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XII. 1. paribus, 'even, steady.' || Caducifer, Mercury, as messenger of the gods, bore the Caduceus, or herald's staff.—2. Munychios, Munychia was one of the three ports of Athens.—4—7. Jn. forte illa die casta puellæ portabant de more pura sacra coronatis canistris in festas arces Pallădis, vertice supposito. || Deus ales, the winged god,' Mercury.-18. pompa, 'the procession.'—23. diversa, the other way,'

e. the earth. - 24. fiducia forme, gen. objecti, confidence in his good looks.'-25. quæ, sc. fiducia. || illam, sc. formam. 34. scitarier, old form of infin. pass. scitari.-36. Mercury was grandson of Atlas and his consort Pleïonê.--41, 42. Jn. Aglauros aspicit hunc iisdem oculis, quibus nuper viderat abdita secreta flava Minerva.—48. Ægida, Greek acc. of ægis. || subit, it occurs' (to her) she remembers.'_50. Lemnicola, the dweller at Lemnos,' a title of Vulcan, who was specially worshipped in that island. - 53. Jn. protinus petit (Minerva) tecta Invidiæ, squalentia nigro tabo. 58. belli, gen. depending on metuenda, after the Greek idiom, for bello.67. Jn. atque duxit vultum ad ima suspiria, 'and at her deep sighs distorted her features.'-69. recta acies, direct, straight-forward look.'—71. quem, sc. risum.—73. Jn. videt ingratos successus hominum atque intabescit videndo. || ingratos,' unwelcome' (to her).—74. carpitque et carpitur una, she at once gnaws and is gnawed.'— 76. Tritonia, a name of Minerva, who was born on the banks of the Libyan river, Triton. — 79. impressa tellurem repulit hasta, ‘sprung up from the ground by aid of her lance pressed against it.'-81. Jn. indoluit, successurum (esse) Minerva (dat.).— 87. Tritonida arcem, Athens, as sacred to Minerva.–99. Cecropis, the Cecropid, i.e. daughter of Cecrops, namely, Aglauros.—104. neque . . . . que, closer conjunction of the partitive clauses : 'which (the briers) yield no flame, but consume in slow vapour.'--107. Jn. denique sedit in adverso limine, exclusura venientem deum (sc. Mercurium). 108. Jn. cui, jactanti blandimenta precesque ver baque mitissima, dixit: Desine, &c.— 110. nisi te repulso, ' until after that I shall have sent you off.'-111. stemus pacto isto, let us stand to that bargain.'

XIII. 2. genitor, his sire,' sc. Jupiter.-5. Jx. atque, quæ tellus suspěcit tuam matrem a parte sinistra ... hanc (tellurem) pete. A circumlocution for Phænicia, where the Pleiads (one of which was Maia, mother of Mercury) are seen to the south. Jove must be considered as speaking with his face towards the west.—6. Sidonida, sc. tellurem, Greek acc.—7. Jn. atque verte armentum regale, quod vides pasci procul montano gramine, ad litora.-9. jamdudum,' already,' on the instant'=' no sooner said than done.'

- 16. induitur, pass. middle with acc. - 20. toris, 'muscles.' || armis, abl. of armus, ' shoulders.'-35. falsa, 'counterfeit.'-36. æquora ponti, 'level surface of the deep.'

XIV. 2. Dictæa, ' Cretan:' in the eastern part of Crete was the mountain Dicte, where Jupiter was brought up, and had a temple.-5. pius et sceleratus, an oxymôron. il pius, ' towards his daughter,' sceleratus, ' towards his son.'— 13. fac condas, a full imperative for 'do (=take care that) thou build.' || Boeotia, sc. moenia, adj.-17. legit vestigia presso gressu, ' he gathers up the

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footmarks (i. e. he follows the track) with pressing step' (i.e. the deep set, sinking tread of one who walks slowly).-32. Martius, ' belonging to Mars.' || cristis et auro. Hendiadys, or signification of one thing by two substantive names ; literally,

crest and gold'=cristis auratis, gilded crest,' i.e. crest of golden hue.'–43. erectus plus media parte, reared as to (=rearing) more than his half.'-45. The constellation Draco.-56. spatiosi corporis, gen. of property, de on hostem.- 59. molarem,

