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Dixit, et in pectus tum demum vulnera passum,

Qua patuit ferro, letalem condidit ensem. 410 Nec valuere manus in fixum educere telum ;

Expulit ipse cruor, rubefactaque sanguine tellus
Purpureum viridi genuit de cespite florem, 395
Qui prius Ebalio fuerat de vulnere natus.

Litera communis mediis pueroque viroque
415 Inscripta est foliis, hæc nominis, illa querelæ.



I. INTROD.-Jn. Animus (meus) fert (me), dicere formas, mutatas in nova corpora, my mind prompts me to relate, &c.'—et, to be construed with mutastis. The gods are invoked to favour the celebration of what was also their own work. || mutastis=mutatistis. ! illas, sc. formas.---Aspirare (ad-spirare, aspirare alicui rei), lit. "to breathe to,' is used figuratively in the sense of favouring, the notion being borrowed from that of a favorable wind filling the sails.-deducite, draw out;' fig. from drawing out a thread in spinning. ll perpetuum carmen, a connected, unbroken song;' because the tales in the “ Metamorphoses” are derived from one another in an uninterrupted, continuous order.-3. Quem takes the gender of the antecedent vultus. ll indigesta moles, descriptive of (naturæ) vultus, and in apposition to it.- 4. nec quicquam (erat), &c., nor any thing'=' and (there was) nothing.' || iners, from in, 'not,' and ars, art.'-6. Titan, properly one of the Titans, the sons of Uranus and Gæa (Terra), here the sun-god, son of the Titan Hyperion.-9. librata. The ancients believed that the earth was a circular flat surface, poised about an axis, which ran through its centre, and that it was surrounded by the ocean, and suspended in the air.-10. Amphitrite, the consort of the sea-god Neptune, and goddess of the sea.-ll. Quaque, &c.

Wherever there was earth, there was also sea and air.12. instabilis, unfit for standing on, affording no footing.13. sua forma, its' proper distinct form.-14. Obstabat, &c., one thing stood in the way of another.--16. habentia pondus (pugnabant cum iis quæ erant) sine pondere.-17. Jn. deus et melior natura diremit hanc litem.-18. cælo and terris are ablatives. - 19. liquidum coelum, the fine ether supposed to exist above the lower atmosphere. ll spisso aere, the air or atmosphere.-20. Quæ= . et hæc,' or 'et ea. || evolvit, 'disentangled.' ll Jn. Et postquam evolvit hæc atque exemit cæco acervo (ablat.), ligavit dissociata locis concordi pace='dissociavit locis et ligavit,' &c.-21. dissociata locis, 'separately disposed in (their respective places); locally separated.'

-22. ignea, &c. Jn. ignea et sine pondere vis convexi cæli emicuit. The fiery and imponderous force of the vaulted sky sprang forth upwards, i. e. the ether rose up from its rarity and levity.-23. arx, properly 'a fastness or stronghold,' from arceo, poetically for a height=high place, generally.-26. sui, genit. of the personal pro

noun, instead of the possessive sua, by the weight of itself,' more forcible than by its own weight.'-28. Jn. Ubi ille deorum, quisquis fuit, secuit sie congeriem dispositam atque redegit seclam in membra : principio glomeravit terram in speciem magni orbis, ne foret non æqualis ab omni parte. ll deorum, partitive genit. depend. ing on ille.-30. ne non æqualis =ut æqualis, periphrasis of an affirmative by two negatives.—32. diffudit. Some editions have diffundi, infin. pass., depending on jussit.— 33. ambitæ, not ambitæ ; for ambire, though a compound of ire, is inflected regularly after the fourth conjugation.-36. diversa locis, poet. for diversis locis. Il ipsa, sc. terra. — 39. extendi, the passive middle, “to stretch (themselves).' || Jn. atque ut duæ zonæ secant coelum dextra parte atque totidem (zonæ secant) sinistra (parte), quinta (zona) est ardentior illis : sic cura dei distinxit onus inclusum numero eodem.-43. inclusum onus, i. e. the earth, enclosed by the heavens.—44. plaga, stripes or portions with parallel boundaries. Il premuntur, are impressed, marked out on.- - 46, 47. locavit.-dedit, sc. cura dei.48. his, dative (sc. quinque plagis). || Jn. qui (sc. aer) est tanto onerosior igni (ablat.), quanto pondus aquæ est levius pondere terra. –49. igni, ablat.-- 50. illic, there,' that is, in the air. ll consistere, to be stationed.'-51. motura, that were to disturb;' alluding to their future effects. — 52. cum fulminibus ventos= fulmina et ventos, 'the lightnings too, and the winds,' &c.-53. Jn. fabricator mundi non permisit passim aera his quoque habendum. II. fabricator, &c. • The architect of the universe did not give up the air to these (winds) to be occupied (by them) promiscuously.' 54. obsistitur illis, impers. pass. with dat., . they are with difficulty restrained.' — 55. quisque, collectively, they all, every one;' hence, some editions have regant in the plural. — 56. quin lanient, from tearing to pieces.' fratrum, the winds, according to the myth, were the sons of Astræus and Aurora. 57. Aurora, here=the eastern side of the world, as Vesper (v. 63) is the western.- 58. radiis, &c., the heights that lie beneath the morning rays.—59. litora, the shores of the Atlantic. The earth, as known to the Greeks and Romans, was bounded eastwards by mountain ridges, and westwards by the Atlantic ocean.60. Septemque trionem, tmesis for Septemtrionemque. Septemtriones in the plural; less frequently, Septemtrio in the sing., i. e. Septem triones, the seven plough-steers, the name of the constellation of seven stars about the north pole, called also the Wain, and the Great and Little Bears; thence, figuratively, for the north.— 62. ab, used after madescit, because Austro is the ablative of what is regarded as a personal agent (see v. 36).–63. hæc super

