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per," and "sleeping upon benches it. If the definition of wit is just, at noon,” because he tells us “ he that it discovers real congruities not has more flesh, and therefore more before apparent (and to me it apo frailty;" and we may allow him to pears a very just one) the effusions ask: « Shall I not take mine ease of Falstaff are, in most instances, in mine inn?” but no indulgence entitled to that name. It would be must blind us to his real faults, and useless to demonstrate what is selfhe must be reprobated for too often' evident in every scene of his ap“ leaving the fear of God upon the pearance. Much of his wit, so called, left hand;" in his dishonesty to however, is of another description, Dame Quickly, and Master Shallow; and arises from his assigning wrong for his enormous lies and obsceni- causes, which, from their seeming ties; and the vices consequent upon probability and relation, produce the his avarice. Hence, the exhibition same effects as the bulls attributed of such a character to a young per- to the Irish. son, should be attended always with The effects of wit upon the hear. an admonition to distinguish between ers, are generally favourable. In the fascinations of poetry, and the addition to its known influence upon depravity which it may seem to ex- the muscles, which are never tenuate, by the beauty of the resem. moved without a degree of pleasure, blance to nature. *
it opens a new source of gratificaBut, it is astonishing how much tion, by flattering our vanity. We the attention is drawn aside from feel almost as though we ourselves these dark parts of his character, by were the authors of it, when we his wit and incessant humour. I give ourselves the credit of underbefore hinted to you, that there are standing and experiencing its full persons who value his wit no more force. It is, perhaps, from this cause than the jests and scurrilities of a likewise, that we look with favour on buffoon; who look upon him as no the more objectionable parts and better than the clowns in Twelfth profligacies of this "gray iniquity," Night, and, As You like it; and who sir John. The man who would win conceive that the same degree of upon our affections, or rather our talents would be requisite to per- partiality, cannot do better than to sonate them all. To these Falstaff address himself to our self-love. might answer in his own words: This kept alive the prince's affection “ Men of all sorts take a pride to for Falstaff; and continues to exgird at me; the brain of this foolish-. cite in us the same favourable sencompounded clay, man, is not able timents. to produce any thing that tends to Having said thus “much in bc laughter, more than I invent, or is half of that Falstaff," I cannot help invented on me. I am not only adverting to the prospect of a New witty myself, but the cause that wit Theatre. Whatever may be the inis in other men.” Contrary to the tended plan of such an establishfashion of Shakspeare's age, Fal- ment, I am sure the lovers of rationstaff's wit is, for the most part, pure al amusement (for if it ceases to be and sterling; and often supported rational, it had better cease altothrough a whole soliloquy. Few gether) look forward to a long men can read half a dozen lines of wished for reformation in theatrical any of them, without acknowledging representation. I am far from think
Plutarch gives the same advice at greater length: De Audiendis Poetis. Sec. 11, 12, 13, 14. Speaking of subjects of this kind, he adds: evolf, usaosa del Toy EDISET Bdig doo κακομεναν ότι, τον αραξιν 8κ επαιγε. μεν, 15 γεγονενή μίμησις αλλά την τεχνην, μεμιμηται προσηκοντως το υποκείμενον.
inig it fastidious pedantry, to con- and inexperienced part of the audidemn, with very few exceptions, the ence; and the familiarizing all with whole mass of modern dramatick words and actions at which they poetry
ought to shudder. Let us, there. It has mistaken the plan, the fore, hope, that the theatre now in means, and the end, of such compo- contemplation to be erected, will sitions. The plots, intrigues, and give the lie to those who think procharacters, of these plays, are either priety and popular amusement inbad imitations of originals, unneces- compatible. The first step towards sarily neglected, grotesque tran- this will be the formation of an « Inscrips from low life, or they are so dex Expergatorius," containing the unnatural and unmeaning, as to dis- names of plays not to be represented gust even the criticks of the gallery. on any terms, and the names of As to the means, I believe no one those which shall be prohibited, ever thought of fixing in his memory “ donec corrigantur.” It is absurd a single line or sentiment of these to imagine that we want new plays: plays, for the instruction contained we have already a great sufficiency, in them; and with regard to their whose merits have been approved. wit, none but raw apprentices would Let these, and these only, find adever consider them worth repetition. mission on our new stage; and when But, to the publick are these authors the evening's amusement is announamenable for their deviation from ced, every man will know whether he the great end of dramatick writing. may safely indulge his children, or I am not inclined to cant, when I introduce a female, where, as the declare my abhorrence of the oaths, stage is now constituted, common obscenities, immoralities; nay, of prudence fordids their appearance. the solemn addresses and prayers to Much more might be advanced the Deity, which are without number upon the regulation of such a theatre, so perniciously introduced. This which, if I had influence to effect, it may be called stage-effect. The should be almost exclusively a only effect I know of from such re. Shakspeare theatre. presentations and expressions, is
A. B. E. the gradual depravity of the ignorant
FROM THE EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE NEWLY DISCOVERED ART OF PRINTING