grind- or mill-stone,' such a large stone as might be so used.—66. lenta, 'pliant.'—77, 78. modo... interdum, partitive,' at one time ... at another.'—78. cingitur, pass. middle, 'wreathes,'' twists himself.'—79. impete, old form=impetu.—84. in acuzine, 'on the spear point.'—88, 89. plagam sedere cedendo arcebat, ' by giving way hindered the stroke from penetrating.'-90. in gutture belongs to pressit, not to conjectum. || conjectum, thrust.'-91. eunti, sc. serpenti.-94. gemuit, sc. arbor, alluding to the sound of the lashing of the serpent's tail against the tree.-95. spatium, 'the bulk.' — 96. neque erat cognoscere promtum, 'one could not readily make out.' — 98. Alluding to Cadmus's own transformation afterwards.—102. supponere motæ terræ, 'to put under the ground turned up (by the plough).'—103. incrementa, ' means of increase,''seed.' -106. fide majus, ' beyond belief.'—107. acies hasta, 'spear-point.' -111. The curtain in front of the stage in the ancient theatre was raised, not dropped, as with us.—123. suo Marte, 'war of their own,'

their own arms.'— 125. matrem, 'the earth.'-) 26. quinque superstitibus, abl. abs.–129. Sidonius hospes, the stranger from Sidon,' i. e. Cadmus.—130. Phoebeïs sortibus, ' by the oracle of Phæbus;' see iv. 109.

XV. 6. Jn. dum retractant prima fata domus. 7. relegunt, recollect.' — 8. Jn. num ille serpens, trajectus mea cuspide, sacer fuerit.—38. appositi, 'adjacent.'

XVI. 5. Hyantius =* Bæotius,' the people of this land were anciently called Hyantes.7. altera, . the next.'— 20. Jn. (fons) incinctus patulos hiatus margine gramineo. Il patulos hiatus, respect. acc. depending on incinctus. 24. retentos, ‘unbent,' strung.'-28. solutis, sc. capillis, abl. of property.—29. Nephele, &c., names invented by the poet from the Greek.-31. Titania, Diana, as sister of the sun.-32. dilata parte, abl. abs. 'put off,' • deferred.'36. Jn. sic hausit aquas, quas habuit.37. comas, sc. Acteonis.-42. Autonoecus, Actæon was son of Autonoe, daughter of Cadmus.-50. Names of the hounds, as above, ver. 29.-60. substricta ilia, 'close or small belly.'-65. frontem, respect. acc., ‘marked by a black forehead with white on each side of it.'—81, sqq. Jn. atque etsi non habet sonum hominis, tamen (habet), quem cervus non possit edere. — 90. segnem, ' inactive. ll queruntur, &c., ' upbraid him for being too sluggish to catch sight of the game.'

XVII. 1. Jn. atque Cephīsius jam addiderat unum annum ad ter quinos (annos). Circumlocution for “the son of Cephisus (Narcissus) was now sixteen years old.”—4. reticere loquenti

, to refrain from replying to a speaker.' || loquenti, dat. of relation.5. resonabilis, .sound-repeating.' – 8. verba novissima, the last

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uttered words.'-15. natura, her incapability of speech.'—16. Js, nec sinit (ut) incipiat.—29. Jn. ferunt, ossa traxisse figuram.31. omnibus, dat. of agent.-50. quod amas, avertere, perdes, avertere, (imperative) pass. middle, turn aside, thou wilt do away with that which thou lovest.'-54. Cereris, 'of food.'—67. dicto "vale,'

as he had said Farewell.'—-72. imposuere sectos capillos fratri, to be resolved into secuerunt et posuerunt,' cut off and devoted.'

XVIII. 11. novus, as yet unknown.' – 15. eveniet, * (all this) will come to pass.' -- 18. fides sequitur dicta, .fulfilment attends his words.'—21. que joined to vulgus, lengthened by standing in arsis ; see iii. 29.-25, sqq. Jn. ut femineæ voces et insania, mota vino, atque obsceni greges et inania tympana vincant (eos), quos non belliger ensis, non tuba, non agmina strictis telis terruerint ?–48. actutum, ' in a moment.' — 49. assumptum, pretended.' || commenta, ' fictitious'-50. Acrisio : Acrisius, king of Argos, rejected the divinity of Bacchus.—52. Penthea, Greek acc. of Pentheus.55. hunc, sc. Pentheum. ll avus, sc. Cadmus. || Alhamas, uncle of Pentheus, and husband of Ino.--56. corripiunt dictis, 'reprove him with words.'-57. Jn. atque retenta rabies irritatur et crescit. -59, sąg. Jn. sic ego vidi torrentem decurrere lenius et modico strepitu, qua nil obstabat eunti ; at spumeus et fervens et sævior ab objice ibat, quacumque trabes atque obstructa saca tenebant (eum). -62. ab objice sævior, more enraged by (reason of) the obstacle.'-67. One of Etrurian race, who once had followed (the progress of) the sacred rites of the god. || Tyrrhena, Tyrrhene or Etrurian, while this Pelasgic race was yet in Lydia, before their settlement in Italy. — 74. Jn. pater non reliquit mihi arva, quæ duri juvenci colerent.-84. JN. addidici flectere regimen carinæ moderante dextra. ll addidici, I learnt besides. ll regimen, 'the helm,' the steerage.'-85. Oleniæ capella, the goat that nursed Jupiter, and was raised to the skies, was of Olenos in Ætolia. Taigetê (daughter of Atlas) one of the Pleiades. Arctos, the Bear.–89. adducor litora=ducor ad litora.—98. virginea forma, abl. of property.–105. pro nobis mitte precari, • let alone praying for us.'-109. requiemque modumque voce dabat, remis, ' by his voice regulated the rowing,' i. e. by keeping time. - 112. hanc pinum,

