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James's, and Robertson's History of Scot- All food does not turn to nourishment : land.

real knowledge is not acquired by the The history of other countries may, as number of words a man devours, or the Ms. Gillier observes, be very useful, par. pages he turns over, but only by such ticularly that of England; but then only reading as he thoroughly digests and fummaries thould be put into Mr. Hope's makes his own. hands, where good may be found, that he The rules for reading all hooks with may not be overloaded

effe&t and to the best advantage are admi. I wish I could recommend a compendi- rably laid down by Mr. Locke, in a short ous Hiftory of England; Rapin's Abridge. and most valuable tradt, entitled, Tbe ment, with his Differtation on the Laws Conduct of the Human Understanding, of the Anglo-Saxons; and the Letters printed in his posthumous works, and refrom a Father to a Sun upon the English printed in a imall volume by itself fonie Hiftory, may answer Mr. Hope's prelent years ago at Edinburgh. I would recompurpose.

inend to every young man, before he Dr. Goldsmith has lately publithed an enters upon any course of study, to peruse Abridgement of the English History; but with attention and fix in his mind the dias I have not read it, I cannot venture to rections contained in this incomparable give my opinion about it Puff:ndorff's treatise. It will open his understanding, Introduction à l'Histuire de l'Europe and teach him with the greatest perfpicuity should be read.

the nature of assent and evidence. Of the History of France, President Distinct pronunciation, the improveHenault has made an excellent abridge. ment of the car, the modulation of the nient; and there has been lately published ruice, and everything that tends to render on the same plan a good one of the Hir. elocution agreeable, harmonious, and tory of Spain. Necker Sur le Corps Gere grateful, merits peculiar attention. manique is accounted accurate, and gives I agree with Lord Picsident, that with the best idea of that Conftitution.

this view fume passages of Cicero's Ora. The Modern History of all Nations tions Dould be read almost every day previous to the Reformation is obscure, aloud, and also tome passages of one of fabulous, and of little importance. A thc bet English authors. For this pur. young man who has learned what is ułe. pose I would recommend the Select Ora. ful to be known of the dark times froin ions of Demofthenes by different hands, Giannoni and Robertson thuuld begin his with Toureil's Preface, which is justly fudy of modern history at that period. admired for an elegant, beautiful, and

But as Mr. Hope must be content for Correct ftile. the present with a general fuperficial I would beg leave to suggest to Mr. knowledge of history, both ancient and Hope another exercise that appears to me modern, it is not necellary now to chalk to be of great importance. Whatever be out an extensive plan of either.

the subject of his study, whether classics, These hints are calculated to abridge history, ethics, or law, let him either Mr. Hope's ftudies upon every subject, write a summary or abstract of it in Engand to bring them within a nariow com- lith, or let him chuse some subject arising pass, consistent with the present disposi. out of it, and connected with his read. tion of his time, and the avocations which ing, and coinpolc a dissertation upon it in his health requires. Mr. Hope and Mr. Engl:th. Gillier will eally diftinguilh these books For instance, when he reads the classical which must necessarily be read, from those autbors, let hiin abstract a fummary of which are recommended to be read, in the ciims and manners of the Romans, cale the time perniit, for amufemen', or as they occur in them or their commenfor improvement in the Latin and French fators. In reading history, ancient or languages.

modern, various subjects will present If Mr. Hope's time should allow for themilelves : where a faét is dubious, he enlarging his studies upon any subject, may state the evidence pro and con, toge. Mr. Gillier may collect from the Arch- ther with his own judgment upon it. If bishop of York's Instruction to Lord an event be coinplicated, he may enume. Defkford any books he thall think molt rate particularly and illustrate the several proper.

circuinstances i he may fate the several I agree with Lord President and Lord judgments on both sides ; how far an action Hailes, that in law, history, and indeed all was in the whole or in part blanıcable, or sciences, it is inost pri judicial to a young laudable ; then give a decision, with his man to overcharge his memory, and to reasons for it. He may inveltigate the perplex his thoughts with a multiplicity of callies of any great event or revolution, voluminous bouks.