= super hæc, 'over these' (sc. the regions of the air and winds). || imposuit-dissepserat (v. 65), sc. cura dei, or deus.—65. Jn. cum siděra, quæ latuere diu, pressa sub illa massa, coeperunt effervescere toto colo. The stars are regarded as animated beings. Il forme deorum, a circumlocution for the gods theniselves.--73. Deerat, to be used as a dissyllable.—74. Jn. sive ille opifex rerum, origo mundi melioris, fecit hunc divino semine, sive, &c.—75. mundi melioris,' the better world,' in reference to its improvement from the original Chaos.- 76. seducta, 'separated, parted from.'-78. quam (sc. tellurem). || satus, from sěro, sēvi, sătum. || satus Iapeto, Prometheus, son of Iapetus. || Iapetus, of four syllables, a Titan. Il mixtam-finxit=miscuit et finxit.-83. Jn. sic tellus, quæ modo fuerat modo rudis et sine imagine, conversa induit ignotas figuras hominum. The idea is here pursued that mankind were formed of the substance of the earth.

II. Picture of the Golden Age.-3. Ære, allusion to the tables of brass on which the Roman laws were inscribed. || turba, collective, therefore verb plural. - 5. erant, sc. homines, men.-6. Jn. Nondum pinus, cæsa suis montibus, descenderat in liquidas undas, ut viseret peregrinum orbem. ll suis montibus=' on its native mounlains.'—8. mortales (Ovntoi)=men, as a more select expression, which, however, is used in prose. Nepos (Con. v. 1): accidit huic quod ceteris mortalibus.-12. secura, "free from care' (from se, *without,' and cura, "care.'— 13. Jn. Ipsa quoque tellus, immunis atque intacta rastro nec saucia ullis romeribus, dăbat omnia per se. ll immunis, 'not subject to service.'-21. Mor=præterea, ‘moreover, besides.'—22. Nec renovatus, that is, without being refreshed by fallowing, for which there was then no occasion.-24. mella, pi. drops or streams of honey.-25. The Silver Age. 26. Jn. argentea proles, deterior auro, pretiosior fulvo ære, subiit postquam mundus erat sub Jove, Saturno misso in tenebrosa Tartara.-28. antiqui veris, of the original spring,' which (v.19) was perpetual.-29. A spondaic line. ll inæquales,' variable (in weather).'-- 39. non scelerata, not actually guilty, though disposed to violence. ll de, often used to denote the material of which any thing is made.-41. Jn. Omne něfas irrumpit protinus in ævum pejoris vena. — 45. Jn. Quæque carine (=atque carinæ quæ) steterant diu in altis montibus insultavere ignotis fluctibus. - 47. Jn. atque cautus mensor signavit humum, prius communem ceu_lumina solis et auras, longo limite. -49. segetes alimentaque. The passive poscebatur governs an acc. of the thing demanded. || debita, due,' because the earth owed a return with increase of the seed committed to it.-50. itum est, impersonal passive, they went.'-51. Jn. atque quas (sc. opes) recondiderat (deus) atque admoverat Stygiis umbris.54. utroque, ablat.‘ of instrument,' with both (sc. gold and iron). -56. vivítur, impers. pass. 'they live. Il ex rapto, ‘on what is plundered'=by plunder.— 58. illa (sc. "conjur imminet exitio) mariti. Imminēre, 'to hang over;' fig. =' to long for.'-61. Jn. et Virgo Astræa, ultima coelestum, reliquit terras, madentes cæde.-62. coelestum, poet. gen. for coelestium.

