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lier de Luxembourg, who drove my king's letter, he read: “I know from troops from the branches of the a certain quarter, that they want to trenches, and made us fall back to make you a prisoner of war." I St. Catherine's. An excellent offi- know not where he picked up this


staff had his head shot off information; but that prince, respecto by a cannon-ball by my side. The able as he was in peace, could enemy lost a great number of men neither say nor do any but foolish before he returned to the citadel. I things in war. This note, however, caused every thing to be repaired. produced some impression for a

I was now suddenly obliged to moment. Generals, soldiers, and abandon the siege, leaving the direc- all, swore rather to perish in the tion of it to prince Alexander of breach. Bouffers wept for joy, as Würtemberg. "The elector of Ba. I have been told; and when on the varia was engaged in that of Brus- point of embracing this alternative, sels. Marlborough and I made him he recollected my note, which got raise it after a pretty battle, and the better of the duke of Burgundy's; some excellent, well combined ma- and after the trenches had been neuvres, of which he had all the opened four months before the city honour, for I could not pass the and citadel, he sent me on the 8th Scheldt where I wanted. The elector of December, all the articles that he of Bavaria was somewhat ashamed. wished me to sign, which I did withThe French princes would have out any restriction. I went very been so too, had not their joy on soon with the prince of Orange to returning to Versailles prevented pay him a visit, and in truth to do them.

homage to his merit. I cordially em: I went back to the siege; but what braced him, and accepted an invitaa change! The marshal had taken tion to supper; “ on condition," said advantage of my absence to drive I, “that it be that of a famished the besiegers from the first covered citadel, to see what you may eat way, of which I had left them in .without an express order from the possession. After regaining it, as king." Roasted horse-flesh was set well as the other posts that had been before us; the epicures in my suite abandoned, I wrote as follows to the were far from relishing the joke, but brave Boufflers: “ The French ar- were quickly consoled by the arrival my has retired, M. le Marechal, of provisions from the city, on toward Tournay, the elector of Ba- which we made an excellent revaria to Namur, and the princes to past. their courts. Spare yourself and The following day I gave him as your brave garrison. I will again good a dinner as I could, at my ab. sign whatever you please.” His bey, where he paid me a visit. We answer was: “ There is yet no oc- were very merry and communicae casion to be in a hurry. Permit me tive. We talked of war, politicks, to defend myself as long as I can. I and Louis XIV. On the latter sub. have still enough left to do to render ject I was highly amused with the myself more worthy of the esteem of Hatteries of the states-general, who the man whom I respect above all thinking themselves very cunning, others.” I gave orders for the as- were in hopes by these means to sault of the second covered way. dispose him to peace, of which they The king of France apparently an- were ardently desirous. I durst nor ticipated this, for he wrote to the be alone a moment with the marshal; marshal to surrender. Notwith- lest idle stories should be circulated standing his repugnance to such a respectiug us; and one or the other step, he was on the point of obey might appear suspicious to our ing, when, in a note which the duke courts, where people are always of Burgundy bad subjoined to the sure to have good friends, who are


« Let us go

never asleep. After manifesting my talents. He wanted very little to be consideration for the illustrious van. a perfect warriour. With reenforcequished, whenever we were together ments, which poured in to us on all at the play, and when we went abroad sides, we were stronger than he, into the streets, where I observed but there no possibility of that he was universally adored, I attacking him where

he was. caused him and his brave garrison To oblige him to quit his posito be conducted to Douay, with a tion, we resolved to besiege Tourlarge escort and all possible honours. nay. The trenches were opened

After retaking Ghent and Bruges, on the 7th of July, the white flag Marlborough and I put our troops in was hoisted on the 28th, and on the winter-quarters, and went for a month 21st of August, after the most territo Brussels; but my mother was no ble subterraneous war that I ever longer there.

witnessed (for in twenty-six days, .. 1709.--January 9th, we set out for the besieged sprung thirty-eight the Hague. It was nothing but a' mines) the citadel surrendered. series of honours and festivities; Villars never stirred. presents for Marlborough, and fire, and take Mons," said I to Marl. works for me. But I prevented a borough; “ perhaps this devil of a magnificent exhibition, by requesting fellow will tire of being so prudent.” the states-general to give the money Madame de Maintenon did not give it was to have cost their brave him credit for so much prudence as soldiers, whom I had caused to be he possessed, though she was very crippled; and the 20th of January I fond of him: for she permitted Louis set off for Vienna, to report and ask XIV. to send marshal Boufflers to for further orders.

assist him. Certain enemies of Vil. I was directed to make peace, if lars, at Versailles, hoped to give the enemy would comply with all him disgust; but I have already my demands. I returned on the 8th proved, that brave men agree toof April to the Hague, where I gether, and love and esteem each found the plenipotentiaries of the other. The two marshals would king of France. Famine, a winter gladly have saved Mons without

severe than had ever been risking a battle; we stood upon known, want of men and money, ceremony to know made him wish for peace; but the should oblige the other to give it. vanquished forget that they are such, As soon as our troops from Tournay as soon as they enter upon negotia. had arrived: “ Let us lose no time, tion. They mistake obstinacy for said I; « and in spite of 120,000 firmness, and at last get more men, woods, hedges, villages, holes, soundly beaten than before.