and assign the grounds of his opinion, Other excellent ones might be pointe t-
why such causes produced such effe&ts. out among the English sermons and the
Such and many other subjects will occur late historians ; but those which I have
in reading history, or in ethics, in the law mentioned may fuffice.
of nature and of nations, or the civil Mr. Hope Mould peruse with care,
Jaw. A question may be settled on any Dr. Lowth, now Bishop of Oxford, his
capital point and discused. The utility Essay on English Graminar, and consult
of this exercise is obvious; it will digeft, it freqtently when he is writing.
arrange, and fix in his memory what he These Hints, which were drawn up by
reads; it will teach and habituate him to Lord Kinnoul, were real by hiin to Lord
methodize his thougiits, and will improve President and Mr. Solicitor Dundas,
his Itile.

and approved by them; and they join Every man by use will form a stile for with Loid Kinnoul in recommending earhimself, and therefore great attention and neitly to Mr. Hope a particular attention care is necessary in the beginning. It has to his elocution, and to the exercite of been thought that the belt models for the writing Englith upon the subject of his English language may be found in Addis itudies. fon's prole works, in Swift's first pieces, The plan for Mr. Hope's study of particularly that upon the diffention of civil law was dictated by Mr. Solicitor Rome and Athens, in that trandation of Dundas. Demosthenes above-inentioned, and in Middleton's Life of Ciccro,


B O X I N G. The Conductors of a Periodical Publication seem bound :o notice the prevailing fashions as

well as follies of the day. In th.s point of view, the following account of the most celebrated Heroes of the noble Science of Defence, as it was flyled, of former times, may not be unacceptable to the Readers of the EuropeaN MAGAZINE. Even those who may be ind.ffe rent atout, or disapprove the revival of a lavage practice, may yet find some amustmert in the curious phraseology and ridiculous importance of the following extracts. They are taken from a scarce pamphlet entitied, “A Trcatise upon the uitful Scier.ct of Dee fence, connecting the Smail and Eack Sword, and shewing the Affinity between thein. Likewife endeavouring to weed the Art of those superfiuous un niaring Practices which overrun it, and choke the true Principles, by reducing it to a narrow Compass, and supporting it by mathematical Prcois. Alo an Examination into the Performances of the most noted Masters of the Back Sword, who have fought upon the Stage, pointing out their Faults, and allowing their Abilities. With some Observations upon Boxing, and the Characters of the most able Boxers within the Author's Time. By Capt. John Godfrey. 410. 1747."

ADVANCE, brave Broughton! Thee merit, has bid the higkelt, therefore has my

pronounce Captain of the Boxers. As . I really think ail will poll with me far as I can look back, I think, I ought to who poll with the same principle. Sure there open the Characters him : I know none is some standing re: son for this preference: fo fit, so able to lead up the van. This is What can be stronger than to say, that for giving him the living preference to the rest; seventeen or eighteen years he has fuught hut I hope I have not given any cause to say, every ablc Boxer that appeared against him, that there has appeared, in any of my cha- and has never yet been beat * ? This being racters, a partial tincture. I have tlırough the case, we may venture to conclude from out consulted nothing but my unbialiud it. But not to build alone oa this, let us mind, and my heart has known no call but examine farther into his merits. What is it merit. Wherever I have praised, I have no that he wants ? Has he not all that cthers defire of pleafing ; wherever decried, no fear want, and all the best can have? Strength of offunding Broughton, by his manly equal to what is human, kill and judgment

* He was however afterwards beaten by Slack, on April 11, 1750. On this occasion there was the greatest number of persons of distinction present perhaps ever known, and the greatest ruins of money bitted in favour of Broughton. He was beaten in soutien minutes.

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equal te what can be acquired, undebauched in my mind, Gretting was rot fufficiently wind, and a bouiom • spirit, never ta pro- furnished with; for after he was beat twice Iwance the word ENOUGH. He fights the together by Pipes, Hammersmith Jack, a stick as well as most men, and understands a meer loven oi a Boxer, and every body that good deal of the finall-sword. This practice fought biin afterwards, beat hiin. I must, has given him the distinction of time and notwithlanding, do that jullice to CretMEASURE beyond the rest.

