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reproducible. Coal is also of limited extent, or the flesh of deer, is the most digestible of but it is not reproducible; therefore the ex- all. Such deer as can procure abundant food haustion of coal, which must sooner or later of this kind, and shelter from the weather at take place, would have a tendency to dimin their own pleasure, produce the best food. ish population. But it will be a gradual Cattle and sheep follow next, and they form process; and as coal increases in cost, the the wholesomest food for man in proportion chemist's brain will again discover that na- as they are in the fullest enjoyment of their ture has provided a remedy for this stage in animal spirits. Deer, and sheep, and cattle man's progress also; and ihe gases of com- fed in stalls, are unhealthy and deteriorated. bustion will be artificially abstracted from The writer once traveled in a wild country many natural substances, to support light where cattle were driven with the caravan as and heat: the electric light, imperfect as it food. They were in good condition, but ocis, but dimly shadowing forth the results casionally they traveled till they were weary that will obtain as the years roll on, chang- and footworn. If killed in this condition ing the miracle of to-day into the daily oc- they were flavorless, as food. “Tired Meat" currence of the morrow.
was the name given to them. The meat apThe physical food of man in the savage peared not to nourish at all, and the appetite state is roots, wild fruits, and wild animals. I could not be satiated with it. There is little He is omnivorous. Nature made him thus doubt that the osmazome of the chemist, and to provide for his wants in the absence of the flavor of the butcher, are synonymous reason. The food was prepared by nature with “ animal spirits.” The animal when in of these various kinds, ready for him to as- its healthiest state—in its state of the greatsimilate. He was no chemist, and would est enjoyment—is fittest for the food of man. have starved had not his food been ready But not the flesh of all animals. Veal, prepared. As roots and wild animals be- and lamb, and fish are less digestible than came scarce, or, in other words, as popula- venison, beef, and mutton. The reason seems tion increased, he made wheat from grass, to be that the former are more animal, beand tamed the goat, and sheep, and black ing fed on animal substances-milk and the cattle in inclosed pasture-lands. As his flesh of other animals. We are not aware knowledge increased, he crossed the races, that it has yet been tried to feed fish artifiand suited them better to his purposes of cially on vegetables. Venison, beef, and food. Man became what is called civilized ; mutton, fed on aromatic herbage, are partly but, in this process of civilization, he engen- antiseptic. The proof of this is that they dered many physical disorders by ignorance. may be eaten and relished partly decomposWhen he took to living out of the open air, ed, while the smallest taint renders veal, he created in-door diseases. When he took lamb, and fish disgusting. We commonly to artificially feeding and housing his ani- apply the term carrion to the flesh of land mals, he created diseases in them also. animals that feed on other animals. The Smithfield-club-cattle men assumed that the vegetable-fed animals we consider wholetrial and test of cattle was—masses of fat. some food for ourselves. With fish we do Liebig had not then taught, and it was not not make this distinction. understood that man needs fat as food as a The practice of feeding on the flesh of ancandle needs tallow, or a lamp needs oil, to imals, entombing their bodies within our own, keep up his heat, and that otherwise it is of has something in it repugnant to refinement. little use to him ; just as bears live on their Many individuals there are who wholly abown fat, and bees on their honey, to keep stain from this food, and confine themselves them warm while hybernating. As knowl. to vegetables. Some there are who abstain edge grew it was discovered that fat was not even to the injury of their own health. We the only essential, but no distinct ideas seem are not counselors of this species of martyryet to prevail on the subject.