III. 2. Jn. et referens foeda convivia Lycaoniæ mense, nondum vulgata facto recenti. ll.facto nondum vulgata recenti, not yet notorious, on account of its recent occurrence.-3. referens, 'recollecting.' -8. lactea, sc. via. Lactea, simply stating the name, is used in the nom. with nomen, just as an indeclinable noun is used. 10. celebrantur, are visited, are thronged.' The picture is drawn after Roman distinctions and usages.-11. plebs, being a



collective noun, has a plural verb, habitat. — 12. penates, the old Latin tutelar deities of houses, used as general term for homes.-15. terque quaterque, poetically for repeatedly.16. cum quamovit. Imitated from Homer, Il. i. 529, 530.- 18. magis ancius, supply quam nunc. — 20. Anguipedum (sc. Gigantum), -21, 22. uno corpore, one body,' i.e. one united band, in contrast to the various independent impieties of mankind.23. mihi, dependent on perdendum (v. 24), I must destroy the whole human race.-26. cuncta prius tentata (sc. sunt a me), I have already tried every thing. - 29. A spondaic line to be scanned thus: Faūnīsquē Sătý|rīqu' ēt|monticoslāe Sillvāni. Que in Faunique is long, because it stands in the arsis of the second foot. -31. sinamus, &c., 'let us allow,' &c., i. e. let us take care that they may be secure from the violence of mankind.-32. Jr. an creditis, o Superi, illos fore satis tutos, quum Lycaon, notus feritate, struxerit insidias mihi, qui habeo atque rego fulmen et vos ?–40. ille (sc. Lycaon) quidem, "he, be sure. ll admissum, substantively, the guilt, the crime.'—41. Jn. tamen docebo, quod admissum (sit or fuerit), quæ vindicta sit.-42. temporis, 'the time'=' the age,' the state of the world.'—44. Deus, 'I though a god,' 'god as I am.' –47. Mænala, n. pl., or sing. Menalus, i, m. a mountain in Arcadia.-48. Cyllēne, ablat. of Cyllene, es, a hill, in the northeastern part of Arcadia. || Lycæus, a hill in southern Arcadia. –49. Arcados, Greek genit. of Arcas, Arcadian.-53. Jn. Experiar discrimine aperto, hic deus sit, an mortalis, discrimine aperto. --56. experientia veri, test of the truth.'-57. eo, therewith,' i. e. with murdering me. || Jn. resolvit jugulum unius obsidis, missi de gente Molussa, mucrone.-61. quos, sc. artus. || simul=simulac, 'as soon as.' || Jn. ego everti tecta in penates, dignos dominum, vindice flamma.—62. in does not belong to domino, but to penates.

- 63. ille, sc. Lycaon.- 64. ab ipso colligit os rabien=rabies ipsius colligitur in os, 'the ferocity of his nature is all gathered into his mouth.'—66. vertitur, the passive middle, he turns tipon the cattle.'—71. non domus una, 'not (merely) one house.' || digna perire, poet. construction of dignus, with an infinitive. 76. partes implent, 'perform their part,' do what was required. The image is taken from the proceedings of a Roman deliberative assembly, in which some spoke in approval of a matter proposed, others declared assent by nods, or holding up hands.

IV. 6. tectus vultum, ' covered as to his features,' i. e. ' having his features covered.' An adj. or partop. pass. with the respective accus. is a very frequent construction in poetry, see iv. 11, below. - 9. pressit, sc. Notus. — 10. funduntur, passive middle,

pour,' absolutely or neuter.–12. concipit, 'draws together,' 'becomes full of.' – 13. deplorata, 'given up for lost,' • forlorn.'16. cæruleus frater, Neptune.-17, 18. tyranni sui, their lord, their sovereign.-20. mole remotá, setting aside all obstacles, namely, dams, embankments, &c.-21. immittite habenas, give the rein,' a figure borrowed from horsemanship (the manége).-23. volvuntur, passive middle.-24. ipse, sc. Neptunus.--27. cumque satis,


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