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ment. They acted then as restorers of the ancient constitution. Their great bent and aim since has been, to act as its preservers ; as persons who dedicate their labours, influence, and example, to avert that case of extreme necessity, in which nothing remains for man but to resist tyranny or be enslaved by it.'

The results under the second part contrast the state of Holland and Ireland, before the war, with their present condition and character. : In the results Contained in the third part, the ground on which Mivisters entered into the war, the manner in which it was conducted and defend-d, and the dereliction, by the peace, of those very principles which were urged as a justification of war, are pointedly reprobated ; and the consequences of disregarding Mr. Fox's advice, which pressed Ministers to recognize the existing government of France, are fully detailed. • The results,' says Mr. Adair,' are simple enough. of France is gone; and all other monarchies laid bare on the side where they touched it. The balance of Europe is gone. The security Great Britain enjoyed through that balance is: gone. According to arguments of which Mr. Pitt did not scorn the benefit, although he carefully shunned the responsia' bility th y brought with them, order, morality, religion itself, are gone. Society is poisoned at the spring-head.'-In the succeeding paragraph, the author charges the late ministry with being more than accessory to this evil:

• Have all these mischiefs happened by what is called accident ? Has virtue done its utmost ? and is it Providence alone that we are to charge with our undoing, and with having disappointed the uni. form and steady sagacity of man? It may be so; but it will at least be decent in us, first to search for our failure in our frailty. It will then be seen, that, in this great business, trick, subterfuge, and petty contrivance, have only led to their natural and certain end. The confederacy was lame and heartless when it set out ; and perplexity and duplicity governed it throughout its progress. The conduct of the British Government offers no exception to this censure. just as disingenuous towards its own subjects, and towards the royalists of France, as that of the German confederates was to the rest of the world. Throughout it was indecision and want of system. Self was the predo:ninant object. Ministers could never venture to advance a step forwards, without turning round to see that all was safe behind them. Our very first motion was of this stamp. It was deened a master-stroke of political contrivance to get into the war as it were by a back door. We made ourselves as small as we could, to slide in through the gap of a treaty by which we had guaranteed to the Dutch that the river Scheldt should not be navigated. This was the station the Minister chose for calling forth his pride and his strength. Give him but to set his foot upon the Continent, and our, great mechanic was to show with what a force he could wield the

machine,

It was

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machine, and bring all the main springs of human action into play, But, he was deceived. He had formed no just estimate of the weight he waş to stir. Above all, he had forgotten that a war, which pretended to be a war of honour, adinitted nothing doubtful, nothing double in its character; that it could not be a war of sentiment to-day, and of plunder to-morrow.'

The sentiments of this able writer respecting the French Revolution ought not to be omitted :

· The revolution, we know, presents many aspects, One is, that of a great people resorting to original rights for the redress of fun. damental grievances. Another is, that of a series of barbarities more atrocious and more disgusting than human wickedness eveç crowded together within the same space of time since the beginning of the world. When Ministers, therefore, wished to argue from the example of France, it was from this side of the picture that they drew their illustrations; and by a process of reasoning of which a calm mind is just as sure to detect the fallacy as an in famed one is to thllow in its train, the short conclusion to which they invariably Game was, that the crimes were produced by the principles. The result was natural. Many gond men, of all ranks and degrees, withqut, farther inquiry, carried their just abhorrence of such crimes for, vard to what they imagined to be their cause, and learned to detest and abjure, not the new yersion alone of the Rights of Man, buç those fundamental rights themselves on which all lawful government is founded, and must rest. This fallacy, and a most cruel one it is, has prevailed, to the irreparable injury of real freedom. It is a fallacy for this simple reason, were there no other, that in the proposition from whence it flows no distinction is offered between the principle and its abuse. It is no less striking as a fallacy when we enlarge our. views, and reflect that, in truth, the revolu:ion itself has never yet presented an aspeet in which it was fair to argue from it as an ex: ample. It never has been before ys as a whole. It never could, indeed, have been so considered without taking into our account, at one and the same moment, not only its origin and object, and its progress to establishment, but also its effects as a change upon the happiness of France. On this ļast point, where all the good is to come, it is possible that our hapes and our fears may not be equally balanced ; but siill there are hopes ; as there ever must be while there is virtue. At all events, let it be recollected, that hitherto we have passed only the two first of these stages; dreadful stages it is true, full of darkness and of death! But even here, if we are tą determine like reasoners upon the revolution as an example, we must know, first, how far a cruel foreign enemy, how far the assembled representatives of all the religion, justice, and morality of the world, with their whip of scorpions lashing France into madness, are not themsclyes more than half guilty of the crimes they reprobate.'