dom, but nevertheless think it desirable that The truth is, that vegetables, generally the practice of eating animals should disapspeaking, are not a sufficiently stimulating pear from civilized communities so soon as food for intellectual man. Irishmen live on other means of maintaining their physical potatoes, East Indians on rice, but they are energies can be obtained. We think that not usually men of intellectual energy. A nature has provided for this also, as another portion of animal food seems essential to phase of man's existence, when his brain healthy stimulus. The most digestible is shall be set to work upon it. We will enthe flesh of wild animals fed on vegetables, deavor to analyze the subject. especially of the aromatic kind. Venison, Grass and plants are organized bodies, endowed with life and feeding on earths and sumption of animal food is simply a remnant minerals, in short aggregating together va- of savage life, a custom doomed to vanish rious chemical ingredients. Some of these under the light of human reason. All the plants we eat directly, others we eat indirect- animal food artificially bred by farmers or ly, by feeding animals on them, and then others, is, with little exception, unwholesome. feeding on the animals. All this is simply Consumption, measles, dropsy, liver coman indirect course of gathering together plaint, and other diseases abound in the anichemical ingredients in our own bodies. The mals we eat, and have a tendency to proproblem then to solve is, how shall we ac- duce those diseases in our own bodies. The complish the task of gathering the chemical in- poison we take in by the lungs in the gaseous gredients together, and applying them to our form, is not the only poison we imbibe. We bodies, from inorganic and not organic matter? make an outcry about cleansing the sewers
We shall doubtless be here met by the of our cities, and yet make sewers of our hackneyed remarks, that nature intended us bodies. We cleanse our outer skin and polto feed on the lower animals—created them lute our inner skin. If the
popfor man's use, and what a surplus of animals ulation is to continue, rendering it essential to there would be in the world if we did not devour unwholesome meat, our chemists and eat them. We may meet this argument by sanitary officers should at least take order to the converse, and say that nature made man divest it of its poison, and convert it into for the food of lions and tigers, who were another form, just as putrid game is made intended to keep down man's too rapid in- sweet by carbon, or acid fermented liquors crease. It is certain that lions and tigers are rectified by alkali. have some purposes assigned them in crea- All human food consists only of certain tion, and that may be one of them.
gases and chemical ingredients, present in Hunters have assuredly a propensity to the atmosphere and in the earth; the vegekill and eat, from the time of Esau, or be tables are assimilated inorganic matter—the fore ; and in Peter's dream he was bidden to animals are assimilated vegetables — “ all “rise, kill, and eat.” But the great major- flesh is grass.
“ Give us corn and grass, ity of mankind abhor killing, save under the and what shall we want for food ?" In the pressure of passion or hunger; while even infancy of our race it was needful that nathe cannibal mothers of the Feejee Islands ture should assimilate our food for us, just will exchange children, in order not to de- as the infant needs its mother's milk. The vour their own. But they who hunger for reason of man has now outgrown his earlier animal food in civilized life, rarely like to kill necessity, and he may change his earlier the creatures they eat; and when killed, food. He must prepare his food without none like to eat the flesh of pet animals they the use of animals. In examining the qualihave themselves domesticated—as pigeons, ties of vegetables, we find that some are oily, fowls, rabbits, lambs, or kids. To get rid of some sugary, some glutinous—as the olive, the distasteful operation of killing, we em- the sugar-cane, and many plants and trees ploy butchers—helots of the modern world, yielding gum. There is yet another variety, whose very name we employ as a term of vitu- seeming to constitute the midway mixture peration. This is not Christian to say the least of the animal and vegetable—the mushroom. of it. We have no right to degrade any human These vegetables seem to point out to us our beings, or regard as inferiors those who pre-course. Could we produce a new vegetable, pare the materials that enter into the most or cross some old vegetable, so as to unite intimate combination with our own persons. the three qualities of wheat, olives, and suThere is something humiliating in the idea gar-cane, we should have attained a species of a delicate person who faints at the sight of vegetable flesh, no doubt of highly nutriof blood or a butcher's shop, and then sits tious quality. down to eat of the carcasses that have there Charcoal and diamond are chemical idenbeen cut up. If the employment be in itself tities; so are attar of roses and naphtha. abhorrent to our sensations, it argues little The bulk of the food we eat is soluble into for our humanity, that we have our poorer gases, which gases we can procure in abunfellows to do what we consider degrading dance—which we can separate from our work. If the employment of a butcher be, food—but which we cannot combine to form of necessity, the work of preserving human food. Our analysis is nearly perfect, but life, the butcher is entitled to honor as well our synthesis is yet in embryo. as the physician.
