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109. Repercusso Phæbo : by reflecting the sun.'
114. Lucifer : the name given to the planet Venus, when the morning star. It is the last star that disappears when the sun rises. Venus is called Hesperus, when it is the evening star, and is then the first star that
116. Extremæ : 'of the fading.'— Velut: 'ready.'
117. Horis : the three Hours, daughters of Jupiter and Themis, to whose care the horses of the sun were entrusted.
122. Fecit patientia : 'and made his face capable of enduring.'
123. Luctûs ; of his future sorrow.'
128. Nec tibi. arcus : the construction is, nec via per quinque arcus directos placeat tibi.--Arcus : the five imaginary circles, which divide the zones from each other.
130. Zonarum. · fine : 'contained within the limits of three zones. Most of the stars which form the constellations of the zodiac are within the torrid zone; but a few are on the borders of the temperate zones.
134. Preme : • keep too low.'
137. Neu te dexterior : sc. rota ; let not the right wheel.'— In Anguem : 'to the Serpent ;' which is up near the North pole.
138. Ad Aram : 'to the Altar ;' which is near the South pole. The gods are supposed to have transferred to the heavens the altar on which they first entered into a confederacy against the Titans.
142. Libera : « allowable; optional.'
143. Poscimur : we are called for ;' i. e. our light is wanted.
154. Repagula: the bars,' or opposing barriers, to prevent the horses from starting before the exact time.
155. Nepotis: 'of her grandson. Tethys was the mother of Clyměne.
156. Facta est mundi : 'the scope of the vast heavens was laid open before them.'
160. Cognoscere : 'to feel.' 164. Sic onere
inani: the construction is, sic currus dat saltus in aëra vacuos assueto onere, succutiturque altè, estque similis inani currui.
167. Spatium: 'path.'-Quo priùs : in which they did before.'
170. Triones : the seven bright stars in the constellation
Ursa Major, which are now called Charles's Wain, near the North pole.
175. Boöte : Boötes, a constellation near Ursa Major.
176. Tua plaustra: i. e. the Triones, which appear as a wagon, and which Boötes is said to drive.
182. Valuisse rogando : "that he prevailed over his father by his entreaties.'
183. Meropis dici cupiens : wishing to be called the son of Merops ; 'i. e. the husband of Clyměne, a king of the island of Cos, who was changed into the constellation of the Eagle.--Ita fertur ... reliquit : 'the construction is, ita fertur, ut pinus vel navis acta præcipiti Boreâ, cui suus rector remisit fræna aut gubernaculum, quam navem reliquit dis votisque.
192. Vario : 'diversified by various constellations.'--Miracula : 'monsters;' i. e. strange and fearful objects.
195. Scorpios : “ the scorpion ;' one of the constellations of the zodiac; the Greek nominative.-Flexis ; 'extended around.'
198. Vulnera ... cuspide : threatening to inflict wounds upon him with the sting in his crooked tail.'
202. Impetus : 'their fury.'
209. Ut quæque altissima : 'the highest parts of the earth in succession.'
216. Athos : a lofty mountain of Macedonia, now called Monte Santo, and inhabited by nearly four thousand monks. -Taurusque Cilix: 'and Cilician Taurus ;' a range of mountains in Asia.—Tmolus : a mountain of Lydia, now called Bouzdag.–Ete: a mountain between Thessaly and Macedonia ; its modern name is Banina.
217. Ide : • Ida ;' a celebrated mountain of Phrygia, near Troy
218. Helicon : a mountain of Beotia (now called ZagaroVouni), sacred to Apollo and the Muses. The epithet virgineus is applied to it, because it was sacred to the Muses, who were all virgins. At its foot were the celebrated fountains Aganippe and Hippocrēne.—Nondum Eagrius Hæ
Hæmus, not yet called Eagrian; ' after the name of Eăgrus, or Eăger, a king of Thrace; or probably after the name of Orpheus, his son, who was murdered on this mountain, which is between Thrace and Thessaly.
219. In immensum : 'with fury; to a vast height.'-- Gemio
inatis ignibus : i. e. with its own fire, and with the fire from the chariot of the sun.—Ætne: a burning mountain in Sicily.
220. Parnassus : a mountain in Phocis.--Eryk: a mountain in Sicily, which received its name from Eryx, a son of Butes and Yenus, who was buried on it; its modern name is Giuliano.--Cynthus : a mountain of Delos.---Othrys : a chain of mountains in Thessaly, the residence of the Centaurs.
221. Rhodope : a mountain of Thrace, covered with perpetual snows. It is said to have received its name from Rhodope, the wife of Hæmus, whom Juno changed into this mountain for professing to vie with her in beauty. Mimas :
a mountain of Asia Minor. 222. Dindyma: a mountain of Phrygia, sacred to Cyběle. -Mycăle : a mountain and city of Asia Minor.-Cithæron : a mountain of Bæotia, sacred to Bacchus, Jupiter, and the Muses.
223. Caucăsus : an immense chain of mountains between the Euxine and Caspian seas.
224. Ossaque : Ossa, Pindus and Olympus are mountains in Thessaly. Let it be remembered that there are four other mountains named Olympus, besides this in Thessaly, sacred to Apollo and the Muses : viz. one in Mysia ; one in Elis; one in Arcadia; and another in the island of Cyprus.
