fontibus undas.

Silva vetus stabat, nulla violata securi,
Et specus in medio, virgis ac vimine densus,
30 Efficiens humilem lapidum compagibus arcum,

Uberibus fecundus aquis : ubi conditus antro
Martius anguis erat, cristis præsignis et auro ;
Igne micant oculi, corpus tumet omne veneno,

Tresque vibrant linguæ, triplici stant ordine dentes. 35

Quem postquam Tyria lucum de gente profecti Infausto tetigere gradu, demissaque in undas Urna dedit sonitum; longo caput extulit antro Cæruleus serpens, horrendaque sibila misit.

Effluxere urna manibus, sanguisque reliquit 40 Corpus, et attonitos subitus tremor occupat artus.

Ille volubilibus squamosos nexibus orbes
Torquet, et immenso saltu sinuatur in arcus,
Ac media plus parte leves erectus in auras

Despicit omne nemus, tantoque est corpore, quanto, 45 Si totum spectes, geminas qui separat Arctos.

Nec mora ; Phænicas, sive illi tela parabant
Sive fugam, sive ipse timor prohibebat utrumque,
Occupat: hos morsu, longis amplexibus illos,

Hos necat afflati funesta tabe veneni.
50 Fecerat exiguas jam sol altissimus umbras :

Quæ mora sit sociis, miratur Agenore natus,
Vestigatque viros. Tegimen direpta leoni
Pellis erat; telum splendenti lancea ferro

Et jaculum, teloque animus præstantior omni. 55

Ut nemus intravit, letataque corpora vidit,
Victoremque supra spatiosi corporis hostem
Tristia sanguinea lambentem vulnera lingua ;
• Aut ultor vestræ, fidissima corpora,

Aut comes,” inquit, “ero." Dixit, dextraque molarem 60 Sustulit, et magnum magno conamine misit.

Illius impulsu cum turribus ardua celsis

Monia mota forent; serpens sine vulnere mansit,
Loricæque modo squamis defensus et atræ

Duritia pellis, validos cute repulit ictus.
65 At non duritia jaculum quoque vicit eadem :

Quod medio lentæ spinæ curvamine fixum
Constitit, et totum descendit in ilia ferrum.
Ille, dolore ferox, caput in sua terga retorsit

Vulneraque adspexit, fixumque hastile momordit, 70 Idque, ubi vi multa partem labefecit in omnem,

Vix tergo eripuit; ferrum tamen ossibus hæsit.
Tum vero, postquam solitas accessit ad iras
Causa recens, plenis tumuerunt guttura venis,

Spumaque pestiferos circumfluit albida rictus, 75 Terraque rasa sonat squamis, quique halitus exit

Ore niger Stygio, vitiatas inficit herbas.
Ipse modo immensum spiris facientibus orbem
Cingitur; interdum longa trabe rectior exstat;

Impete nunc vasto, ceu concitus imbribus amnis, 80 Fertur, et obstantes proturbat pectore silvas.

Cedit Agenorides paullum, spolioque leonis
Sustinet incursus, instantiaque ora retardat
Cuspide prætenta. Furit ille, et inania duro

Vulnera dat ferro, figitque in acumine dentes. 85 Jamque venenifero sanguis manare palato

Coperat, et virides adspergine tinxerat herbas ;
Sed leve vulnus erat, quia se retrahebat ab ictu
Læsaque colla dabat retro, plagamque sedere

Cedendo arcebat nec longius ire sinebat: 90 Donec Agenorides conjectum in gutture ferrum

Usque sequens pressit, dum retro quercus eunti
Obstitit, et fixa est pariter cum robore cervix.
Pondere serpentis curvata est arbor, et imæ

Parte flagellari gemuit sua robora caudæ. 95 Dum spatium victor victi considerat hostis, Vox subito audita est: neque erat cognoscere

promtum, Unde; sed audita est : “Quid, Agenore nate,

peremtum Serpentem spectas ? Et tu spectabere serpens.”

Ille, diu pavidus, pariter cum mente colorem 100 Perdiderat, gelidoque comæ terrore rigebant.

F

Ecce, viri fautrix, superas delapsa per auras
Pallas adest, motæque jubet supponere terræ
Vipereos dentes, populi incrementa futuri.