There are several remarkable circumBut we believe that the still obtaining con- stances connected with the assimiliation of
our food in our bodies, on which our knowl-, of the habitable and uninhabitable globe. edge is limited. We cannot live wholly on Such webs are good for curtains, and caranimal gelatine, on vegetable gluten, on veg- pets, and bed-covers, and table-covers ; but etable oil
, or animal fat. If we prepare as coverings for human bodies they have no these substances separately, although we more artistic merit than a flat sheet of
paper saturate the stomach with them, we die as of has as a cover for an artificial globe. We inanition. There is an assimilation required. have put together the coverings of other We lack the knowledge of the aromatic world animals, and pride ourselves in them ; but we -the osmazome-the aroma that, like the have not made of them garments so graceful lime in iron-smelting, seems to form the flux and useful as those of their original owners, that is to unite dead matter to living. The whose cast-off apparel we have taken and “ tired meat” of the shambles lacks this altered. aroma—this "animal spirit,”—and without it, it will not assimilate with our bodies, or “ The sheep and silkworm wore nourish us.
Those very garments once before.” Here, then, it would seem, is the great triumph of the chemist to be found—won- Much as mechanism, springing from man's drous as mesmerism or electricity. Palpable brain as Minerva from the hand of Jove to our senses, but beyond our understanding under the rough operation of Vulcan-Lucina as yet, are the myriad odors wafted around -much as it has done for man, poor as well us on all sides, spirits and genii of magic as rich, giving sheets, and shirts, and stockpower. Come forth, then, ye chemists! ings, and thus facilitating cleanliness and conjure up and lay bound before us the health of body, it has left yet more to do.
tricksey Ariel" of the pine, the orange, the Tailors and sempstresses are yet a reproach lemon, the strawberry, the raspberry, the amongst us. Of the word tailor, we have peach, the apricot, the venison, the October even lost the original sense; the tailleur, or partridge, pheasant, and woodcock. Give artist of men's and women's shapes and over to us, not the “spirits of wine," but forms, seeking to clothe them in comely gartheir aromas. We can make the acid of the ments. The word has long been degraded lemon, but where is its odorous zephyr ? -from the time since Queen Bess, of coarse We can make the sugar of the honey, but memory, addressed the deputation of eighwhere is its scent sweet as honeysuckle ? teen tailors with “Good morning to you, We are on the eve of wondrous discoveries, gentlemen, both." The term “ninth part but none shall be more marvelous in their of a man” is but the rude perception of results than the discovery how to produce wasted drudgery. The phrase to“ tailor” a the aromas at will. This achieved, the thing, is but another word for cobbling or heaviest portion of the primal curse will be botching it. To ride or drive, or play removed from us—_feeding on the beasts cricket badly, produces the ready vituperathat perish,” by the “sweat of our brows.” tive from the mob-individually, perhaps,
Give us this knowledge, O ye chemists ! just as awkward—of Tailor! What the and the whole world shall fall down before tailor is in the sex masculine, the shirtye, and bless ye as its greatest benefactors. maker is in the sex feminine—a thing of
There is more work yet to do in the me- stitches—endless, eternal stitches. Nothing chanical world, in the preparation of human but degradation could be the result of such Nothing Of the materials—animal and a monotonous occupation, so utterly insig. vegetable—such as skin, wool, hair, silk, nificant a process; universal as that of the cotton, flax, hemp, caoutchouc, gutta percha, individual efforts of the coral insects, but with and other materials, we are yet far from results altogether ephemeral. The coral inknowing all the uses ; and of inorganic prep- sect is an architect or builder. The sempster arations we know almost nothing. Asbestos or sempstress is a thing of seams—a mere and woven glass are as faint visions of some- joiner of edges. Wofully did theything that yet may be done, whereof the glass slipper of Cinderella was also a shad. - Turn their wit the seamy side without,” owy type. But even with the materials at our disposal we have rather worked as la- who made a society, and invented strikes or borers than as artists. We have made huge “ turns out” emblematic of their occupation, flat webs of wool, and flax, and cotton, and to preserve to themselves this degradationof the latter we have made acres and miles the exclusive right to make stitches. Neiof