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--82. lentus, ' faint,' ' feeble.'—83. inarsit, 'caught fire at.'-86. tum denique, 'then for the first time.'-94. promissa dato, 'give (perform) what has been promised. || Jn. Ile jurat per sacra triformis deæ (i. e. Hecates), atque (per) numen quod foret in illo luco, atque per patrem, cernentem cuncta, soceri futuri, atque per eventus suos et tanta pericula. Il patrem soceri futuri, the sungod, father of Æetes.—95. foret, this past imperf. of the subj. depends on the historical present jurat, used in reference to the past.–98. creditus accepit=creditus est et accepit.—101. Mavortis. Mavors, a poetic by-form of Mars. 102. jugis, abl. loci,' on the ridges or cliffs.'—103. agmine, abl. loci, 'in the midst of the train.' -104. adamanteis, the penult. long, from the Greek ádáuas, • hard steel,' and figuratively, of any thing very hard or strong. || Vulcanum, poet, for 'fire,' as Bacchus for wine,' &c. — 107. silices fornace soluti, stones burnt to quick-lime,' and so giving out heat and vapour when moistened. — 121. galea sumit, “he takes out of the helmet.' l galea, in the abl., from the idea of • out of, implied in sumit.—126. suos numeros,' its list of parts or members.'-131. prăěacuta, the first syllable short, on account of the vowel following.–137. Jn. et ne gramina data a se valeant parum, canit carmen auxiliare, atque advocat secretas artes. || neve =et ne.- 140. Martem : Mars for war,' as Vulcan for 'fire,' 1. 104 above.-147. Jn. atque agis grates carminibus, et dis auctoribus horum (carminum), and sayest thanks to the enchantments, and to the gods the authors of the same.'-151. aurea, to be read as dissyllable by synæresis.-152. Lethæi, from Lethe, the river of the under-world, whence the dead drank forgetfulness of the past. -155. Somnus, the god of sleep. | ignotos,' unknown (to him),' i. e. with which he (Somnus) was yet unacquainted, a choicer expression than ignaros, 'ignorant (of him).' - 161. liquēfiunt, the second syllable is here used long.–164. Tum sic Æsonides, supply dixit.—170. Æeta, a Latin form=Æetes. — 172. Jn. quod scelus, conjux, excidit ore tuo? Ergo ego videor posse transcribere cuiquam spatium tuæ vite.-173. transcribere, technical expression of accountants.—174. nec sinat hoc Hecate, a formula of deprecation. -182, 183. vestes, pedem, capillos, respective acc. —
— 183. humeris, dat., “having her unadorned hair spread over her shoulders.'186. solverat, “ had relaxed,' 'unstrung.'— 189. sumptis flumine. See above, ver. 121. — 199. ripis mirantibus, abl. abs.—207. Te
Temesa, a town of the Bruttii, in Italy, in the neighbourhood of which were copper-mines.-209. avi, sc. the sungod.—213. rudem somni, ' unacquainted with sleep.' || sopistis= sopiistis.—222. Tempe, Greek neut. plur., the valley of the Peneus, in Thessaly.—223. For certis, Bach ingeniously conjectures Crē. thēis (dissyllable by synæresis), Cretheus, grandfather of Jason, was founder of Iolcos. Another conjectural reading is Etais, for et certis. — 224. Ossa, Pelion, Othrys, Pindus, Olympus, mountains of Thessaly. — 228, sqq. Apidanus, Amphrysus, Enīpeus, Penēus, Sperchēos, rivers of Thessaly. — 231. Boebe, a village in Thessaly, by the lake Bæbeis, named after it.—232. Anthedon, a coast town
of Bæotia, opposite Eubea. Here the fisherman Glaucus was changed into a sea-god, by tasting the grass on the shore.--239. tantum coelo tegitur, because she did not enter the house.