this bark.'-114. Jn. atque obsisto in aditu, 'and I stand in the way at the entrance.' 118. resto, I resist.' || rupit, to be understood of the attempt=rumpere voluit.—126. Jn. et ede, quos portus velis contingere, sistere terra petita. || terra sistère petita,

you shall be set ashore where you wish.'-127. Naxon, Greek acc., see Table.-131. dextera, here=dextrorsum, towards the right hand,' in sea phrase,' a-starboard.' || lintea danti, 'setting the sails.'—132. Jn. quis furor tenet te, Acote, quisque inquit pro se.—138. Jn. omnis nostra salus posita est in te uno. Il scilicet, • forsooth!' used tauntingly.—140. See xii. 23.–141. Jn. tamquam senserit fraudem modo denique. • Pretending, shamming,' as if he were only then at last aware of the trick.–147. jamdudum flebam, 'I the while was weeping,' words of Acætes. -149. ipsum, deum, Bacchum.—150, 151. tam vera, quam majora

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fide veri, 'as true as beyond credibility,' i. e. really true, however incredible they may seem.—154. gemina ope, of both oars and sails.'—156. distinguunt, ' variegate,'' adorn.' - 157. frontem circumdatus, respective acc. having his brow encircled.' — 159. quem, deum, Bacchum. ll inania simulacra, ‘unsubstantial forms,'

apparitions.' — 165. Jn. et rictus (erant) lati loquenti et naris erat panda, as he spoke his mouth became wide, and his nostrils upturned.' — 167. obvertere remos, "to back the oars.'172. novissima cauda, “the end of the tail.' — 173. sinuantur, middle pass. “form a hollow.' 180. (me) vix meum, (hardly my own=) hardly myself,''hardly self-possessed.' - 181. tene Diam, hold for (make for) Dia.' This was an ancient name of Naxos.—184. ut ira, &c., so that wrath might waste its strength in delay.'-190. Jn. fama est, fores patuisse sponte sua, atque catenas lapsas (esse) lacertis sponte sua nullo solvente (abl. abs.). — 199. Jn. silvis cingentibus ultima (acc. neut. pl.). || ultima, sc. montis, its lowest parts,' base.'-201, sqq. Jn. hic mater (Penthei) prima videt illum, cernentem sacra oculis profanis, prima est concita insano motu, prima violavit suum Penthea misso thyrso.—204. Io! cry of the Bacchants. | gemina sorores, Autonoe and Ino.-206. mihi, dat. of agent.--212. Jn. illa (Autonoe) nescit, quid Act@on (sit). - 213. Inoo raptu, by Ino's tearing '-220. autumno is here an adj., ' autumnal.'

XIX. 1, sqq. Jn. sacerdos jusserat, dominas atque famulas, immunes operum suorum, celebrare festum, tegi pectora pelle, solvere crinales vittas, suměre serta comis, frondentes thyrsos manibus, et vaticinatus erat, iram lasi numinis fore sævam.-3. tegi pectora, respective acc., to have their breasts covered.'-7. longo foramine buxus, the flute of box wood, with a long row of holes.'10. turbantes, &c., “interrupting the festival with unseasonable (work of) Minerva.'— 14. cessant, are leaving off work,' idling.'-—19. primamque jubent narrare, and bid her first tell a story.'—27. jure tæda coissent, 'they would have been united by law of the torch,' i. e. by marriage.-31. quoque=et quo.--32. Jn. paries, communis domui utrique, fissus erat tenui rima, quam duxerat olim, quum fieret. || duxerat, “it had got.'--38. constiterant, . had stationed themselves.' -45. non pervenientia contra, 'not reaching to the other side.'—59. adoperta vultum, respect. acc., ' having her face muffled.' — 61. Jn. ecce leæna, oblita (partop. perf. of oblino) spumantes rictus recenti cæde boum, venit depositura sitim in unda vicini fontis.-- 62. oblíta spumantes rictus (respective acc.), ' having her foaming jaws besmeared.'-—76. Jn. qui jussi (ut), venires nocte in loca plena metus (gen.). - 80. timidi (gen. subjecti), “'tis a coward's part.'—87. vitiato plumbo,' when the lead is injured.'— 92. puniceo, 'crimson.' 95. Jn. atque gestit narrare, quanta pericula vitarit.---100, 101. æquoris, the level sea.' || summum, its surface.' || stringitur, 'is lightly touched,' grazed.'-104. laniata comas, respective acc.-111. recondidit (oculos) visa illa (Thisbe), and closed them again after seeing her.'-113. ebur, • the ivory' (scabbard).-115. Jn. manus est fortis et mihi in unum

