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the 5th chapter « quam in rem," is read neither; to the statesman and translated "whereupon,—“concern. the politician, the lawyer and the ing which we suggest as prefera- jurist, the merchant and the man of ble. In the 8th chapter « edicti de leisure, we recommend this work, criminibus" is translated « criminal as containing, in a convenient space, edict;" an expression, which excites more useful knowledge of the laws. an ambiguous idea, and for which of war and peace, that is to say of might be substituted penal edict, or the laws of nations-a -more satisedict concerning crimes.

factory exposition of those principles, But upon the whole the transla- which however for the moment dri. tion, though somewhat too precise, ven out of view, must reappear, is very correct the style as flowing grow with the growth of reason and easy, as a jurisprudential style and good sense, and particularly well can be, and the entire execution strengthen with the strength of the of the performance such as to com- United States of America, certainly mand full approbation. We strong-: than any other in the English lanly recommend every man who has' guage, and probably in any language read Lee, as as possible to whatever. read Duponceau. To such as have



Remarks on the System of Education in Publick Schools, 8vo. London, 1809.

THERE is a set of well dressed, In arguing any large or general prosperous gentlemen, who assem- question, it is of infinite importance ble daily at Mr. Hatchard's shop; to attend to the first feelings which clean, civil personages; well in with the mention of the topick has a tenthe people in power; delighted with dency to excite; and the name of a every existing institution; and al- publick school brings with it imme. most with every existing circum, diately the idea of brilliant classical, stance;, and, every now and then, attainments. But, upon the imporone of these personages writes a lit- tance of these, studies, we are not tle book; and the rest praise that now offering any opinion. The only little book, expecting to be praised, points for consideration are, whether in their turn, for their own little boys are put in the way of becoming books; and, of these little books, good and wise men by these schools; thus written by these clean, civil and whether they actually gather, personages, so expecting to be prai- there, those attainments which it sed, the pamphlet before us appears plcases mankind, for the time being, to be one.

to consider as valuable, and to de. The subject of it is the advan- corate by the name of learning. tage of publick schools, and the au- By a publick school, we mean an thor, very creditably to himself, ri- endowed place of education, of old dicules the absurd clamour, first set standing, to which the sons of gen. on foot by Dr. Rennei, of the irre. tlemen resort in considerable numligious tendency of publick schools. -bers, and where they continue to He then proceeds to an investiga- reside, from eight or nine, to eightion of the effects which publick teen years of age. We do not give schools may produce upon the moral this as a definition which would have character; and here the subject be satisfied Porphyry or Duns-Scotus; comes more difficult, and thie pam- but as-one sufficiently accurate for phlet worse.

our purpose. The characteristick fea. tures of these schools are, their anti- hereafter, nor does it bear any relaquity, the numbers, and the ages of tion to it. He will never again be the young people who are educated subjected to so much insolence and at them. We beg leave, however, to caprice; nor ever, in all human propremise, that we have not the slight- bability, called upon to make so est intention of insinuating any thing many sacrifices. The servile obedito the disparagement of the present ence which it teaches, might be usediscipline or present rulers of these ful to a menial domestick, or the haschools, as compared with other bits of enterprise which it encoutimes and other men. We have no rages, prove of importance to a reason whatever to doubt that they military partisan; but we cannot see are as ably governed at this, as they what bearing it has upon the calm, have been at any preceding period. regular, civis life, which the sons of Whatever objections we may have gentlemen, destined to opulent idleto these institutions, they are to

ness, or to any of the three learned faults, not depending upon present professions, are destined to lead. administration, but upon original Such a system makes many boys construction.

very miserable; and produces those At a publick school(for such is the bad effects upon the temper and dissystem established by immemorial position, which unjust suffering alcustom) every boy is alternately ty- ways does produce; but what good it rant and slave. The power which does we are much at a loss to conceive. the elder part of these communities Reasonable obedience is extremely exercises over the younger, is ex- useful in forming the disposition. ceedingly great, very difficult to be Submission to tyranny lays the founcontrolled, and accompanied, not dation of hatred, suspicion, cunning, unfrequently, with cruelty and ca- and a variety of odious passions. price. It is the common law of the We are convinced that those young place, that the young should be im- people will turn out to be the best plicitly obedient to the elder boys; men, who have been guarded most and this obedience resembles more effectually, in their childhood, from the submission of a slave to his mas- every species of useless vexation; ter, or of a sailor to his captain, and experienced, in the greatest dethan the common and natural defer- gree, the blessings of a wise and ence which would always be shown rational indulgence. But even if by one boy to another a few years these effects upon future character older than himself. Now, this

sys. are not produced, still, four or five tem we cannot help considering as years in childhood make a very conan evil, because it inflicts upon boys, siderable period of human existfor two or three years of their lives, ence; and it is by no means a tri. many painful hardships, and much fling consideration whether they are unpleasant servitude. These suffer- passed happily or unhappily The ings might, perhaps, be of some use wretchedness of school tyranny is in military schools; but, to give to trifling enough to a man who only a boy the habit of enduring priva- contemplates it, in ease of body and tions to which he will never again tranquillity of mind, through the be called upon to submit, to inure medium of twenty intervening years; him to pains which he will never but it is quite as real, and quite as again feel, and to subject him to the acute, while it lasts, as any of the privation of comforts, with which he sufferings of mature life: and the will always in future abound, is utility of these sufferings, or the surely not a very useful and valuable price puid in compensation for them, severity in education. It is not the should be clearly made out to a conlife in miniature which he is to lead

VOL. v.