Paret et, ut presso sulcum patefecit aratro, 105 Spargit humi jussos, mortalia semina, dentes.

Inde, fide majus, glebæ cæpere moveri,
Primaque de sulcis acies apparuit hastæ,
Tegmina mox capitum picto nutantia cono ;

Mox humeri pectusque onerataque brachia telis 110 Exsistunt, crescitque seges clypeata virorum.

Sic, ubi tolluntur festis aulæa theatris,
Surgere signa solent, primumque ostendere vultus
Cetera paullatim, placidoque educta tenore

Tota patent, imoque pedes in margine ponunt. 115 Territus hoste novo Cadmus capere arma parabat :

Ne cape” de populo, quem terra creaverat, unus
Exclamat,“ nec te civilibus insere bellis !”
Atqua ita terrigenis rigido de fratribus unum

Cominus ense ferit ; jaculo cadit eminus ipse. 120 Hic quoque, qui dederat leto, non longius illo

Vivit, et exspirat, modo quas acceperat, auras ;
Exemploque pari furit omnis turba, suoque
Marte cadunt subiti per mutua vulnera fratres.

Jamque brevis vitæ spatium sortita juventus 125 Sanguineam trepido plangebant pectore matrem,

Quinque superstitibus, quorum fuit unus Echion.
Is sua jecit humi monitu Tritonidis arma,
Fraternæque fidem pacis petiitque deditque.

Hos operis comites habuit Sidonius hospes, 130 Cum posuit jussam Phæbeïs sortibus urbem.

XV. CADMUS IN ILLYRIA.

(IV. 564–603.) Though Cadmus, the founder of Thebes, lived to see the flourishing state of his new-built city, he also witnessed many misfortunes and marvellous occurrences ( ostenta,' v. 2) in his own family. His grandson Actæon was turned into a stag, and torn to pieces by the hounds ; his grandson Pentheus mangled by his own mother, whom, in the frenzy of the Bacchanalian worship, she took for a wild boar; his daughter Ino threw herself into the sea with her son Melicertes, &c., &c. As if by a removal from his new country he could escape from misfortune, Cadmus, now at a very advanced age, left Boeotia, and came to Illyria. His consort Harmonia, a daughter of Mars and Venus, accompanied him. But here was fulfilled the prophecy, which an unknown voice had announced to him at the slaughter of the formidable dragon (xiv. 97 f.), and he himself together with his wife was changed into a serpent.

Clarus Agenorides, luctu serieque laborum
Victus et ostentis, quæ plurima viderat, exit 565
Conditor urbe sua, tanquam fortuna locorum,

Non sua se premeret, longisque erratibus actus 5 Contigit Illyricos profuga cum conjuge fines.

Jamque malis annisque graves, dum primaretractant Fata domus releguntque suos sermone labores; 570 “Num sacer ille mea trajectus cuspide serpens,"

Cadmus ait, " fuerat, tunc cum Sidone profectus 10 Vipereos sparsi per humum, nova semina, dentes ?

Quem si cura deûm tam certa vindicat ira,
Ipse precor serpens in longam porrigar alvum.” 575

Dixit, et ut serpens in longam tenditur alvum,
Duratæque cuti squamas increscere sentit,
15 Nigraque cæruleis variari corpora guttis,

In pectusque cadit pronus, commissaque in unum
Paullatim tereti sinuantur acumine crura. 580
Brachia jam restant: quæ restant, brachia tendit,

Et lacrimis per adhuc humana fluentibus ora,
20 Accede, o conjux, accede, miserrima, dixit,

Dumque aliquid superest de me, me tange, manumque Accipe, dum manus est, dum non totum occupat anguis."

585 Ille quidem vult plura loqui ; sed lingua repente In partes est fissa duas, nec verba volenti 25 Sufficiunt, quotiesque aliquos parat edere questus, Sibilat: hanc illi vocem natura reliquit.

Nuda manu feriens exclamat pectora conjux : 590 “ Cadme, mane, teque, infelix, bis exue monstris ! Cadme, quid hoc ? Ubi pes, ubi sunt humerique

manusque, 30 Et color et facies et, dum loquor, omnia ? Cur non Me quoque, coelestes, in eundem vertitis anguem ?”

Dixerat; ille suæ lambebat conjugis ora, 595

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