IT will probably be in the recol- a minute inspection and deep conlection of many of our readers, at templation of the engravings, stated, least we will endeavour to bring the that there was a coarseness in the circumstance to their knowledge, art, or rather in the material upon that, in our review of that splendid which it was practised, which only and truly ingenious work, “The Anti- adapted it to the production of large quities of Westminster, by John Tho- works; at the same time we admitmas Smith," a method of drawing and ted, that it included properties caengraving on stone, invented and pable of great improvement. This practised by Mr. Aloys Senefelder, improvement has, we understand, is mentioned, and two specimens of been in progress, and learn that exthe different methods of increasing periments have been made, and are copies alluded to. We there, al- now. making, that afford the prosthough we allowed the discovery to pect of very considerable advantage have been extremely curious, from to the arts in general, and to those
dependent upon the multiplication, stone can be easily cut, and takes a and consequent wide dispersion, of good polish. These stones may thus copies in particular. We, therefore, be compared to the copper plates, or in order to facilitate the improve- wooden blocks, for which they are, ment to which we have alluded, feel indeed, substituted. They ought to great pleasure in inserting the fol. be from two inches to two inches lowing account of the elementary and a half thick, and of a size proprinciples of the art of printing with portioned to that of the work which stone, in order to introduce, or super. it is meant to engrave upon them. induce, disquisition, which, in the When the stone is dried and well efforts of ingenuity, has been deem. polished, the next operation is, to ed the portal that leads to perfec- draw the design, notes, or letters, tion.
that are intended to be printed upon
it with a pencil, and afterwards re. The art of printing from stone, trace the pencil marks with an ink originally discovered in Germany, made of the solution of gum lac, in about nine years ago, and which has pot-ash, coloured with lamp-black, since been successfully practised in produced from burning wax. In: Italy and France, appears till lately about two hours, the letters, or mu. to have been but little used, or even sical notes, impregnated with the known, in this country, though me- ink, will be dry, when there is pasriting, from its simplicity, its expe. sed over them nitrick acid (aqua for. dition, and its economy, to rank tis] more or less diluted, according high among modern discoveries, to the relief or hollow which it is de. and offering some real and impor- sired to form upon the stone. The acid tant advantage to the arts. Its in- attacking all parts of the stone, but ventor was, as already stated, Aloys those which have been impregnated Senefelder, a native of Prague, in with the resinous ink only, the notes Bohemia, who first obtained, in or drawing remain untouched. The 1801, an exclusive privilege for the slab of marble is then washed with exercise of it from the then elector of clean water, and a printer's ball is Bavaria: and, in 1803, a like privi. charged with an ink analagous to lege from the emperour of Germany. that used in other kinds of printing, Senefelder, in consequence, esta- and being pressed by the hand only, blished stone printing houses at Mu- the letters or notes take the ink nich and at Vienna: and, under his from the ball, so that they are found directions, similar establishments to be properly coloured. After this, have been formed in France and a sheet of paper being put in a Italy. It is at Munich, however, that frame, the latter is lowered, and an the art has been brought to the impression is obtained by a brass greatest perfection.
cylinder being passed over the paThere are three different methods per; or a copper plate press may be of printing with stone, namely, the used. At each proof it is necessary method in relief (most generally to wash the plate with water. When used) and particularly adapted for the intended number of copies are musick; the hollow method, prefe. printed, and there is no further use rable for engravings; and the flat for the work, the stone is polished method, which is neither hollow nor again; and thus the same siab will, in relief, but which is very useful according to its thickness, serve for for the imitation of chalk and other thirty or forty different works. drawings. To print or engrave ac- The hollow method does not difcording to this process, a slab offer greatly from the method in rea inverrated marble, or any other cal- lief, except that the nitrick acid is careous stone, is used, provided the made to act stronger upon the stone,
so that the letters are more relieved, the same space of time, two thou. and the stone itself much hollower: sand impressions. An engraved copstrongerand heavier rollers are like- per plate will seldom yield 1000 imwise requisite.
pressions; but the stone slab will The flat method requires less ni. yield several thousand, and the last trick acid than either of the other will be every whit as good as the two; and great care must be taken, first. It has been tried in the stonethat the stone prepared for this pur- printing office at Vienna to take off pose is quite flat
thirty-thousand impressions of the The kinds of work that are engra- same design; and even then the last ved on stone are the following: imi. impression was nearly as handsome tations of wood cuts, imitations of as the first.* They have even car. the dot manner, drawings, musical ried this number of copies to a works, all kinds of writing, geogra- greater extent in printing bank phical maps, and engravings in notes. The most industrious and mezzotinto.
most skilful engraver of musick can The advantages resulting from hardly engrave four pages of musick the manner of printing or engraving, on pewter in a day, while the endescribed above, are, that it has a graver on stone may engrave,
twice peculiar character, which cannot be as many in the same time. Every imitated by the other methods of kind of work which artists engrave printing, and that it can easily imi- upon copper or pewter, and which tate any of the former. But its the printer executes with movable greatest advantage is, the quickness types, may also be performed by with which it may be performed. A using stone. Our limits will not design which an artist could not fi permit us to enter into all the de. nish upon copper in the space of five tails of the cost of this method of or six days, may be engraved upon printing; but experience has shown, stone in one or two. While the cop- that it may be performed with a sa. per plate printer draws off six or ving of one third of the expense, in
hundred impressions, the comparison of the printing upon printer from stone, can take off, in copper or pewter.