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scientious parent, before he consents One of the supposed advantages to expose his children to them. of a publick school, is the greater

This system also gives to the el- knowledge of the world which a boy der boys an absurd and pernicious is considered to derive from those opinion of their own importance, situations; but if, by a knowledge which is often with difficulty effaced of the world, is meant a knowledge by a considerable commerce with of the forms and manners which are the world. The head of a publick found to be the most pleasing and school is generally a very conceited useful in the world, a boy from a young man, utterly ignorant of his publick school is almost always exown dimensions, and losing-all that tremely deficient in these particu. habit of conciliation towards others, lars; and his sister, who has remainand that anxiety for self improve- ed at home at the apron strings of ment, which result from the natural her mother, is very much his supe. modesty of youth. Nor is this con- riour in the science of manners. It ceit very easily and speedily gotten is probably true, that a boy at a pubrid of. We have seen (if we mistake lick school has made more observanot) publick school importance last tions on human character, because ing through the half of after life, he has had more opportunities of strutting in lawn, swelling in er. observing, than have been enjoyed mine, and displaying itself, both by young persons educated either ridiculously and offensively, in the at home or at private schools; but haunts and business of bearded this little advance gained at a pub

liek school, is so soon overtaken at There is a manliness in the ath- college or in the world, that, to have letick exercises of publick schools, made it, is of the least possible conwhich is as seductive to the imagi- sequence, and utterly undeserving nation as it is utterly unimportant in of any risk incurred in the acquisi. itself. Of what importance is it in tion. Is it any injury to a man of after life, whether a boy can play thirty or thirty-five years of age;. to well or ill at cricket; or row a boat a learned serjeant or a venerable with the skill and precision of a wa- dean, that at eighteen they did not terman?. If our young lords and know so much of the world as some ésquires were hereafter to wrestle other boys of the same standing? together in publick, or the gentle. They have probably escaped the men of the bar to exhibit Olympick arrogant character so often attendgames in Hilary term, the glory at- ant upon this trifling superiority; nor tached to these exercises of publick is there much chance that they have schools would be rational and impor- ever fallen into the common and tant. But of what use is the body of youthful errour of mistaking a prean athlete, when we have good laws mature initiation into vice, for a over our heads, or when a pistol, knowledge of the ways of mankind: a postchaise, or a porter, can be and, in addition to these salutary hired for a few shilling's ? A gentle- exemptions, a winter in London man does nothing but ride or walk; brings it all to a level; and offers to and yet such a ridiculous stress is every novice the advantages which laid upon the manliness of the exer. are supposed to be derived from cises customary at publick schools, this precocity of confidence and poexercises in which the greatest lish. blockheads commonly excel the According to the general preju. most, as often render habits of idle- dice in favour of publick schools, it ness inveterate, and often lead to would be thought quite as absurd foolish expense and dissipation at a and superfluous to enumerate the more advanced period of life. illustrious characters who have been bred at our three great seminaries on morals and metaphysicks, it was of this description, as it would be not the system of publick schools to descant upon the illustrious cha- which produced Bacon, Shaftesbury, racters who have passed in and out Hobbes, Berkley, Butler, Hume, of London over our three great Hartley, or Dugald Stewart. The bridges. Almost every conspicuous greatest discoverers in chymistry person is supposed to have been edų. have not been brought up at publick cated at publick schools, and there schools; we mean Dr. Priestly, Dr. are scarcely any means (as it is ima- Black, and Mr. Davy. The only Engined) of making an actual compa- glishmen who have evinced a rerison; and yet, great as the rage is, markable genius, in modern times, and long has been, for publick for the art of war; the duke of Marlschools, it is very remarkable, that borough, lord Peterborough, general the most eminent men in every art Wolfe, and lord Clive, were all and science have not been educated trained in private schools. So were in publick schools; and this is true, lord Coke, sir Matthew Hale, and even if we include, in the term of lord chancellor Hardwick, and chief publick schools, not only. Eton, Win- justice Holt, among the lawyers. So che ster, and Westminster, but the also, among statesinen, were lord Charter-house, St Paul's school, Burleigh, Walsingham, the earl of Merchant Taylors, Rugby, and eve. Strafford, Thurloe, Cromwell, Hamp: ry school in England, at all conduct- den, lord Clarendon, sir Walter ed upon the plan of the three first. Raleigh, Sydney, Russel, sir W. The great schools of Scotland we Temple, lord Somers, Burke, Shedo not call publick schools; because, ridanź Pitt. In addition to this in these, the mixture of domestick list, we must not forget the names bife gives to them a widely different of such eminent scholars and men character. Spenser, Pope, Shak- of letters, as Cudworth, Chilling. speare, Butler, Rochester, Spratt, worth, Tillotson, archbishop King, Parnell, Garth, Congreve, Gay, Swift, Selden, Conyers, Middleton, Benta Thomson, Shenstone, Akenside, ley, sir Thomas Moore, cardinal Goldsmith, Samuel Johnson, Beau. Wolsey, bishops Sherlock and Wil. mont and Fletcher, Ben Johnson, kins, Jeremy Taylor, Isaac Hooker, Sir Philip Sidney, Savage, Arbuth- bishops Usher, Stillingfleet and Spelnot, and Burns, among the poets, man, Dr. Samuel Clark, bishop were not educated in the system of Hoadley and "Dr. Lardner. Nor must English schools. Sir Isaac Newton, it be forgotten, in this examination, Maclaurin, Wallis, Hamstead, Saun- that none of the conspicuous writers derson, Simpson, and Napier, among upon publick economy which this men of science, were not educated country has as yet produced, have in publick schools. The three best been brought up in publick schools. historians that the English language If it be urged that publick schools has produced, Clarendon, Hume, have only assumed their present and Robertson, were not educated character within this last century, or at publick schools. Publick schools half century, and that what are now have done little in England for the called publick schools, partook, be. fine arts, as in the examples of Inigo fore this period, of the nature of priJones, Vanburgh, Reynolds, Gains vate schools, there must" then be borough, Garrick, &c. The great added to our lists, the names of Milmedical writers and discoverers in ton, Dryden, Addison, &c. &c. and it Great Britain, Harvey, Cheseldon, will follow, that the English have Hunter, Jenner, Meade, Brown and done almost all that they have done Cullen, were not educated at pubs in the arts and sciences, without the lick schools. Of the great writers. aid of that system of education to which they are now so much at five or six hundred other boys, and tached. Ample as this catalogue of is left to form his own character; if celebrated names already is, it would his love of knowledge survives this be easy to double it; yet; as it stands, severe trial, it, in general, carries it is obviously sufficient to show that him very far; and, upon the same great eminence may be attained in principle, a savage, who grows up any line of fame, without the aid of to manhood, is, in general, well publick schools. Some more striking made, and free from all bodily de, inferences might, perhaps, be drawn fects; not because the severities of from it; but we content ourselves such a state are favourable to animal with the simple facte