He stops as ting's memory, as to own that his debauchery regularly as the swords-man, and carries his very much coris.buted to spoil a great Boxer ; Eows truly in the line ; he steps noc back, but yet I think he had not the bottom of the distrusting of himleif so stop a blow, and ocher. piddle in the return, with an arm unaided by Much about this time, there was his body, producing but a kind of Nyhap Whitaker, who fought the Venetian Gondotlows, such as the pastry-cooks use to beat lice He was a very strong fellow, but a tijos: insects from their carts and clieeficakes. clumsy Boxer. He liad cwo qualifications No-Broughton steps bold and fi: mily in ; very much contributing to help him out. He bids a welcome to the comin; Wow.; 14- was very extraordinary for his throwing, and ceives it with his guardian arm; then with contriving to pitch his weighsy body on the a general summons of his swelling muscles, fallen man. 'The other was, that he was a and his firm body leconding his arm, and hardy fellow, and would bear a deal of best.. fupp'ying it with all its weight, pours the ing. This was the man pitched upon to pile driving force upon his nian.

higit the Venetian. I was at Slaughter's That I may not be thought particular in Coffee house when the match was made, by dwelling too long upon Broughton, I leave a gentleman oi an advanced facion : he fere him with this affert.on, that as he, I be- for Fig to procure a proper man for him; he leve, will scarce trust a battle to a warning told him to take care of his man, because it age, I never snall think he is to be beaten, till was for a large lum; and the Venetian was I see him beat.

a man of extraordinary ítrength, and famous About the time I firit observed shis pro- for breaking the jaw-tone in boxing. Fig mifing hero upon the staze, his chief compe- replied, in his rough manner, I do not know, utors were Pipes and Greeting. He beat males, but he may break one of his own then both (and I thought with east) as often countrymen's jaw-bones with his fift; but I as he fought them.

will bring him a man, and he ihall not break Pipes was the neatcft boxer I reiremter. his jaw-bone with a nedge hammer in his band, He put in his blows about the lace (which The battle was fought at Fig's amphi.. he fought it most) with surprising time and cheatie, before a splendid company, the jo. judgment. He maintained his l'attles for litest house of that kind I ever saw. While many years by his extraordinary skill, against the Gondolier was stripping, my heart yearn men of far superior strength. Pipes was but ed for my countryman. His arm took up all weakly made ; his appearance bespuke acti- al servation ; it was surprisingly large, long, vity, but his hand, arm, and body were but and muscular. He pitched himfelf forward Imall; though by that acquired spring of with his right leg, arid his arm full extended,

arın he hit prodigious blows; and I really and as Whitaker approched, gave him a think that at last, when he was beat out of blow on the fide of the head, that knocked this championship, it was more owing to his him quite off the stage, which was remarka det aucliery than the merit of those who beat able for its height. Whitaker's misioitune him.

in his fall was then the grandeur of the comGretting was a strong artaronift to Pipes. pany, on which account they íuffi red no They contended hard together for fome time, common people in, that usually lit on the and were almost alternate victors. Gretting ground and line the fage round. It was hed the nearest way or giing to the ftomach then al clear, and Whitaker had nothing to (which is what they call the mark) of any stop him but the bottom. There was a geman I koew, He was a most ar:ful bexer, neral forcign huzza on the side of the Venefror.ger made than Pipes, and dealt the tian, pronourcing our countryman's downtraiteit blo'ws. B::t what made Pipes a fal; but Whitaker took no more time than march for him, was his rare boriom ípirit, was required to get up again, when finding which would bear a deal of beating; but this, his fault in ftanding out to the length of the