extent, sufficient to cover over the whole ther craftsmen nor crafty men were they in their war upon women for this object—to waters we shall infallibly promote gnats; and monopolize the right to be the “ Feebles” of there is no conceivable amount of degradathe community. It is true that Sir John tion to which human beings may not be Falstaff asserted his Feeble to be “forcible;" brought, provided it be by degrees." and Colonel Thompson, in our own day, has There is one way, and one only, to uproot threatened what bees'-wax to their horses he the distresses of sempsters and sempstresses. could make of London tailors in the form It is to prohibit seams—not by Act of Parof dragoons; but we apprehend this was and liament, but by rendering them worthless is, not a consequence of their being tailors, and useless. Take away the stitches, and but in spite of their being tailors. The trade there would no longer be a mass of people of sempsters fought for themselves as a body brought up to make them. They are a remof “Flints,” to turn out the “Dungs" from nant of our imperfect condition--of the exercising the art and mystery of stitch patchwork contrivances which began with making, and returned to the charge again the skins of beasts as a necessity, and which and again, warring for the right to charge we have perpetuated in particular forms till higher prices for stitches than other men, we have grown to believe it ornamental and boys, and women, and girls were willing artistry. The Sussex peasant covers his unto do them at. They advocated “division sightly smock-frock with superfluous stitchof labor,” in the mode of keeping all the ing, as a rude embroidery ; and gent and “stitches” for their own dividend. But it gentleman do the same by the fronts of their was fruitless. The shoal came in, deluging shirts. They go about God's earth, walking the stitch-market with competition, if not in reproaches on the inhumanity of man, who, labor, in “stitches.” Shirt-making came to not satisfied with exacting drudgery from his be the lowest kind of stitching, and Moses fellow-men and women, seeks to increase that and Son obtained profits, as Hebrew-Cau- drudgery by studious contrivance. Nor are casians will occasionally do, by employing women exempt from the charge of inhumanthe lowest races of women to stitch shirts ity, who carry wasted human labor on their for the lowest races of men, competing with own persons. Let us not be told that it each other as virulently as Flints against “provides work for the poor.” The hackDungs, till Lord Ashley arose in the might neyed excuse shall not shield the miserable of his chivalry, to proclaim that the iniquity vanity that can only find gratification in of underpaid stitches should no longer exist, the servitude of numerous fellow-beings. that he would drive Moses out of the market There is a morbid vanity that values things by paying higher wages himself. Brave only for what they have cost in the amount Lord Ashley! and wise as brave, were it of human labor wasted upon them, not for only practicable. But it was not practicable. their artistical result, as Panama chains and Many though the stitches be, still more nu- hand-made lace, proclaiming to the world merous are the stitchers-still more nume- how rich the wearer is. The Scottish fishrous do they grow; and their cry is still, as wives have a quaint way of calling their hadthe daughters of the horse-leech, Give, give! docks “lives o' men," indicating the perils But even Hood's “ Song of the Shirt," with which have procured them. Embroidered its deep-toned earnestness, cannot prevail to shirt-fronts, hand-wrought, might be justly raise the wages of all; how then should designated “ lives o' women.” As the basis Lord Ashley ? To stem the overwhelming of true politeness is good-heartedness, so torrent, he proclaims aloud that only “pro- should the externals of a lady or gentleman fessed sempstresses” shall find work at his indicate humanity, and thoughtful avoidance shop--the others may go to Moses. Alas! of human infliction. alas ! what is a professed sempstress ? Seven The garment of Christ without a seam, years of misery-stitch, stitch, stitching to was the type of that which is to come, when learn the lowest of mechanical operations. another leaf in man's brain shall have been A new trades'-union of women, headed by unfolded. In after years people will wonder Lord Ashley, in a crusade against irregular at the ancestral processes which constructed interloping stitchers of their own sex? Is large flat webs of machine-made cloth, and this all that poor benevolence can do? Well then cut them into fragments to be joined said Johnson—" Merit in a nobleman should together again by hand drudgery. The time be handsomely acknowledged."