PRESENTIMENT OF DANGER AND DEATH.
AT the siege of the Havanna, people was effected every midnight, in 1762, the Namur and Valiant to save from the observation of the took it day and day about to fight a Spanish garrison one party's apsap battery; and the relief of the proach and the other's retreat. We
If this art could be in some degree refined, and its productions adapted to periodi. cal publications, for instance, its explanatory advantages must be incalculable.
The facility of printing these in this country, we are of opinion, need not be increased.
Contemplating the rise of engraving, and particularly adverting to the wood-cuts of Albert Durer (who was the first that practised the art in that manner) which we erst have frequentiy considered with attention, as we have those of M. Antonio, we cannot help congratulating this age upon the very great improvement that has been made in the art of engraving upon wood. The two celebrated artists whom we have mentioned, though correct, perhaps too correct, in their outlines and their muscular delineations, are, in their general designs, stiff, harsh, and tasteless; which leads us to observe, that the wood cuts that embellish the works of modern times, the Life of Leo X. for instance, exhibit such traits of improvement, indeed of excellence, that. we are induced to hope stone engraving, which, as we bave said, seems to promise still greater advantages, will be 23 sedulously pursued.
had marched forty in number, a lieu- amongst these, Moor, being the foretenant leading, and myself [a mid- most upon his legs, was the first shipman, bringing up the rear, to re- person killed. From whence had lieve the Valiant's, when Moor, one of Moor this fore-knowledge? He quotour men made frequent calls to stop; ed no dream. In 1778, to come these at last became quite frivolous, nearer the recollection of survivors, and
my distance had got so long at the taking of Pondicherry, cap. from the lieutenant, that the party tain John Fletcher, captain Demorwas halted to close the line. In the gan, and lieutenant Bosanquet, each interim, Moor fairly owned he had distinctly foretold his own death on
stomach for the battery that the morning of their fates. night, knowing he should be killed. L'Oriflame, a well appointed 40 Our officer, a hard-headed Scotch- gun French ship, had been taken by man, steady and regular as old time, our Isis of 50. Captain Wheeler, began sharp, upon me: my excuse immediately prior to close action, was the man's tardiness, and I re- sent for Mr. Deans, surgeon of the ported his words. “ Killed, indeed, Isis, and intrusted him in certain parand cheat the sheriff of his thir- ticular injunctions about family conteener and a baubee ! No, no, Pad- cerns. The doctor attempted to par. dy: trust to fate and the family ho- ry funeral ideas, but was bluntly nour of the O‘Moors for all that. told: “I know full well this day's Come, sir, bring him along: point work: Cunningham will soon be your sword in his stern-post.” Moor, your commander. All the great cirof course, made no reply, but under cumstances of my life have been a visible corporeal effort and a rou- shown in dreams: my last hour is sed indignation, stepped into the now come.” He was killed early in line: our whole party moved on. the fight; and lieutenant CunningNow this Moor was seldom out of ham managed so well in the dea quarrel on board ship, and having volved command, that admiral Saunsome knowledge of the fistycuffs- ders made him a post captain into art, he reigned pretty much as cock L'Oriflame in Gibraltar bay. This of the walk on the lower gun-deck. fore-knowledge of things at hand is When we had relieved the battery, a subject many profess themselves and the Valiant had gone silently off, positive about: their strong argu. all the guns were manned. There ment is experierice, and all who remained on the parapet only one have not been so favoured, may reaheavy piece of ordnance, and our sonably enough doubt, stopping short very first discharge dismounted it. of contradiction. Certain instances Elated with that success, up jumped then afloat in the navy, I may take all hands upon the platform, and the liberty to produce, anticipating, gave three cheers, when a little de. however, an adventure of some such vil of a gun took us in a line, and kind, never in my power to comknocked down five men. Sure enough prehend.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. SIR-Permit me to relate an anec- Some years ago, having occasion dote of one of the brute species, to reside for some time aí a farmwhich, perhaps, would never have house in the country, I was much appeared before the publick, had alarmed, one morning, by the ununot the relation of one partly similar, . sual bellowing of a cow under the in the present work, revived the cir- window of the apartment wherein I cumstance in my memory.
was sitting. Looking out I perceived Vol, v.