243. She performs sacrifices in two pits (tellure egesta, abl. abs.), the soil being removed.'-246. invergens, pouring on them.'-253. resolutum in somnos. See above, ver. 186. – 267. Oceani mare, a full expression=the simple Oceanus. — 269. infames, for magical uses.—270. The same as the modern superstition of the Werwolf.--271. prosecta, 'the inwards,' 'entrails.'- 272. The river Cinyps, in Libya, was notorious for being infested by serpents. The serpent on casting its slough, or outward skin, was believed to renew its youth. — 274. novem sæcula passa. The crow was reckoned to live nine generations of men.--295. nutricibus suis, the nymphs who had fostered him.–296. Colchide, sc. Medea of Colchos.—297. odium cum conjuge, an unusual construction for odium in aliquem.--298. Phasias, sc. Medea, from the Phasis.312. laniger, supply aries.-318. cornua, annos, respect. acc. depending on exuitur.- 324. Ibero: Iberus, the Ebro, a river of Spain, hese used as being in the “far-west.”—339. his scelus. An oxymoron, or blending of contradictory assertions. -347. cecidere illis animique manusque : cecidere applies literally or properly to manus, and figuratively to animi. 348. abstulit guttura cum verbis, is another instance of the same kind of construction.-352. Ephyren Pirenida. Ephyre was an ancient name of Corinth. The epithet Pirenida refers to Pirênê, a fountain in the Isthmus, sacred to the Muses.--353. Glauce, or Creusa, daughter of Creon, king of Corinth, was on her marriage with Jason destroyed by the poisoned gifts of Medea, who afterwards fired Creon's palace, and, in revenge on Jason, murdered her own children. 357. Palla
the towers of Athens' (sacred to Pallas Minerva). 360. ignara, passively=ignota.—361. pacaverat Isthmon. He had cleared it of robbers.—364. Echidnææ canis, Cerberus, offspring of the infernal monster Echidna. Cf. pp. 241, 86.--366. Tirynthius heros, sc. Hercules.-367. restantem, holding back.'--370. ternis latratibus, 'three barks at once from his three mouthş.'-372. concresse=concrevisse.-375. aconita, from å kóvn, 'whet-stone.' Quæ in the preceding line takes its gender from aconita.
XXXI. 3. imperium peti totius Achaïdos,' that the sovereignty of all Achæa was aimed at.' || Achaïdos, Greek form. properly adj. (yñs=terre understood), used comprehensively for the whole of Greece.-8. et omnis eat rerum status iste mearum ! This text has perplexed the interpreters, some would read ut for et; but a suitable sense may be found without change. • Let all my forces which you now see (rerum status iste mearum) go (with you).'— 14. inde=ex illis, ‘of those persons.'--18. hanc (fortunam)-illo (principio).-21. quota. In questions and exclamations, this word always implies diminution, - how small ! how slight!'-24. mortale,
ordinary, not supernatural.'- 26. Some point after superabat, and connect victæ with opes.-28. ignavos, enfeebling, rendering inactive.'-41. in pulvere, “in the dust (of the race-course),'
42. degenerat palmas, ' loses his qualities for victory. -51. damno graviore, inasmuch as, in attacking mankind, it stopped agriculture and all occupations.'—61. auctoribus, those who profess and practise them.'—66. posito pudore, 'disregarding decency,' because naked.- 67. hærent fontibus, fuviis, puteis, datives.- 70. et illas, even those (waters), polluted as they were.' - 79. pendentis,
overhanging, lowering.' – 81. an=annon, was it not?— what was it but ?'-86. contra, 'opposite.'-90. non exoratis, 'not influenced by prayer.'-94. haud exspectato vulnere, ' without waiting for the wound.:-98. subjectos culiros : subjectos, ' put under,' because the throat of the victim was cut from beneath.–102. quo= ut eo.—103. claudunt, 'shut it up, stop its passage.'—105. feruntur, here for the compound efferuntur, the usual word in funerals.
- 108. indotata, 'ungifted,' without the usual apparatus and appointments.—110. indefletæ vagantur, because the spirits of those who died without funeral rites were regarded as condemned to restless wandering.-]15. Ægina was daughter of the river Asôpus.-116. nostri, of us, more emphatic here than nostrum, our.'—119. accipio, the technical term in hailing an augury.120. pigneror, ' I take as a pledge.'— 121. rarissima, ‘very rare or remarkable.'—122. de semine Dodonæo, 'sprung from the seed (acorn) of Dodôna.' The oak wood of Dodona, in Epirus, was celebrated for one of the most ancient oracles.—131. roboribus, pl. for sing., 'the wood of the tree.' || nec=et non.—145. Jn. dum suspicor has quoque (esse voces) somni." || somni, gen. subjecti.-- 153. Myrmidonas, &c. See Introd.-159, 160. Eurus-- Austros. Ægina lies south-west from Athens; therefore Eurus, the north-east wind, would favour the voyage from Athens to Ægina, and Auster, the south wind, that from Ægina to Athens.
