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which was generally deemed impregnable. dia's country, but would also add to the repud With respect to its relative position, it must tation of our arms in a degree much beyond de confidered, that it stands on the principalehe risque and expence of the undertaking, Foad leading from Agra to Malwa, Guzerat, repeatedly expressed his opinion to Mijne and the Decan; and that, too, near the place Pophall, together with a with that it might where it enters the hilly tract which advances be a:tempted; and founding his hopes of from Bundefcund, Malwi, ard Agimere, to fuccess on the confidence that the garrison a parallel with the river Jumaah, throughout would probably have in the natural strength the greatest part of its course. And from all of the place. these circumstances of general ar.d particular It was accordingly undertaken ; and the htuation, together with its natural and ac- following account of the place, and the mat. quired advantages as a fortress, the poffeffion ner of our getting poffeffion of it, was writ. o! it was deemed as necessary to che ruling ten by Captain Jonathan Scott, at that time Emperors of Hindottan, as Duver Cantle Perrian Interprcier to Major Popham, to his might have been to the Saxon and Norman brother Major John Scott. Kings of England. les palace was used as a The fortress of Gwalior stands on a vast Itata-prison as early as 1317, and continued rock of about four miles in length, but nar. to be such until the downfal of the empire. row and of unequal breadth, and nearly flat

On the final dismemberment of the empire at the top. The fides are so steep as to apGwalior appears to have falien to the lot of a pear almoft perpendicular in every part; for Rajah of the Jat tribe, who affumed the where it was not naturally fo, it has been government of the distri& in which it is (craped away ; and the height from the plain immediately fituated, under the title of Rana below is from two hundred tothree hundred of Gohud or Guhd. Since that period it fect. The rampart conforms to the edge of has changed makers more than once; the the precipice all round; and the only entrance Mabratras, whose dominions extend to the to it is by steps running up the fide of the Deighbourhood of it, having fometimes pof rock, defended on the fide next the country fefíed it, and at other times the Rana; buitby a wall and bastions, and further guarded the means of transfer were always either fa- bý feven Atone gateways, at certain distances mine or treachery, nothing like a hege hav- from each other. The area within is full of iog ever been attempted.

noble buildings, reservoirs of water, wells, Gwalior was in the poffeffion of Madajee and cultivated tand; ro that it is really a litScindia, a Mahratta Chief, in 1979, at the de distria in itself. At the northwest fout of core of which year the Council General of the mountain is the town, pretty large, and Bengal concluded an alliance with the Rana; well built ; the houses all of stone. To have in consequence of which four battalions of besieged this place would be vain, for nothing F-poys, of five hundred men each, and some but a surprize or blockade could have carpieces of artillery, were sent to his affiftance, ried it. his diftrict being overrun by the Mahrattas, A tribe of banditti from the district of the and himself almost shut up in his fort of Rana had been accustomed to rob about this Gohud. The grand object of his alliance town, and once in the dead of night had was to penetrate into Scindia’s Country, and climbed up the rock, and got into the fort. Anally to draw Scindia himself from the This incelligence they had communicated coche Western lide of India, where he was acteod. Rana, who often thought of availing himself ing the motions of General Goddard, who of it, but was fearful of undertaking an enwas then employed in the reduction of Gue terprize of such moment with his owa zerat ; it being Mr. Hastings's idea, that troops. Ai lengih he iuformed Major Popwhen Scindia found his own dominions in ham of it, who sent a party of the robbers danger, he would detach himself from the to condu&t some of his own spies to the spot.' Confederacy, of which he was the principal They accordingly climbed up in the night, member, and thus leave matters open for an and found that the guards generally went to accommodation with the Court of Poonah. sleep after their rounds. Popram now or I fell out exa&tly as Mr. Hanings predicted. dered ladders to be made, but with so much Major William Poplam was appointed to secrecy, that until the night of surprize only the command of the little ai my rent to the myself and a few others knew it. On the Rana's affistance and was very successful, as 3d of August, in the evening, a party was 'well in clearing his countryof the enemy, as in ordered to be in readiness to march under the

driving them out of one of their own most command of Cap:ain William Brace; and valuable districts, and keeping poffeffion of Popham put himself :t the head of two bale "it. And Mr. Hastings, who juniy conclud talions, which were immediately to follow ed that the capture of Gwalior, if practica. the storming party. To prevent as much as bie, would not only open the way into Scinc peftible any noise in appscaching of asceud