These passages will evince that the present pamphlet contains the reflections of no ordinary politician; and, since the subject of them is of such high importance, they may justly claim no

slight

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slight attention. We have only to add that, in thus ably supporting the principles of his living co-adjutor, Mr. Adair does pot omit to pay a grateful and affecting tribute to his deceased noble friend, the justly lamented Duke of Bedford.

ART. XI. The Modern Practice of Physic, which points out the

Characters, Causes, Symptoms, Prognostics, morbid Appearances, and improved Method of treating the Diseases of all Climates, By Robert Thomas, M. D. 2 Vols.

8vo.

17 s. Boards Murray and Co. 1801. This is a judicious compilation of

facts, from the best writers, which may be perused with great advantage by students, because the different subjects are treated with brevity and perspicuity. The author has chiefly followed Dr. Cullen, both in the classification of diseases and in his text: but, when we make this observation, it is necessary to add that Dr. Thomas does not prove a servile copyist. He has abridged with judg; ment, has added modern opinions and discoveries, has frequently introduced the result of his own experience, and his performance thus becomes an useful compendium of the present state of Medical Practice. In some instances, perhaps, he has assigned too much importance to the transactions of the day; as in the chapter on rheumatism, in which he has condescended to refute the patrons of the Tractors. Such transitory folly scarcely merits attention in a regular medical work.

To exemplify Dr. Thomas's style, and his method of arrangement, we transcribe the chapter on Chronic Aphtha:

· This is a disease very frequently to be met with amongst the inhabitants of our West India colonies, many cases of it having occurred during my practice there; but which is likewise apt to prevail in those northern countries where the cold is combined with a con. siderable degree of moisture, or where the soil is of a very marshy aature. It may ip some few cases be considered as an idiopathic af. fection, but it is more usually symptomatic.

• It shows itself at first by an uneasy sensation or burning heat in the stomach, which comes .on by slow degrees, and increases gra. dually in violence. After some time, small pimples, of about the size of a pin's head, shew themselves on the tip and edges of the tongue ; and these at length spread over the whole inside of the mouth, and occasion such a tenderness and rawness of the parts, that the patient cannot take any food of a solid nature ; neither can he receive any vinous or spirituous liquor into his mouth, without great pungency and pain being excitad; little febrile heat atends, but the skin is always remarkably dry and without the least moisture on it, the countenance is pale, the pulse is smaller and more languid than in health, and a general coldness is felt over the whole body, but more particularly in the extremities.

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* These

• These symptoms will continue probably for some weeks, the general health being sometimes better and sometimes worst; and then the patient will be attacked with acid eructations, and a vomitting of acrid phlegm, as likewise with a severe purging, which greatly exhausts his strength, and produces considerable emaciation of the whole body. After a little time, these symptoms cease, and he again enjoys better health ; but, sooner or later, the acrid matter shews itself once more in the mouth, with greater virulence thau before, and makes frequent translations to the stoinach and intestines, and so from these to the mouth again, until at last the patient is reduced to a perfect skeleton.

• General relaxation, exposure to cold combined with great mois. ture, obstructed perspiration, and an acrimony of the humours, are supposed to be the causes which give rise to the chronic thrush. Elderly pcople and persons with a shattered constitution are most lable to its attacks.