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hoc. || in unum hoc, 'for this one thing.'— 134. non apparentia, .invisible.'-149. diversæ locis, see i. 36, 173; iii. 11. - 158. nomen a vespere, i. e. vespertilio, ' bat.'

XX.-2. matertera, his mother's sister,' i.e. Ino, who had brought up Bacchus.—4. una de tot sororibus : de is used to de. note the whole, of which a part is specified.-5, sqq. Jn. Juno aspicit hanc, habentem sublīmes animos natis atque thalamo Athamantis et alumno numine (ab). cause). || natis, thalamo, &c., ablatives of cause, belonging to sublīmes. || alumni numine, the god her nursling.–7. de pellice natus, ' the issue of a paramour,' i. e. Bacchus.-8. vertere,' transform.'- 13. ipse, sc. Bacchus.—14. Penthea, abl. of possessive adj.-15. cur non, &c., 'why should not Ino be goaded, and in her own madness follow the examples of her kindred??-21. senta, rough,''briery.' || Jn. atque novi Mānes ignorant, qua iter sit, quod ducit ad Stygiam urbem, ubi fera regia nigri Dītis sit. -24. Jn. capax urbs habet mille aditus.—26. ulli populo, ‘for people to any amount.'—27. turbamve accedere sentit, 'nor feels that a crowd is growing,' i. e. 'that it is becoming crowded.'—29. imi tyranni,

of the infernal sovereign,'' of the sovereign of the lower world.'— 32. Jn. Saturnia Juno sustinet ire illuc.-36. sorores genitas nocte, 'the Furies.'—40. quam, sc. Junonem.-41. sedes scelerata,' the abode of the guilty.'—50. ante omnes Ixiona, because of his criminal behaviour towards herself. || ab illo, away from him (Ixion).-51. e fratribus, Sisyphus was brother of Athamas.-53. Jn. qui (Athamas) cum conjuge (Ino) semper sprevit me.-56. et (ut) traherent in facinus, ' and that they would draw him into a crime.'—65. Thaumantias Iris, see Table of Greek nouns.-67. importuna,,' merciless.'-68. induitur, incingitur, passive mid.—72. Folii, i. e. of Athamas, son of Æolus. –75. infelix, here in an active sense, causing unhappiness,' 'baneful.'—86. Echidna, daughter of Chrysaor, gave birth to Cerberus.87. errores vagos,' delirium.' || mentis, gen. subjecti.—93,94. A picture drawn from whirling a torch so as to show to the eye an uninterrupted circle of fire.-96. recingitur, pass, mid. with acc., 'ungirds herself of the snakes she had put on.'— 100. Jn. atque amens sequitur vestigia conjugis, ut feræ.-105. causa veneni, gen. subjecti=* the cause derived from the poison,' i. e. the poison itself.- 108. Evoe, evoi. — 115. recanduit, turned white,' • foamed.' — 116. neptis, because her mother was Harmonia, daughter of Venus.-118.Jn. Neptune, cui potestas, proxima cælo, cessit. || cui cessit, lit. to whom yielded itself='to whom belongs.'—120. Scan: Jāctālrīquos cērnīs in | "lonilõīm|mēnso: o in Ionio not being elided. Ionio absolutely for Ionio mari. The poet's geography is here indistinct, for the spot indicated does not seem to belong to the Ionian sea, as commonly understood. — 120. JN. aliqua gratia est et mihi ponto, I have some claim for favour with the sea, if so be that (=seeing that) I once was foam concreted in the midst of the deep, from which my name in Greek abides by me. This alludes to her Greek name 'Appodirn, foam-born. -122. Jn. si tamen fui quondam concreta spuma in medio profundo. - 127. Leucotheê, abl. to be coupled with matre. Neptune made Ino and Melicertes into deities

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