triple intrenchments, a hundred One hundred thousand men were pieces of cannon and abattis, let us again under Marlborough's com. put an end to the war in one day.” mand and mine in the Low Coun. The deputies of Holland, and some tries; and the same number under faint-hearted generals, objected, rethat of Villars: “ I am going,” said monstrated, and tired me. It was of he to the king on taking leave, « to no use to tell them that the exceldrive your enemies so far, that they lent veteran French soldiers were shall not again see the banks of the killed in the six or seven battles Scheldt; and by a battle on my ar- which Marlborough and I had gainrival, to regain alļ that has been ed; and though I well knew that taken from your majesty."

young ones are formed but too exWithout wishing to avoid one, for peditiously, an advantage in which he was morally and physically brave, they are superiour to all other nahe took an extremely advantageous tions; we determined upon the battle position. This was one of his great of Malplaquet. The 11th of Sep


which party tember a thick fog concealed our centre and the left, without any de. dispositions from the marshals; we cisive advantage. My cavalry, which dispelled it at eight in the morning; I sent to his succour, was overthrown by a general discharge of all our on the way by the king's household artillery. This military musick was troops, who were in their turn succeeded by that of hautboys, routed by a battery which took them drums, fifes, and trumpets, with in flankAt length Marlborough which I treated both armies. We had gained ground without me; so then saw Villars proceeding through that it was easy for me to turn the all the ranks. As the French can centre of the enemy's army which never hear enough of their king; had been left unsupported in conse« My friends," said he to them, as I quence of the defeat of the wings. have been told, “ the king commands Boufflers rendered the same service me to fight: are you not very glad of to Villars as I did to Marlborough, it?” He was answered with shouts and when he beheld him fall from of, Vive le Roi et M. de Villars! his horse, dangerously wounded beI attacked the wood of Sars without low the knee, and the victory snatchshouting. I rallied the English ed from them, he thought of nothing guards, who, at the beginning, were but how to make the best retreat in scattered; some from too much the best possible order. I think it courage, and others from a contrary is not too much to estimate the loss reason: my German battalions sup- of both armies at 40,000 men; those ported them. We had, nevertheless, who were not killed, had died of been overwhelmed, had not the duke fatigue. I gave some rest to the of Argyle, who boldly climbed the remains of my troops, buried all I parapet of the intrenchment, made could, and then marched to Mons. me master of the wood. All this There were but 5,000 men in that procured me a ball behind the ear; place. I opened the trenches on the and on account of the quantity of 25th of September, and on the 22d blood which I lost, all those about of October, being on the point of as, me advised me to have the wound saulting the horn-work of Bertamont, dressed. " If I am beaten,” I re- Grimaldi capitulated. Our troops plied, “it will not be worth while; went into winter quarters; and I, beand if the French are, I shall have ing obliged to post about without plenty of time for that.” What intermission, proceeded with Marl. could I have done better than to seek borough to the Hague, to coax the death, after all the responsibility states-general, who were ready to which I had again taken upon my- abandon our cause. I advised them self on this occasion? I beg pardon to say at the conferences of Ger. for this digression and personality; truidenberg, that they would not but one cannot help being a man. hear of peace unless it were geneTo endeavour to repair faults com- ral. I was sure of queen Anne, bemitted, is, I acknowledge, more no- cause I was sure of Marlborough; he ble; but to survive one's glory is seconded me admirably. I went to dreadful. My business on the right report to the emperour. I submitted going on well, I wished to decide to him a sketch of the state of Euthat of the duke on the left, which rope, of which I could see that his proceeded but slowly. To no pur- cabinet had not the least idea. I stapose the prince of Orange had ted the inclination which I observed planted a standard on the third in- in several powers to forsake us. At trenchment; almost the whole Dutch a distance from danger, people are corps was extended on the ground, courageous. I was told that I should killed or wounded. For six hours make a glorious campaign. I repliMarlborough was engaged with the ed, that I had lost more men than could be given me; but yet I would and his presents of Burgundy and try what I could do.

Champagne to right honourable 1711.-Joseph I. was attacked members of Parliament, who were with the small-pox. There were no amateurs of those wines, changed good physicians at Vienna. They the aspect of European affairs. sent to Lintz for one. The pustules Marlborough was playing his last came out in such abundance, that I game in the Low Countries. He thought him out of danger. On set- found means to finish his military ting out for the Low Countries, I career there with glory; he forced wanted to take leave of him. He sent the French lines behind the Senzée, me word that I had but too much and took the city of Bouchain. exposed my life for him already, and On the disgrace of the dutchess, a that he wanted it elsewhere than for thousand faults were discovered in the small-pox. I insisted no farther, him. His pride was denominated inand set off on the 16th of April. Three solence, and his rather too great days afterwards I was informed of economy was branded with the name his death, oceasioned by the igno- of peculation and extortion. His rance of the faculty of Upper and friends, as may be supposed, beha. Lower Austria, who disputed all ved like friends; and that is saying night about the means of relieving sufficient. He was recalled. To me an inflammation of the bowels, with this was a thunderbolt. The French which the emperour was afflicted. I assembled on the Rhine. I sent sincerely regretted this prince, aged Vehlen with a strong detachment thirty-three; the first since Charles from the Low Countries, and leaving V. who possessed genius, and was the Hague on the 19th of July, I not superstitious; and I determined collected as expeditiously as possi. to serve him even after his death. I ble, all the troops I could, at Frank hurried to almost all the electors to furt, and took so good a position dispose them to ensure the imperial in a camp near Mühlberg, as to crown to his brother, and then went cause to be held, and to cover the to solicit the Dutch to continue their election to the imperial crown, which credit in. money and friendship to would have been lost had I received Charles II. king of Spain, who be. a check. The French durst not discame the emperour Charles VI. turb it. This was for me a campaign