XXXII. 1. Pallante creati, 'the sons of Pallas,' gen. Pallantis, an Athenian prince. 5. Cecropidas, the Athenians. 6. Æoliden, Cephalus, son of Eolus. - 15. Actæis=Atticis.- 19. Nerežus, as being son of Psamathe, daughter of Nereus.—41. Æacida, voc. of Æacides, son of Æacus.—48. venatum, supine, dependent on ire.-51. satiata cædis, poet. construction.-68. linguu susurra, abl. with whispering tongue.'-93. sceleratum, • made guilty by.'-96. meosque deos, i.e. the infernal gods, to whom, as now dying, she belonged.–104. animam exhalat. It was the custom to bend over, and, as it were, catch the last breath of a dying friend. - - 105. secura, assured (of her husband's fidelity)
XXXIII. 6. limina, rather lumina, “the eye-sight.'— 16, 17. Jn. tertia sors repetita annis novenis domuit monstrum bis pastum Actæo sanguine. || novenis, the legend varies, as to whether the tribute was sent every nine years, or every year for nine years. ll pastum=quod pastum fuerat. || Actæo= Attico. — 20. Ægides, Theseus, son of Ægeus. || Minoïde, Ariadne, daughter of Minos. || Dian, the island Naxos, acc. of direction or movement towards. -24. sumtam immisit=sumpsit et immisit.—28. Jn. qui (locus) est medius nixi genu atque tenentis anguem. || nixi genu, the constellation Hercules represented kneeling. || tenentis anguem, the constellation Anguitenens, or Ophiuchus.-29. Creten, acc. of the form Crete, es.—32. illac, by that way.-- 33. possideat, hypothetical subj. without ut.-36. longam breviore sequente, the arrangement of the feathers, beginning with the least, would be more accurately expressed by longa breviorem sequente, but the convenience of the metre suggested the construction.–43. ore renidenti, 'with bright shining face.'-45. mollibat, old form=molliebat. -59. ales, fem. because meaning the mother bird.—61. erudit artes, an unusual construction; erudire has usually acc. of person, abl. of thing: -67. Samos, &c. According to Ovid, Dædalus flew first northwards, over Paros and Delos, then turned eastwards towards Miletus. — 81. sepulti, i.e. of Icarus. — 93. ex uno duo ferrea brachia nodo, the compass.-95. duceret orbem, might trace a circle. - 107. Dædalon, Greek form. || Cocalus, a legendary Sicilian king: XXXIV. 1. Enea, Greek acc. of neus. ll successibus, abl. of
:-2. Lyæo, Greek Avaios, the releaser (from care), surname of Bacchus.-3. palladios latices, the juice of Pallas's tree (the olive).- 4. agricolis (sc. deis), the gods of agriculture.— 5. ambitiosus, in its primitive sense, taking its round.'-6. cessasse,' to have missed,' or gone without a portion. || Letoïdos, Greek form, Latona's daughter, i.e. Diana.-7. et, belongs to deos, the gods too.'-8. Jn. atque (nos) quæ (dicimur) inhonoratæ, non dicimur et ( etiam) inultæ.-9. Enēos, belonging to Eneus, acc. pl. of Enēus, a, um, not to be confounded with the Greek gen. něos. Il spreta, sc. Diana.–10. quanto=tantum ut eo, so big that the bulls of Epirus are not bigger than he, and those of Sicily are less.' —15. dentibus Indis,' elephants' tusks.'—26. Meleagros, Greek form of nom.—27. coïere, pl. with collective nom. manus.-28. spectatus cæstibus alter (i.e. Pollux), alter equo (i. e. Castor).—29. Jason. See Introd. xxx.-30. Theseus cum Pirithoo=Theseus et Pirithous. Il felix concordia is in apposition to the names thus taken together. The friendship between Theseus and Pirithous, king of the Lapithæ, is celebrated by the poets.-31. Thestiada, the sons of Thestius, and brothers of Althæa, mother of Meleager. || Lynceus and Idas were the sons of Aphareus, king of Messenia. They afterwards were engaged in mortal combat with Castor and Pollux. 32. Cæneus, was originally a female named Cænis, and was transformed into a male by Neptune, and rendered invulnerable.-33. Leucippus, brother of Aphareus. || Acastus, son of Pelias, king of Iolkos, in Thessaly.