Our author explains this term in the following mar.ner: “ There are two things required to make this BOTTOM, that is, wind and spirit, or heart, or wherever you can fix Lie refidence of courage. Wind may be greatly brought about by exac.fc and dir; but the Ipirt is the first equipment of a Boxir. Without the fubftantial thing, boula a! 2d ftrength. will avail a man but little.




other's arm, he, with a little hoop, ran standing Champion : for George was not toldly in beyond the heavy mallet, and with then twenty, and Broughton was in the ze. i one Englih peg in the stomach (quite a new nith of his age and art. Since that he has thing io foreigners) brought him on bis greatly distinguished himself with others, but breech. The blow carried too much of the has never engaged Broughton more. He is a English rudeness for him to bear, and find- frong able Boxer, who with a skill extraor. ing himself fo unmanner'y used, he scorned dinary, aided by his knowledge of the small to have any more doings with his Novenly and back-sword, and a reniarkable judgefift

ment in the cross-buttock fall, may contest So fine a house was too engaging to Fig with any. But, please or difplease, I am not to court another. He therefore stepped resolved to be ingenuous in my characters. up and told the gentlemen that they night Therefore I am of opinion, that he is nct think he had picked out the best Man in overstocked with that neceffary ingredient of London on this occafion; but to convince a foxer, called a bottom; and am apt to them to the contrary, he said, that if they suspect, that blows of cqual strength with would come that day fe'nnight, he would his, tuo much affcct him, and disconcert his bring a man who Mould beat this Whitaker conduct. in ten minutes, by fair hitting. This brought Before I leave him, let me do him this very near as great and fine a company as the justice to fay, that if he were unquestionable week before. The man was Nathaniel Pear. in lo, he would be a match for any tree, who knowing the others totrom, and his deadly way of A.nging, took a moft ju. It will not be improper, after George the dicious method to beat him let his cha. Barber, to introduce one Eorwell, a man who racter come in here He was a moit admi- wants but courage to quai.fy him 'rable Boxer, and I do not know one he was for a compleat Boxer. He has a particular rot a match for, before he lost his finger. blow with his left hand at the jaw, which He was famous, like Pipes, for fighting at coines alnicít as hard as a little horse kicks. the face, but stronger in his blows. He Prvise be to his power of fighting, his excel. knew Whitaker's hard.ness, and doubting of lent choice of time and MEASURE, his su luis being able to give him beating enough, pericr judgement, dispatching forth his execunningly determined to fight at his eyes. cuting arm! tut fye upoo his daftard heart, His judgment carried in his árin so well, that that matti it all! As I knew that fellow's in about fix minutes both Whitaker's eyes abilities, and his worm-dread soul, I never were Aut up ; when groping abcut a while saw heat, but I willed him to be for his nian, and finding him not, he wiftly beaten. Though i am charined with the idea gave out, with these odd words, Damme, of his points and mar.ner o: fighting, I am I am not beat, but what fignifits my fight. fick at the thoughts of his nurse-wanting ing when I cannct see my man?

courage. Firewel to him, with this fair We will now come to times a little fresher, acknowledgement, that if he had a true and of later dare.

ENGLISH boriom (the best fitting epithet for George Taylor *, known by the name of a man of spirit) he would carry all before George the Barber, sprang up surprisingly. him, and be a match for even Broughton He has beat all the chief Boxers but Brough- himself. ton. He, I think, injudiciously fought him I will name two men together, whom I one of the firit, and was obl.gid very soon take to be the best bottom med of the n:0to out. Doubili Is it was a u rong fepdern Foxers ; and they are Smallwood, and in him to commence a Boxer, by tichting the George Secphensen the coach:ian. I saw the

This man died Feb. 27, 1750, and the following Epitaph is on his tomb-fone in :

Farewel, ye honours of my brow!