The protestants did not fail to of prudence rather than of glory. publish that the court of Rome, Queen Anne threw off all rex which had suffered some humilia- straint. She had given an unfavourations from Joseph I. had bribed his ble reception to the Dutch ambas physicians; but no credit should be sadour, and had forbidden Gallas, given to defamatory libels, and to the imperial minister, her court; as the authors of private anecdotes, as signing as a reason certain expres: they are called. It has long been the sions which he had employed refashion to assert that great persona. specting her. Charles VI. ordered ges die of poison.

me to make amends for the awk. Tallard, more dangerous in peace wardness of Gallas, if he had been than in war, whom I would not have guilty of any, and to regain the court left prisoner in England could I have of St. James's. suspected that he would there ac- Had I acted, as my good cousin, quire any influence, enabled the to. Victor Amedæus, would have done ries to triumph, and crush the whigs. in my place, I should have cried out His assiduous attention to Mrs. against Marlborough still more loudMarsham, the queen's new favour- ly than his enemies, and have refu. ite, instead of the dutchess of Marl. sed to see him. But from policy it. borough, his insinuating manners, self, persons of narrow minds ought

to counterfeit feeling. Their designs But after feigning to agree to the are too easily seen through. They siege of Quesnoi, he first strove to are despised and miss their object. dissuade me from that step, and Gratitude, esteem, the partnership then, without reserve, refused to in so many military operations, and concur in it. I said to him: « Well pity for a person in disgrace, caused sir, I will do without your eighteen me to throw myself with emotion thousand men.” “I will lead them," into Marlborough's arms. Besides, said he, "to take possession of Dunon such occasions, the heart proves kirk, which the French are to delivictorious. The people, who follow. ver to me.” “ I congratulate the ed me every where from the mo- two nations,” replied I, “on this ment I set foot in London, perceived operation, which will confer as much it, and liked me the better for this: honour on the one as on the other. while the opposition, and the honest Adieu, sir.” He ordered all the part of the court esteemed me the troops in the pay of England to folmore. In one way or other, all was low him. Very few obeyed. I had over for Austria. I coaxed the peo- foreseen the stroke, and had made ple in power a good deal. I made sure of the prince of Anhalt, and presents, for buying is very common the prince of Hesse Cassel. in England. I offered to procure the July the 30th I took Quesnoi. I recall of Gallas. I delivered a me. gave the direction of the siege of morial on this subject, and request. Landrecy to the prince of- Anhalt, ed the queen to take other bases at and entered into the lines which I the congress of Utrecht, where her had directed to be formed between plenipotentiaries already were, that Marchiennes and Denain. The Dutch the emperour might be enabled to had collected large stores of ammusend his thither. I received so vague nition and provisions at Marchiena reply, that had the court of Vi. nes. In vain I represented to them enna believed me, they would not that they would be better at Queshave reckoned at all upon the feeble noi, only three leagues from Lansuccour of the duke of Ormond, drecy, and only ten from us; the who set out to command the En- economy of these gentlemen oppoglish, as successour to the duke of sed the change. This made me say Marlborough, and I should not have peevishly, and as I have been told, lost the battle of Denain. This hap- with an oath, one day when Alexanpened in the following manner. Not- der's conquests were the subject of withstanding my distinguished re- conversation: “ He had no Dutch ception from the queen, who, at my deputies with his army." I ordered departure, presented me with her twenty of their battalions, and ten portrait, I went and told the states- squadrons under the command of the general that we had now nobody on earl of Albemarle, to enter the lines, whom we could rely but themselves; and approached Quesnoi with the and passing through Utrecht to main body of my army, to watch make my observations, I found the the inotions of Villars. During all tone of the French ev altered, so these shuffling tricks, of which I elevated, that I was more certain foresaw that I should be the dupe, than ever of the truth of what I had and which Louis XIV. knew nothing announced. On my arrival at the ab- of, I made him tremble upon his bey of Anchin, where I assembled throne. At a very small distance my army, amounting to upwards of from Versailles, one of my partisans 100,000 men, Ormond came and carried off Berenghen, under the made me the fairest promises, and idea that it was the dauphin; others had the goodness to consent to my pillaged Champagne and Lorraine. passing the Scheldt below Bouchain. Growenstein, with two thousand

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