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L. Macd. Why, one that swears and lies.
Son. And be all traitors, that do so ?

L. Macd. Every one that does so, is a traitor, and must be hanged.

Son. And must they all be hanged, that swear and lie?

L. Macd. Every one.
Son. Who must hang them ?
L. Macd. Why, the honest men.

Son. Then the liars and swearers are fools; for there are liars and swearers enough to beat the honest men, and hang up them.

L. Macd. Now, God help thee, poor monkey! But how wilt thou do for a father ?

Son. If he were dead, you'd weep for him; if you would not, it were a good sign that I should quickly have a new father.

L. Macd. Poor prattler! how thou talk'st!

If

Enter a Messenger. Mess. Bless you, fair dame! I am not to you known, Though in your state of honor I am perfect I doubt, some danger does approach you nearly: you

will take a homely man's advice, Be not found here; hence, with your little ones. To fright you thus, methinks, I am too savage; To do worse to you, were fell cruelty, Which is too nigh your person. Heaven preserve you ! I dare abide no longer.

[Exit Messenger. L. Macd.

Whither should I fly? I have done no harm. But I remember now I am in this earthly world; where, to do harm, Is often laudable; to do good, sometime, Accounted dangerous folly. Why, then, alas ! Do I put up that womanly defence, To say, I have done no harm ? -What are these

faces ?

1 i. e. I am perfectly acquainted with your rank.

Enter Murderers.

Mur. Where is your husband ?

L. Macd. I hope, in no place so unsanctified,
Where such as thou may'st find him.
Mur.

He's a traitor.
Son. Thou ly’st, thou shag-eared villain.
Mur.

What, you egg! [Stabbing him. Young fry of treachery! Son.

He has killed me, mother; Run away, I pray you.

[Dies. (Exit Lady MacDUFF, crying murder,

and pursued by the Murderers.

SCENE III. England. A Room in the King's

Palace.

Enter Malcolm and MACDUFF.? Mal. Let us seek out some desolate shade, and there Weep our sad bosoms empty. Macd.

Let us rather
Hold fast the mortal sword; and, like good men,
Bestride our downfallen birthdom. Each new morn,
New widows howl; new orphans cry; new sorrows
Strike heaven on the face, that it resounds
As if it felt with Scotland, and yelled out
Like syllable of dolor.
Mal.

What I believe, I'll wail;
What know, believe; and, what I can redress,
As I shall find the time to friend, I will.

1 “Shag-eared villain.” It has been suggested that we should read shag-haired, an abusive epithet frequent in our old plays. Hair being formerly spelled heare, the corruption would easily arise.

2 This scene is almost literally taken from Holinshed's Chronicle, which is in this part an abridgment of the chronicle of Hector Boece, as translated by John Bellenden. From the recent reprints of both the Scottish and English chroniclers, quotations from them become the less necessary ; they are now accessible to the reader curious in tracing the Poet to his sources of information.

3 i. e. befriend.

What you have spoke, it may be so, perchance.
This tyrant, whose sole name blisters our tongues,
Was once thought honest; you have loved him well;
He hath not touched you yet. I am young; but

something
You may deserve of him through me; and wisdom
To offer up a weak, poor, innocent lamb,
To appease an angry god.

Macd. I am not treacherous.
Mal.

But Macbeth is.
A good and virtuous nature may recoil,
In an imperial charge. But I shall crave your pardon ;
That which you are, my thoughts cannot transpose:
Angels are bright still, though the brightest fell:
Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace,
Yet grace must still look so.3
Macd.

I have lost my hopes. Mal. Perchance, even there, where I did find my

doubts. Why in that rawness left you wife and child, (Those precious motives, those strong knots of love,) Without leave-taking ?-I pray you, Let not my jealousies be your dishonors, But mine own safeties.—You may be rightly just, Whatever I shall think. Macd.

Bleed, bleed, poor country! Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure, For goodness dares not check thee !—Wear thou thy

wrongs;

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1 “ You may deserve of him through me.” The old copy reads discerne. The emendation was made by Theobald. In the subsequent part of the line something is wanted to complete the sense. There is no verb to which wisdom can refer. Steevens conjectured that the line might originally have run thus :

- but something
You may deserve through me; and wisdom is it

To offer," &c. 2 A good mind may recede from goodness in the execution of a royal commission.

3 “ Virtue must wear its proper form, though that form be counterfeited by villany."

Thy title is affeered! – Fare thee well, lord.
I would not be the villain that thou think'st
For the whole space that's in the tyrant's grasp,
And the rich east to boot.
Mal.

Be not offended ;
I speak not as in absolute fear of you.
I think our country sinks beneath the yoke.
It weeps, it bleeds; and each new day a gash
Is added to her wounds. I think, withal,
There would be hands uplifted in my right:
And here, from gracious England, have I offer
Of goodly thousands. But, for all this,
When I shall tread upon the tyrant's head,
Or wear it on my sword, yet my poor country
Shall have more vices then it had before ;
More suffer, and more sundry ways than ever,
By him that shall succeed.
Macd.

What should he be ?
Mal. It is myself I mean ; in whom I know
All the particulars of vice so grafted,
That, when they shall be opened, black Macbeth
Will seem as pure as snow; and the poor state
Esteem him as a lamb, being compared
With my confineless harms.?
Macd.

Not in the legions Of horrid hell, can come a devil more damned In evils, to top Macbeth. Mal.

I

grant him bloody,
Luxurious,» avaricious, false, deceitful,
Sudden,' malicious, smacking of every sin
That has a name.

But there's no bottom, none,
In my voluptuousness; your wives, your daughters,
Your matrons, and your maids, could not fill up
The cistern of my lust; and my desire
All continent impediments would o'erbear,
That did oppose my will. Better Macbeth,
Than such a one to reign.

1 To affeer is a law term, signifying to assess or reduce to certainty. 2 i. e. immeasurable evils. 3 Luxurious, lascivious.

4 Sudden, passionate.

Macd.

Boundless intemperance
In nature is a tyranny; it hath been
The untimely emptying of the happy throne,
And fall of many kings. But fear not yet
To take upon you what is yours: you may
Convey your pleasures in a spacious plenty,
And yet seem cold, the time you may so hoodwink.
We have willing dames enough; there cannot be
That vulture in you, to devour so many
As will to greatness dedicate themselves,
Finding it so inclined.
Mal.

With this, there grows,
In my most ill-composed affection, such
A stanchless avarice, that, were I king,
I should cut off the nobles for their lands;
Desire his jewels, and this other's house :
And my more-having would be as a sauce
To make me hunger more; that I should forge
Quarrels unjust against the good, and loyal,
Destroying them for wealth.
Macd.

This avarice
Sticks deeper; grows with more pernicious root
Than summer-seeming lust:' and it hath been
The sword of our slain kings. Yet do not fear;
Scotland hath foysons to fill up your will,
Of
your mere own.

All these are portable,
With other graces weighed.
Mal. But I have

The king-becoming
graces,
As justice, verity, temperance, stableness,
Bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness,
Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude,
I have no relish of them ; but abound
In the division of each several crime,

3

none.

1 Sir W. Blackstone proposed to read summer-seeding, which was adopted by Steevens; but the meaning of the epithet may be, “lust as hot as summer.” In Donne's Poems, Malone has pointed out its opposite winter-seeming.

2 Foysons, plenty.

3 Portable answers to a phrase now in use. Such failings may be borne with, or are bearable. VOL. III.

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