life, but because they are so much The most important peculiarity in the reverse, that none but the strongthe constitution of a publick school est cap survive them. A few boys is its numbers, which are so great, are incorrigibly idle, and a few in, that a close inspection of the master corrigibly eager for knowledge; but into the studies and conduct of each the great mass are in a state of doubt individual is quite impossible. We and fluctuation; and they come to must be allowed to doubt, whether school, for the express purpose not such an arrangement is favourable of being left to themselves (for that either to literature or morals. could be done any where) but that

Upon this system, a boy is left their wavering tastes and propensialmost entirely to himself, to im- ties should be decided by the interpress upon his own mind, as well vention of a master. In a forest, or as he can, the distant advantages of publick school for oaks and elms, knowledge, and to withstand, from the trees are left to themselves; the his own innate resolution, the exam- strong plants live, and the weak ples and the seductions of idleness. ones die. The towering oak that A firm character survives this brave remains is admired; the saplings neglect; and very exalted talents that perish round it are cast into the may sometimes remedy it by subse- flames and forgotten. But it is not, quent diligence. But schools are not surely, to the vegetable struggle of made for a few youths of preemi- a forest, or the hasty glance of a nent talents, and strong characters; forester, that a botanist-would com such prizes can, of course, be drawn mit a favourite plant. He would but by a very few parents. The best naturally seek for it a situation of school is that which is best accom- less hazard, and a cultivator whose modated to the greatest variety of limited occupations would enable characters, and which embraces the him to give to it a reasonable share greatest number of cases. It cannot of his time and attention. The very be the main object of education to meaning of education seems to us render the splendid more splendid, to be, that the old should teach and to lavish care upon those who the young, and the wise direct the would almost thrive without any care weak; that a man who professes to at all. A publick school does this instruct, should get among


pueffectually, but it commonly leaves pils; study their characters; gain the idle almost as idle, and the dull their affections; and form their inclialmost as dull, as it found them. It nations and aversions. In a publick disdains the tedious cultivation of school, the numbers render this imthose middling talents, of which possible; it is impossible that suffionly the great mass of human beings cient time should be found for this are possessed. When a strong de- useful and affectionate interference. sire of improvement exists, it is Boys, therefore, are left to their own encouraged, but no means are taken crude conceptions, and ill-formed to inspire it. A boy is cast in among propensities; and this neglect įs

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