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him, nor serve him. They say, God looks to the heart, and they hope and trust in him, and give their hearts to him, though they do not go about the outward worship as some others do, but their hearts are as true with God as theirs for all that. These, I say, lie fair for worshipping images; for if the devil were come, their house is empty, swept, and garnished. They may worship idols, for they do not worship God in secret, or in their families. If the book-prayers of England, and the idolatrous prayers of Rome, were come to their hand, there is no other worship to be put out for them, for they have no other.
What they talk of their hearts towards God, therein they join with the Papists, who put the second command out of the number of the ten. For the worship of God which they slight on that pretence, is the very worship required in this command. Now, let us try whether ye that will hold with the worship of the heart, or this command that requires outward bodily worship too, has most reason on your side.
1st, Is not God the God of the whole man, the body as well as the soul? Christ has redeemed the body as well as the soul; the Spirit dwells in the bodies of his people as well as their souls. The whole man, soul and body, is taken into the covenant. The body shall be glorified in heaven as well as the soul, or burn in hell as well as the soul. Is it not highly reasonable, then, that we worship God with outward bodily worship, as well as with the inward worship of the heart ?
2dly, God will not only be worshipped by us, but glorified before men, Matth. xvi. 24. But our inward worship can. not do that, for that is what none can know but God and our own souls. Therefore outward worship is necessary. If men will be accounted God's servants, why will they not take on his badge?
3dly, Out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speak. eth in other cases, and why not in this ? The apostle says grace in the hearts appears by the mouth to the honour of God, Rom. x. 10. And though outward worship may be performed where there is no inward in the heart, yet if the heart be a temple to God, the smoke will rise up from the altar, and appear without in outward worship.
Lastly, Outward worship is not only a sign of the inward, but it is a help and furtherance to it. Prayer is a blessed
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mean to increase our love to God, sorrow for sin, faith, hope, and other parts of heart-worship. So, the partaking of the sacrament of the Lord's supper, another part of external worship, in the profane neglect of which many live, is not only a mean appointed, whereby we publicly profess our. selves engaged to the Lord, but is the mean to strengthen faith, and confirm our union and communion with him.
2. Thou shalt fall in with and use the external worship and ordinances which God has appointed. This is implied in that, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, &c. They are made already, God has made them, and ye must use those that God has made, that worship, and those ordinances. And thus, by this command we are bound to all the parts of God's worship, and to all his ordinances appointed in his word. If we baulk any of them, it is at our peril. It is not enough to leave idolatrous or superstitious worship and ordinances, but we must inquire what are the Lord's statutes, that we may do them.
I come now to thaf question, "What is required in the second commandment ? The second commandment requireth the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire all such religious worship and ordinances as God hath appointed in his word.'
In handling this point, I shall shew,
I. What is that religious worship, and those ordinances, which God hath appointed in his word.
II. What is our duty with reference to those ordinances. · I. I shall shew what is that religious worship, and those ordinances which God hath appointed in his word. That God has appointed that religious worship, and those ordinançes, whereby we are outwardly to glorify him, is evident from this, that God will be so honoured by us, yet has forbidden us to make any thing that way, consequently they are made by himself in his word. These ordinances appointed in the word are,
1. Prayer, whereby we tender to him the homage due from a creature to his Creator, acknowledging our depende ence on him as the Author of all good. The parts of it are petition, confession, and thanksgiving. And that public in the assemblies, Acts ii. 42; private in lesser societies, particularly in families, Jer. x. ult; and secret, every one by
himself, Mat. vi. 6. none of them to justle out another, In these we are tied to no form.
2. Praises in singing psalms, whereby we give him the praise due to him. And this is appointed, both publicly, Psal. cxlix. 1. and privately, Jam. v, 13. This is to be done in all simplicity becoming the gospel, singing them with grace in the heart, Col. iii. 16; not playing them on musical instruments, of which there is not one word in the New Testament.
3. Reading of God's word, and hearing it read, both publicly, Acts xv. 21. and privately, John v. 39; whereby we honour God, consulting his oracles,
4. The preaching of the word, and hearing it preached, 2 Tim. iv. 2. 2. Kings iv. 23. And consequently the ministry is an ordinance of God, Rom. x. 15. Eph. iv. 11, 12. and the maintenance thereof, 1 Cor. ix, 14. by an ordinance of God, though there should be no ordinance of the state for it.
5. Administration and receiving of the sacraments, to wit, baptism in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, Mat. xxviii. 19. and the Lord's supper, 1 Cor xi, 23, &c. both which are left us in much gospel-simplicity. By these we solemnly avouch ourselves to be the Lord's, and receive the seals of his covenant, geting our faith of covenant, blessings confirmed.