is coming that shirts will be made perfect in The late acute and wisely-benevolent ma- the loom by machine labor. The succinct gistrate, Mr. Walker, said in his “ Original,"
Original,” garments of industry will be produced at -"If we permit the existence of stagnant | prices lower than even Moses has dreamed of, and the flowing drapery of the man of contagious fever in a road-side hovel, and leisure, or of study, will mark his status ere she died communicated the infection to better than the cramped unwholesome cloth- many other persons, thus proving her reing that has made a jest of the distinction lationship.” Much blundering is there in the between standing up and sitting down appa- new arrangements, but nevertheless cleanlirel. It is a question for the mechanician to less of body, and ventilation to give free air solve, how the powers of nature shall pro- to the lungs, is attaining, and much more will duce human garments by machinery, wholly follow. The true problem of socialism is and not in part ? The problem will not be solving gradually and without violence, as difficult to solve ; and he who first solves it must ever be the case with all permanent reshall be famous amongst men, as the chemist sults. But still the reformers are following who shall first discover the mystery of the in the rear of better things, not boldly taking aromas. Then may men and women indulge the lead, with reason and experience for their in artistical decoration of their persons, when guidance. The theory of dwellings it is not it shall cease to be a result of painful handi- difficult to lay down. craftry.*
Shelter from the "skyey influences” is The next question is of our dwellings. the first consideration—in other words—a these, as regards the general masses of man- roof; a huge umbrella-covering, on walls inkind, we are as far behind as in our food and closing a sufficiently large space, and this clothing: In the warm regions of the earth space should be gravel soil—the soil nature we require shelter chiefly from the sun. In has provided for man to dwell on, and not England, much more than this is required. for vegetables to thrive on, other than those We require sun-shade occasionally, but for that gladden the sight of man. The matethe greater part of the year all that relates rials for constructing a roof were to our comfort, and the care of our bodies, time a problem, but now the time gives them must be transacted beneath a roof. Thus, proof,” since Robert Peel abolished the duty as in other things, the problem to solve is— on glass, and set man's brain free to work how may the greatest amount of comfort be on nature's materials, before reserved as a achieved for human beings, with the mini- costly luxury for the wealthy. Four extermum of drudgery to other human beings ? nal walls, then, of sufficient height and We have no sympathy with those whose thickness, and constructed with large hollow aim it is to engross the largest possible bricks, should be covered in with a roof of amount of personal service from others. We rough-surfaced glass, of greenish tinge, and do not believe that human happiness is con- of sufficient thickness to defy the hailstone. sequent on party-coloring the externals of The roof structure should be of wrought iron, our fellow-creatures, even though it be on the tension principle, and divided into as “considered in their wages.” We are still many spaces as may be desirable, supported lamentably deficient in our dwelling arrange- on stone or cast-iron columns. Portions of ments, far behind those of our factories. We the glass might be left bright, for the sun's have thought more of working for general rays to enter; other portions colored, for and individual profit—which, fairly trans- artistic effect. The glass should be inserted lated in the great book of nature, does not in the roof in large sheets, with elastic packmean mere sordid gain, but the great work ing round the edges. The greater the numof the world's progress—than we have of ber of the floors there can be the better, as our domestic comforts. A movement in the height above the earth's surface is always right direction is taking place in these latter favorable to health, rising above the vapor days, partly the result of philanthropy, and exhalation line. But, of course, there must partly of a growing conviction in the minds be a certain proportion of width to height. of the wealthy, that they cannot neglect If we assume six ranges of apartments eight their poorer fellows with impunity. One of feet high each—supposed for working men our greatest writers has forcibly stated this : and families, then the area within the internal
once a poor Irishwoman stopped in the walls should not be less than one hundred environs of " Merry Carlisle,' and was refused feet. The floors should be double, of sawn help in her sickness. She fell prostrate with slate, with air spaces between, and supported
on iron girders. The partitions and stair* While writing this, we are informed that an
cases also should be of sawn slate. The American has brought over a "stitching machine.” This is the first step. The next is, to manufacture
apartments should all against the exgarments not requiring stitches. The artist and ternal walls, with the windows opening outmechanician must combine for this.
ward, and the doors opening on inner gal