— 34. Phoenix, celebrated in Homer as the foster father of Achilles.-35. Actoridæ pares, the twin sons of Actor, Eurytus and Cteatus, are described in Homer as having their bodies united, perhaps like the recent Siamese twins.-36. Telamon, and Peleus, the father of Achilles, were brothers and sons of Æacus, king of Ægina.–37. Pheretiade, Admetus, son of Pheres. !! Scan : Cūmqŭe Pħělrētiă|dē ět Hýlāntējā °7o|lāõ. || lolao. Iolaus, a kinsman and companion of Hercules. —41. Hippocoon, sovereign of the ancient town of Amyclæ, in Laconia, sent three of his sons to this chase.-42. Penelopes socer, Laertes, father of Ulysses.— 43. Ampycides, Mopsus, the seer, son of Ampycus. ll adhuc a conjuge tutus Eclides. Amphiaraus, the seer, son of cleus, not as yet betrayed by his wife Eriphyle.—44. Tegeæa, the damsel of Tegea, Atalanta.— 45. rasilis, polished.' || mordebat, literally, bit=was stuck in.'—51. Calydonius heros, Meleager.-54. virum, '(to be her) husband.'-56. incipit a plano, ' rises from the plain.'—57. pars, used collectively, and therefore with verb pl.-59. pressa signa pedum, ' the impressions of his footmarks.'-62. ima lacuna,' the bottom of the hollow, or dell.' - 64. longa parva sub arundine cannæ. Canna and arundo are reeds similar in all but size, the arundo being the longer and larger-gracilis et canna similis arundo. Columella.--74. Jn. Si non foret (=esset) usa nimiis viribus mittentis, . if it had not employed too much of the force of the hurler.'—75. petito, ' aimed at, to be construed with tergo.–76. auctor teli,' the dealer of the shot."77. Ampycides, the soothsayer Mopsus. See ver. 43, supra. 80. Diana has here the first syllable long.–84. adducto concita nervo, 'speeded by the drawn string (of the ballista).'—86. impete (= impetu), an abl. form, to which there is found in Lucretius à corresponding gen., impetis. — 92. Pylius, sc. Nestor of Pylos. ll citra, on this side of = previously to.'-93. Jn. conamine sumto ab hasta posita, 'having taken a spring from his spearshaft which he had set down.'-98. hausit : haurire, prop. to draw out, empty, absorb,' thence poet., “to pierce through, from side to side, or end to end.'-99. gemini fratres, Castor and Pollux, not yet made the constellation. Gemini, the twins.'— 103. Jn. nisi seliger (i. e. aper) isset inter opacas silvas, loca pervia nec jaculis, nec equo.—107. Tegeæa, Atalanta of Tegea.—109. arundo, prop. • the reed to which the arrow-head was attached, thence the whole arrow.' | summum corpus,' the surface of the body.'- 117. turba (sua), i.e. telorum.—118. furens contra sua fata bipennifer Arcas,
the Arcadian (Ancæus) with his two-bladed axe, madly running to meet his fate.'— 120. operi meo concedite, 'make room for my performance.' - 125. institerat digitis, primos suspensus in artus, Iit. . he was standing on his toes, poised on their first joints'=he was standing tiptoe.-126, 127. Jn. ferus occupat audentem, atque direxit geminos dentes ad summa inguina, qua via est proxima leto. || occupat, 'is beforehand with. ll geminos dentes, his pair of tusks.' ll qua via est proxima leto, 'where the way to death is nearest,' i. e. ' where the wound is most immediately fatal.' – 134. fortibus, predicate of nobis, to be supplied after licet.—136. Jn. Quo (cornu) bene librato (abl. abs.) atque futuro potente voti,
which (shaft) having been well puised, and being on the point of gaining its object.' — 138. Æsonides, the son of Æson, i.e. Jason.-139. immeriti latrantis, ' an innocent dog. '-14). Enida, the son of neus, i.e. Meleager. ll variat, intrans. or absol., 'has various success.'-143. corpora versat in orbem,' twists his body round.' — 153. Jn. Nonacria, sume spolium mei juris, et gloria veniat mihi in partem tecum, ' damsel of Nonacris, take the spoils