6. Fasting, or extraordinary prayer with fasting, when the Lord by his providence calls for it, as when tokens of his anger do in a special manner appear. And this is public, in the congregation, Joel ii. 12, 13. and private too, as in fa. milies, 1 Cor. vii. 5. and secret, Matth. vi. 17, 18. See Zech. xii. 12, 13, 14. The same is to be said of extraordiDary prayer, with thanksgiving.
7. Church government and discipline. Christ has ap. pointed a government in his church, and has not left it to men to dispose of it, Heb. iii. 5, 6. 1 Cor. xii. 28. He has appointed his officers, which are pastors and doctors. Eph. iv. 11, ruling elders and deacons, 1 Cor. xii. 28. And besides these the scripture knows no ordinary church-officers, The three first are, by his appointment, church-rulers. They have the power of discipline, Matth. xviii. 17, 18. to rebuke scandalous offenders publicly, 1 Tim. vi. 20. to excommunicate the contumacious, 1 Cor. v. 4, 5. And as
mongst these officers of the same kind there is a parity by divine appointment, excluding both Pope and Prelate, Matth. xx. 26. There is also a subordination of judicatories, Acts xv. which is the government we call Presbyterial.
8. Instructing and teaching in the ways of the Lord, not only by ministers, but by masters of families, who are to teach their families, Gen. xviii. 19. Deut. vi. 6, 7.
9. Lastly, Spiritual conference, Mal. iii. 16. Deut. vi. 7. and swearing, of which we shall treat in the third commande ment.
II. I shall shew what is our duty with reference to these ordinances. It is fourfold.
1. We must receive them in our principles and profession. We must carry them as the badge of our subjection to our God, Micah iv. 5.
2. We must observe them in our practice, Matth. xvii. 20. For what end do we receive these ordinances, if we make no conscience of the practice of them? We will be in that case as the servant that knew his master's will, but did it not. So here there is a number of duties laid on us by this command. It requires us also to pray, ministers to pray publicly and the people to join; masters of families to pray in their families, and the family to join with them; and each of us to pray in secret. It requires all of us to sing the Lord's praises, privately and publicly. It requires church officers to exercise church-discipline, and offenders to submit thereunto, &c. &c.
3. We must do our duty to keep them pure, that nothing of men's inventions be added to them, and that whatever others mix with them, we adhere to the purity of ordinances, 1 Cor. xi. 2.
4. We must do our duty to keep them entire, that nothing be taken from them, Deut. xii. ult. for both adding and paring in these matters are abominable to the Lord.
Finally, It requires us, in consequence of this, to disapprove, detest, and oppose, according to our several places and stations, all worship that is not appointed of God, whether superstitious or idolatrous, and, according to our several places and stations, to endeavour the removal of the same, Acts xvii. 16, 17. Deut. vii. 5.
I proceed to consider what is forbidden in the second commandment. Ans. ” The second commandment forbiddeth
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the worshipping of God by images, or any other way not appointed in his word.' The sum of the second commandment is, That we worship God according as he has appointed in his word, and no otherwise. Hence there are two ways in the general, whereby this command is broken, viz. by irreligion and false worship.
FIRST, Irreligion is the not shewing a due regard to, and not duly complying with the worship and ordinances appointed by God in his word, Job xv. 4. It is a sin against this command in defect, as false worship is in excess. It is a not worshipping of God with external worship and by means appointed, as false worship is worshipping in a way not appointed. And it is as much forbidden in this command, as to have no God at all is in the first. There are several sorts of that irreligion, all here forbidden.
1. The not receiving, but rejecting the worship and ordi. nances of God, Hos. viii. 12. This is the sin, (1.) Of a theists, who, as they have no reverence for God, seeing they deny him, do also reject his worship. (2.) of Quakers, who throw off almost the whole external worship and ordinances of God, under the pretence of worshipping him in spirit, (3.). Of all those who do not receive, but reject any one ordinance of God whatsoever, as some do singing of psalms, others the sacraments, others the government instituted by Christ, &c.
2. All neglect of God's worship and ordinances, in not observing them in their practice. The neglect of these, though men do not professedly reject them, is very offensive, Exod. iv. 24, 25. So in this command is forbidden,
1st, The neglectof prayer, Psal. xiv. 4. How can they read or hear this command without a check, who do not bow a knee to God? This command forbids,
(1.) The neglect of public prayer in the congregation; whereof people are guilty when they unnecessarily absent themselves from the public ordinances, or, through laziness or carelessness, the prayers are over ere they come; or unnecessarily go away and leave public prayers; or do not in their hearts join and go along with the speaker in them.
(2.) The neglect of family worship, and prayers particularly, Jer. x. ult. Christian families should be churches, wherein God should be worshipped. It is the sin of the whole family, especially of the heads thereof, when it is ne