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warm drie cluth were made for the repoys, and stuffed kept up by the small pas renadiers; with cotton. At eleven o'clock the whole until Majot Popham hins consideradetachment marched from the camp at Rey, ble reinforcement, came t :: the garripour, ciglit miles from Gwalior, thro' unfre. son then retreated to the 1.

'ngs, and quented paths, and reached it ac a little before discharged a few rockets,

terwards day. break. Just as Captain Bruce arrived' retreated precipitately at the foot of the rock, he saw the lights whilft the principal officers, thus deserted, af. which accompany the rounds moving along fembled together in one house, and hung out a the rampart, and heard the sentinels cough, Aaz. Major Popham sent an offieer to give (the made of lignifying that all is well in an them affurance of quarter and protection; and Indian camp ar garrison) which might have thus, in the space of two hours, this important damped the spirit of many men, but served and astonithing fortress was completely in our only to inspire him with more confidence, poffeffion ; we had only twenty men wound. as the moment for action, that is the interval ed, and one killed. On the side of the enemy, between the passing the rounds, was now af. Bapogee the Governor was killed, and most certained. Accordingly when the lights were of the principal officers wounded. , gone, the wooden ladders were placed against Thus fell the strongest fortress in Hindos. the rock, and one of the robhers first mounted, tan, garrisoned by a chosen body of twelve and returned with an account that the guard hundred men, on August 4, 1780; and which, was retired to Neep. Lieutenant Cameron, before the capture of it by the English, was our engincer, next mounted, and tied a rope. pronounced by the Princes of Hindoftan, as ladder to the battlements of the wall; this kind far as their knowledge in the military art exof ladder being the only one adapted to the pur- tended, to be impregnable. In the year 1783 pose of scaling the wall in a body, (the wooden Madajee Scindia besieged this fortress, then ones only ferving to ascend from crag to prag poflefied by the Rana of Gohud, with an army of the rock, and to affift in fixing the rope- of seventy thousand men, and effected the reladders. When all was ready, Captain Bruce, duction by the treacliery of one of the Rana's with (wenty sepoys, grenadiers, iscended officers, who formed the plan of admission without being discovered, and squatted down of a party of Scindia's troops ; these were under the parapet ; but, before a reinforce- immediately supported by another party, who ment arriv.d, three of the party had fo little attacked an opposite quarter, and got admis. recollection as to fire on some of the garrison fion also. wizo happened to be lying asleep near them. The First View is taken from the NorthThis bad nearly ruined the whole plan : che gar- Weft in order to Mew she buildings, but the rifan were, of courfe, alarmed, and ran in great attack was made at the opposite side or rather pombers toward the place ; but, ignorant of end, as is seen in the Second View, for the the strength of the assailants, (as the men fired breadth only oi the rock is exlubited in the on had been killed outright) they suffered Firtt View.

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EXTRACTS of ORIGINAL LETTERS from Dr. ARBUTHNOT to

Mr. WATKINS.

London, Supr 30, 1721, too late, to keep Prior's will secret, for it PRIOR has had a narrow elcape by aly, is thought not to be too reputable for

ing; tur, if he had lived, he had Lurd Harley to execute this will. Be to married a brimstone birch, one Belly kind as to say nothing whence you had Cox, that keeps in alchonle in Long your intelligence. We are to have a Acre. Her husband died about a monin bowl of punch at Buffy Cox's. She would ago, and Prior has left his eila'e betwczai tain bave put it upon Lewis that the was his fervant Jonathan Drift and Biffy Cox. his Emma; The owned, Flanders jane Lewis got drunk wiila punch with Bess was his Cloe. I know no security from night fore latt. Don't say where you thefe dotages in batchelors, but to repent bad tiis news o! Prior. I hope ail ray of their misspent time, and marry with Mittreis's Ministers will not behave theine all apces. Pray tell your fellow-traveller felves to