• Even at an early stage of the disease, it is often difficult to effect a permanent cure ; but when it has been neglected, is of long stand. ing, or has made its attack at an advanced period of life, it will most probably, after a time, terminate fatally.

The principal appearances to be observed on dissection are the aphthæ, which extend through the whole of the alimentary canal. The muscles throughout the whole body are relaxed and faccid, and their connecting cellular membrane is divested of any fat.

• It will in all cases be advisable to begin the cure with giving a gentle emetic, to dislodge the acrid phlegin with which the stomach is usually loaded, and if any acidity prevails afterwards (which may be known by sour belching; attended with a degree of heat and pain) a little magnesia, or a small quantity of the absorbent mixture * here recommended, may then be taken occasionally.

• Wherever we suspect the disease to have arisen, or to be kept up from the ingesta, then, besides an emetic, it may be right to cleanse the primæ viæ by some gentle cathartic; as the irritating matter, when permitted to accumulate in the alimentary canal, increases the morbid affection of the intestines. A combination of thubarb with magnesia will be a proper laxative : manna, and the cassia fistularis will likewise be suitable laxatives. Medicines of this nature are however to be administered only in the tirst stage of the discase, as the risk of inducing excessive purging more than counterbalances the chance of advantage from them. In an advanced stage of the disease, where it is found necessary to evacuate the intestines, emollient clysters may be employed.

• When the purging shews a tendency to become excessive, wo should, in order to put a stop to it, have recourse to astringents

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•* R. Magnes. ust. 3j.

Aq. puræ Z v3s.
Spirit. Cinnam, 3iij.

Aq. Ammon. pur. 3j. M.
'Capiat Cochl. ij. pro re nata."

joined

joined with opiates, agreeably to the prescriptions below *, or as advised under the head of diarrhæa; besides which, the patient should drink about a pint a day of the decoctum cornu cervi, or the same quantity of lime-water, with an equal proportion of milk.

When there is no tendency to excessive purging, opiates perhaps may be omitted, unless they be necessary to procure sleep, when they are always to he employed, except where symptoms denoting a tendency to visceral inflammation shew themselves.

! With the view of determining the humours to the surface of the body, it will be proper to give frequent small doses of some diaphoretic, such as the pulv. ipecas. compos.; and to assist their operation, flannel should be worn next to the skin. Should these fail in excita ing a proper perspiration, and the patient continue to wasie in flesh, a tepid bath may prove serviceable, and where a natural one can be procured, it ought to have the preference.

• To remedy the inconvenience arising from the soreness of the mouth and congue, these should be washed frequently with some kind of healing astringent garglet.

• When the rectum is affected, mild injections are proper, and produce effects similar to those of gargles in the fauces : they should consist of mild mucilaginous and gentle stimulating decoctions, such as veal broth boiled with rice and bruised turnips, or turnip.radishes, which will likewise prove an excellent article of diet.

. In the mildest cases of the disease, a decoction of the Peruvian bark is often used internally, and with much advantage. In those cases, where it puts on an alarming appearance, this preparation should be used as a gargle, and the powder be administered in at large doses as the stomach will bear. If it cxcites a purging, a few drops of tinct. opii may be added to cach dose.

('The diet in this disease should consist only of such things as irc light and nutritive, as milk, mucilaginous soups, jellies, prepara

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ft. Gargarisma.

Vel,
B. Zinc. Vitriolat. gr. x.

Aq. Rosa 3 viij. M.
ft. Gargarisma. Vel,
B. Decoct. Hord. Comp: 3 vj.

Mel. Rosa 3j.
Alum. purif. 3j.

Tinct. Myrrh. Z ss. M.
ft. Gargarisma

Vel,
R. Boracis, in pulv. trit. 3jss.

Aq. Fervent. Zv.

Mellis Rosæ 3j. M. ft, Gargarisma.'

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