225. Alpes : "the Alps ;' which separate Italy from France.- Apenninus : the Apennines;' a range of mountains dividing Italy into two parts.
234. In corpora summa vocato : 'being drawn by the heat to the exterior of the body.'
235. Æthiopum : 'of the Æthiopians ; ' Æthiopia is a. hot country of Africa.
236. Libye : Libya ;' a dry and barren country of Africa.
238. Dircen : Dirce ;' a fountain near Thebes, which took its name from Dirce, the wife of Lycus, a king of Thebes.
239. Argos undas : ' Argos bewails the loss of Amymõne, and Ephyra (Corinth) the waters of Pirene.' The verse may be scanned thus :
Argos Almymo|nen Ephy|re Pilrenidos | undas.
Amymõne is a fountain and rivulet in the Peloponesus, so called from a daughter of Europa and Danăus, who was said to have been transformed into it. Pirene is a fountain near Corinth, sacred to the Muses.
240. Nec sortita .. manent : the construction is, nec fumina manent tuta, quæ sortita sunt ripas distantes loco.
241. Tanaïs : a large river, which separates Asia from Europe, now called the Don.
242. Peneos : the l'eneus of Thessaly.-Caicus : a river of Mysia, which rises at Teuthrania or Teutharntia.
243. Ismenos : a river of Bæotia, which took its name from Ismenus, a son of Apollo and the nymph Melia. Erymantho : • Erymanthus ;' a river of Phocis; near it were a town and mountain of the same name.
244. Xanthus : a river of Troas, sometimes called Scamander. During the Trojan war, this river was set on fire by Vulcan, at the request of Venus.—Lycormas : a river of Ætolia, the sands of which resembled gold.
245. Meandros : the Meander; a river of Phrygia, which is said to have six hundred windings or turnings.
Undis : streams.'
246. Melas: a river of Mygdonia, a province of Macedonia near Thrace. There were several rivers of this name. -Eurotas : a river near the promontory Tænărus in Laconia. It received its name from Eurotas, a king of Sparta, the son of Lelex.
247. Euphrates : a large, rapid, and celebrated river of Mesopotamia, which flowed through the middle of the city of Babylon.–Orontes : a river of Syria, now called Asia.
248." Thermodon: a rapid river of Cappadocia.-Ganges : the largest and most celebrated river in India.-Phasis : a river of Colchis, now called Faoz.—Ister : the largest river of Europe, called by the moderns the Danube.
249. Alpheos : a river of Arcadia in the Peloponnesus. -Spercheides : 'of Spercheus ; ' a river of Thessaly.
250. Tagus : a river of Spain celebrated for its golden sands; its modern name is Tajo.
251. Que Mæonias ripas : 'which make famous the rivers of Mæonia [Lydia] with their songs.'
252. Flumineæ volucres : swans, which were said to be numerous on the banks of the Cajster.
253. Nilus : the Nile ; ' a large river of Africa, which received its name from Nilus, a king of Thebes. The
source of this celebrated river, though it was for ages a subject of inquiry, remained unknown till a few years since; when the traveller Bruce is said to have discovered it. It is now ascertained that it takes its rise in Abyssinia, and after flowing through Abex, Nubia, and Egypt, it empties itself by seven mouths or channels into the Mediteranean sea, near the city Alexandria. The Nile annually overflows its banks about the latter end of May, and for four months the country of Egypt is covered with its waters. This inundation is said to be occasioned by the periodical rains which fall when the sun is vertical in Ethiopia in the months of April and May; and though it is sometimes dangerous and desolating in its consequences when the rise of the waters is excessive, it is in general attended with the most beneficial effects, fertilizing the lands, and enriching the natives.
255. Vacant : ' are destitute' of water.
256. Ismarios : sc. amnes ; i. e. the Thracian rivers. Ismarus was a mountain of Thrace, near the rivers Strymon and Hebrus, or, as it is now called, Mariza.
257. Hesperiosque amnes : "and the rivers in the west :' -Rhenum : the Rhine;' a large river of Europe, which divides Germany from Gaul.-Rhodănum : “the Rhone;' a rapid river in Gaul.--Padum : “the Po;' a river of Italy, sometimes called Eridănus.
258. Cui : “to which river,' i. e. to Rome, which is built on the Tyber.-Rerum potentia : 'the sovereignty of the world. The Tyber rises in the Apennines, and after running through the midst of Rome, falls into the Tyrrhene
260. Conjuge : Proserpine. 263. Cycladas : “the Cyclădes;' a cluster of about fifty islands in the Ægean sea. They are so called from κύκλος, , a circle, on account of their circular position.
267. Fama est : it is said.'
278. Si placet hoc, meruique : 'if you approve of my destruction, and if I have deserved it.'
279. Liceat perituræ : sc. mihi ; ' may it be allowed me, if I must perish by fire.'
280. Auctore : by the greatness of its author,' i. e. by its proceeding from you.
284. Fructus : 'rewards.'-Honorem : • honorable reco pense.'
286. Exerceor : 'am harassed.' 289. Fac : 'suppose.'