so. Loxbox, 0.7. io, :728. THERE is zicai Cuit ia ken, now is is

To the EDITOR of the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. SIR, THE death of a nobleman which has lately happened, who did no less honour to his

country than to the distinguished class to which he belonged, seems to have been unaccountably passed over with hardly any observation : even the notice of his departure was not announced in the newspapers until a month after the event took place. I know not to what caule to afcribe this inattention; for surely, the Earl of Kinnon deserved more respect. Perbaps you will allow a new correspondent a place in your Magazine for the following performance, which he has every reason to believe the production of this nobleman. Thomas Earl of Kinnoul, and Lord Hay, was born in 1710. In his father's lifc

time he served in parliament for the town of Cambridge, for which place he was chosen in 1741, 1747, and 1754; and in the iwo lait was chairman of the committee of privileges and elections. In May 1741, he was appomted one of the commillioners of the revenue in Ireland, and in Nov. 1746, commissioner of trade and plantations. In 1754, lie was constituted one of the lords of the treasury; and in 1755, joint piymaiter-general of his Mjesty's land forces. On Jan. 24, 1758, he was named chancellor of the dutchy and county-palatine cf Lancaster; and on the 27th, was (worn a member of the privy-council. In the lane month he was also choten recorder of Cambridge; and on Nov. 27, 1759, was nominated ambass:dor-extraordi. nary, and plenipotentiary to the court of Portugal, from whence he returned to Eagland in November the year following. When the prelent King ascended the throne, his Loruthip continued his office of cliancellor of the du cay; but religned it in Dec. 176.. Since that period he lived retired, and died on 27th Nov. 1787,

I am, &c, Edinburgh, Jan. 1o, 1788.

CALEDONICUS.

HINTS FOR REGULATING MR. H. HOPE'S STUDIES.

BY THE LATE EARL OF KINNOUL.

R.

of the , Hope's education thews a reach of consulting good commen:aries learn some. thought and extent of knowledge. thing of the manners of the Runians froin

I agree with Mr. Gillier, that before the Poets, particularly Horace, Juvenal, Mr. Hope ftudies the civil law, he thould and Ovid de Faltis. be acquainted with the Roinan History. As to the comic writers, Terence is

For this purpole he may read Livy, pure and elegant; but Plautus's language Sallut, Hooke's Roman History; then is difficult, his meaning often fo obícured Middleton's Life of Cicero, with Cicero's by a prevailing turn to wit and humour Letters, in the order of time as there quo- as not to be found out without labour, ted.

and his characters are entirely Grecian. If he should choose to read at the same When Mr. Hope is reading the Ro. time any French authors for his improve- man history, a general and luccinct view ment in that language, Mably upon the of the hiltory of the world, previous to Rise and Fall of the Romans, or Monter- that time, may be useful. This may be quieu sur la Decadence des Romaines, or acquired by reading, Vertot's Roman Revolutions, will be en- Sleidan de Quatuor Monarchiis, lertaining and instructive.

Bossuet's Histoire Universelle, Fur Roman antiquiries, Mr. Hope may The short History of Greece printed read either Kennet's Roman Antiquities fonie years ago at Edinburgh. in Englith, or Newport's in Latin.

Mr. Gillier's sentiments are just, that in Heineccius's Antiquities are necessary order to farm liberal notions of any fyf. to one wbo is to study civil law, but they tem in law, the ground.work Tould be should be read with the Inititutes, as wil laid in the great foundations of justice bereafter be mentioned.

and equity. If Mr. Hope, for his amusement or im- With this view, Mr. Hope, that he provement in the Latin language, ihould may le acquainted with moral philosoVOL. XIII.