Victorious wreaths, farewel!
One trip f:o:n Ceath has laid me lov,

By whom such numbers fell !
Yet bravely I'll dispute the prize,

rior yield, clic' out of breath!
'Tis but a fall! 1 yet thall rise,

And conquer-even DEATH! The newspapers of the time take notice of a bat:le fought between 7 aylor and Slack, the 31 (f january 1749-59, at Froughton s Amphitheate, which held as minutes, when 'i ayler with Sosne difficulty bcat bis antagonist.


latter fight Broughton for forty minutes. madness. If I were to chonle a Boxer for Broughton I knew to be ill at that time; my money, and could but purchate him besides, it was a hafty-made match, and he ftrength equal to his resolution, Sniallwood had not that regard for his preparation as he hould be the man. afterwards found he could have had. But James I proclaim a most charming Boxer. here his true bottom was proved, and his He is delicate in his blows, ar.d has a wrift condu& thone. They fought in one of the as delightful to those who see him fight, as it {air-booths at Tottenham Court, railed at the is fickly to those who fight against him. I end towards the pit. After about thirty-five acknowledge him to have the best spring of minutes, being both against the rails, and the arın of all the modern Boxers; he is a fcrambling for a fall, Broughton got such a compleat master of the art; and, as I do not lock upon him, as no mathematician could know he wants a bo:tom, I think it a great have devised a better. There he held him pity he should be beat for want of strength by this artificial lock, depriving him of all to stand his man. power of rising or falling, till refting his I have now gone through the characters of head for about three or four minutes on his the most noted Boxers, and finish.d my back, he found himself recovering ; then whole work. As I could not pravíc all ia loosed the hold, and on setting to again, he every 2.ticle, I must offend son.e; but if I hit the coachman as hard a blow as any he do not go to bed till every body is pleased, had given him in the whole battle, that he my head will ach as bad as Sir Roger's. I could no longer stand; and his brave con. declare that I have not had the least thought Lending heart, though with reluctance, was of offending throughout the whole treatise, forced to yield. The coachman is a moft and therefore this declaration Mall be my beautiful hitter; he puts in his blows faster quiet draught. than Broughton, but chen one of the latter's Let me conclude with a general call to the told for three of the former's. Pity-ro true British Spirit, which, like pi relt gold, much spirit thould not inhabit a stronger has no alloy. How really wound I encou. body!

rage it, through the most threaten ng dan. Smallwood is thorough game, with judge- gers, or severe it pains, or pic dige of life ment equal to any, and superior to molt. I itielf! Let us imitate the gloricus cxample know nothing Smallwcod wants but weight, we enjoy, in the saving Offspring of our to stand against any man; and I never knew King, and blessed Guardian of our Countıy. him beat.n ince his fighting Dimmock Him let us follow with our keen swords, and (which was in his infancy of Boxing, and warm glowing hearts, in desence of our when he was a perfect Itripling in years), just caufi, and preservation of Britain's but by a force lo superior, that to have refift. horour. ed longer would not have been courage but


INNUMERADLE translations from the The following, which has only the merit

Persian have been given to the worid, some of being a literal tran Nation, is prefent:d to of them assuming the title of paraphrases, the public, as a specimen of the kind of from their being deftitute of the remoreit compofition, tcrmed by the Persians COLOURanalogy in sense or similarity of expression ED EXPRESSION, which name it iras acwith the original. But I have seen none quired fro.n the multitude of epithets, of which could convey to an English reader any metaphors, and other oriental embellishments idea of the common figurative Ityle of their with which it is ir terspersed. Thes: are so foauthors, which prevails in far the greatest reign to the genius o: the English language, part of their compositions, and from wiich that every transat.on in they are preour transators fhrink, terrified at the appear- fcrved, muft ine v.tably have an appearance ance of mutilated periods, redukdant circum. of extreme gaucheté. But that I may, in locutions, and crouds of metaphors heaped some mcafure, compensate the ilyle, I have together without art or connection. You chosen a description of winter, which cannot will perceive by this time, Mr. Editor, that fil to have soincthing particular, from the the above is meant to serve as an apology pen of a writer who never saw its severities for all those faults in what I now submit to displayed on any other scene than Hindoftans yoor inspection, and which you will lay be. The reader, then, will not expect to see her fore the public, if you think it deserves it. advar.cefullen, and lad, with all her rising


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