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make war has been taken, that both the
persons and riches of those in the city should belong to the captors. You will not therefore poffefs with injustice whatever ye may possess, but if you suffer them to retain any thing, you will not take it from them merely from your humanity. As to our future conduct, I am of opinion truly, that if we shall turn ourselves to indolence and the pleasure of base men, (who think labour a most wretched thing, but living without labour pleasure) I say that we shall foon become less valuable to ourselves, and shall soon be deprived of all good things. For to have been brave men, this is not enough towards continuing to be brave, unless one is careful of this throughout to the end: but even as other arts by being neglected become worth less, and bodies themselves in a good condition, when one gives them up to
5. The use of Preterite and Pluperfe&t Tenses Middle in a Palive Signification, and vice versa, is common.
See Kuster de vero usu Verborum Mcdiorum, “ The Verb in this form (i.e. the MIDDLE ) very much resembles the reflected verbs of the French. Those who have ftudied the beauties of the Greek Language, must know very well, that this voice gives not only a beautiful variety to the inflections of their verbs, but a great conciseness and emphafis to the expression.”
Lord MONBODDO's Orig. of Lang. Part 2. B. 1. C. 13.
See also HARRIS's Hermes, B. ift. C.9. 92. 'Padispyd, which we call “ Indolence," significs properly “A lazy habit of consulting our own ease in all our actions,” It is not to be wonder'd at, if the PHILOSOPHER speaks in the most reproachful terms of those, who are addicted to this ; for surely it is a habit most deplorable, productive of all mischief, unbecoming a Rational Creature sent into the World to act his part with vigour, either in Bodily or Mental Pursuits, with a view not so much to his own Intereit, as to the Public Good,
πονηρως παλιν εχω ετων και η σωφροσυνη και η εγκρατια και η αλκη, οπόταν τις αυτος ανω η ασκησις, εκ έτος ως η πονηρια παλιν ορεπομαι. Ουκάν δει
μελλω, εδ' επι το αωτικα ηδυς προγεναι αυτός. Μεγας μεν γαρ, οιμαι, εργον και το αρχη κατεπραξα, σολυ δ' εα μειζων, το "λαβων διεσωσαμω. Το μην γαρ ελαβον, πολλακις και τολμη μονον ακομδυος εγενομωο δε * λαβων κατέχω, εκετι ετος ανευ σωφροσυνη, εδ' ανευ εγκρατία, εδ' ανευ πολλος επιμελέα γιγνομαι.
Ος χρη γιγνωσκων, νυν, πολυ μαλλον ασκεω η αρετη και πριν οδε αγαθος κτησαθαι.
93. ο μεν 8ν θεος οιoμαι χρη συν εγω εσομαι: 8 γαρ επιβελευσους αδικως έτος εχω, αλλ' επιζελαθως ετιμωρησάμην.
• έτος κρατισος, “εγώ αυτος παρασκευαστον ετος δε
αμι, το και βελτιων ων και αρχομενος αρχω αξιοω. Θαλπος μεν 8ν και ψυχG, και σιτος και σοτος, και σονος και υπνος αναγκη και * ο δελος μεταδιδωμι μεταδιδες γε μέντοι σεραομαι δα εν ουτος πρωτον βελτιων αυτος φαινομαι. εΠολεμιε
επισημη και μελετη σανταπασιν και μεταδοτεον έτος, στις εργατης τε ημετερος και δασμοφορος βελομαι
indolence, again become bad, so also prudence, and temperance, and courage, when one has relinquished the practice of them, from that time degenerates into vice. It becomes us not then to be remiss, nor to throw ourselves into present pleasure. For I think it indeed a great work to have acquired a dominion, but still a much greater to have preserved it after having gained it. For to gain it, has oftentimes happened to him who has Thewn only boldness: but to retain after having acquired it, this is not done without pru dence, nor without temperance, nor without much care. Knowing which things, it behoves us to practice virtue much more now, than before we acquired these valuable pofseflions."
93. “We ought to think that the gods will be with us: for we do not possess these things unjustly, by having formed iniquitous designs upon them; but having been ourselves designed against, we have revenged ourselves. But the best thing after this must be provided by ourselves; it is this; that being better than the people ruled, we should thus think ourselves worthy to rule. It is necessary indeed that we give to our flaves (a share) of heat, and cold, of meats and drinks, of labours and sleep: but it behoves us even while we give them a share, to endeavour to appear superior to them first of a
all these things. But we must not give any share at all of military knowledge and practice to those, whom we will to
εκτησαμην, αλλ' και αυτος δει ο έτος το ασκημα πλεονεκτεω, γιγνωσκων και ελευθερια έτος οργανον και ευδαιμονία ο θεος ο ανθρωπος απεδειξα.
94. Ει δε τις τοιχτος εννοεομαι, τι δητα εγω οφελος κατεπραξα 4 ος επιθυμών, και ετι δεησα καρτερεω και σενών και διψών και επιμελομενος και πονών και εκεινος δει κατέμαθον, ότι και τοσέτος και αγαθος μαλλον ευφραινω, σος αν μαλλον προπονησας τις επ’ και αυτος απιοιμι· (ο γαρ σονος οψον ο αγαθος") ανευ δε και το δεομενος τυγχανω και τις, εδεις ετω πολυτελως παρασκέψασθειην αν, ώς' ηδυς ειμι. Ει δε και οι μεν μαλιστα ανθρωπος επιθυμεω, ο δαιμων εγω ετος
συμπαρεσκάρακα, ώς δ' αν ήδισος ετος φαινοιμίω, αυτος τις
αυτος έτος ωρασκευασω, ο τοιχτος ανηρ πλεονεκτησω και ο ενδεεςερος και βιος, και όσος εινησας και ο ηδισος σιτος τευξομαι, και διψασας και ηδισος ποιος απολαυσομαι, και δεηθας και αναπαυσις, ηδιςον αγαπαωσομαι. Ος ένεκα φημι εχρην νυν επεταθην εγω ας ανδραγαθια, οπως. *ο τι αγαθώς και αρισον και ήδισον
possess as our labourers and tributaries; but in these exercises it is fit for ourselves to have the advantage, knowing that the gods have proposed these to men as instruments of liberty and happiness.”
94. “ But if any one thinks within himself these things, what advantage is it then to us to have acquired these things which we desired, if still it will be necessary for us to persevere both in being hungry, and in being thirsty, and in taking care, and in labouring ?” he ought to learn this, “ that good things please so much the more, by how much the more any one goes to them from having previously laboured (for labours are a relish to good things :) but without a person's wanting to obtain any thing, nothing can be provided so Tumptuosly, as to be pleasant to him.” If therefore the deity has in conjunction with ourselves provided those things, which men chiefly desire, and if every man's self will prepare these things for himself, so as that they might appear most pleasant; such a man will so far have the advantage of those that want subsistence more, in as much as when he is hungry he will get the most agreeable meats, and when he is thirsty he will enjoy the most agreeable drinks, and wanting rest he will rest most agreeably. On account of which things, I say, that it now behoves us to be intent on what is the duty of brave men, both that we may enjoy good things (in such a manner) as iş most excellent and most agreeable, and that