с

phy,

phy, and with the principles of the laws of stand the civil law in the view of practice, nature and nations, should read,

must be thoroughly master of Voet. ift, The English translation of Xeno- Cujaccius is a book by much too long phon's Memorabilia, which comprehends to be read from beginning to end; but in the Socratic philosophy.

all questions of sitticuliy, and likewise on 2d, Cicero's philosophical works, viz. any interesting subject, recourie lould be De Officiis, Senectute, Amicitiâ, Legibus, had to him as the very best of all civilians. and Tusculana Quaestiones.

In the course of reading the Pandects, 3d, Seneca's Morals.

Mr. Hope Mould have much recourse to These will give him a pretty diftin&t the text of the Corpus Juris itself, from notion of the most valuable pari of hea- which he will draw real inttruction, and then morality.

more entertainment than from any com. To these may be added,

mentator. ist, Hutchinson's Moral Philosophy, or After reading the Institutes and Pandects any good modern treatise on that lubject. in the manner above. inentioned, Mr. Then he should read Puffendorf's De. Hope may conclude with Vinnius upon voirs d'Hoinme et de Citoyen par Barbey- the Institutes, as containing a clear and rac, or Burlemaqui's Droit Naturel. elegant suinmary of the principles of the

2d, Montesquieu's Esprit des Loix. koman law, and which, if carefully pe.

The President and Mr. Solicitor Dun- ruled, will fix them on his memory. das are clearly of opinion, that Mr. Hope Mr. Gillier in his letter seems to think Thould be thoroughly grounded in the par. too much time beitowed upon the study of ticular itudies already liggetted, before he ibe Roman law; but upon re-considering enters upon the Itudy of the law; and for that opinion, he will alter it when lie rethat realon they apprehend, that in his pre- ftcts ihat the grand principles of equiry, sent situation he cannot think of beginning justice, and the law of all modern nacions the Institutes before the winter 1773.4. are to be tourd there, and the deviations

When Mr. Hope begins the study of froin the Rainian law in any modern coun. the civil law, let him be aware at firit of try does not arise from the disapprobation pushing further into the science, than of it, but from the manners, circumstances, merely fixing the definitions and divifions and revolutions in that country. in his memury.

Mr. Hope, afer this course of the RoFor that purpose Mr. Solicitor would man law, may read Beinkeiltick's excel. recommend doing liude more than reading lent Tieatile upon the Law of Nations, the Institutes itfilf with fome easy com- with much plea.ure and instruction. mentary. Although Iuber and Hupinis Afier reading the civil law, before Mr. are not so elegant and deep as Vinnius, Hope fils down to the Scortilla law, he they are more proper for a young beginthould be acquainted with the feudal fytner.

tem, and thould also be so far matter of Although the Solicitor disapproved of the history of Scotland as to retain in his going deeply into the science at first he memory all those events which occafioned does not mean to diffuade Mr. Hope from any alteration in the constitution ; for the caiting up and perusing the capital laws revoluions in that state give a tinge to thie in the Corpus Juris, which may be quoted municipal law of any kingdoir. hy Huber and Hopius. He does not For the feudal systein, and likewise in atean 10 exclude Heineccius's Inititutes, order to turin the connection between an. for Heineccius has collected the definitions cient and modern history, Mr. Hope may and divifions in a very methodical-mar- read, ner. /

f., Tacitus, that most noble historian, Heineccius's Antiquities must also be from whom he will receive much enie: read at the same time, as the titles in both tainment and instruction. exactly correspond.

2d, Giannoni's Hittory of Naples; and It ÁIr. Hope reads with attention what 3d, Robertfon's History of Charles V. is here recommended as the work of one particularly the Introduction to each, year, he will have laid a good foundation, which contain most excellent summaries of and will find the study of the Pandects not the darker times, and explain the rise and only easy, but agreeable.

progress of the feudal iyftem in a very Heineccius on the Pandects, and Voet, inalterly manner. which is the inolt practical bouk, must be For ihe Scottish history no better occurs carefully perufed from beginning to end. to me than Buchanan's History, DrumFor any young man who delires to under- mond of Haughornden's History of the five

James's,

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