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mapootra was unknown, even by name, among formist Churches at that time, presented the rivers of India. The languages and dia- little to relieve the dreariness of the picture. lects of the Eastern world were as little At the beginning of the century, according known as the physical aspect and phenomena to Neal, there were 1,354 Churches of the of the countries. No Sir WillIAM JONES had Three Denominations in England: of these, arisen to set the example of Oriental scholar- the majority were Presbyterian. Sixty ship as a polite accomplishment; the Sanscrit years afterward, they were computed at had as yet attracted no attention from western 1,509. Meantime, the Arianism of Wuisphilologists; the Holy Scriptures had been ton and Emlyn had begun to infect the pultranslated into few vernacular dialects, except pits and academies of the Presbyterian body, those of Western Europe; no Carey or Mor- and a death-like formalism had spread over RISON, no Martyn or Judson, had girded the community. Dr. DODDRIDGE died in themselves to the task of mastering those 1750; and in the following year, Dr. John languages which had hitherto defied, like an Taylor openly broached the Socinian tenets impenetrable rampart, all attempts to gain in his “Scripture Doctrine of the Atoneaccess to the mind of India and China. A ment.” The want of an earnest, Evangelihundred years ago, there were neither ro- cal ministry among the orthodox Dissenters, testant Missionary Societies nor Protestant is the subject of lamentation and complaint Missions, save only those which had been in the publications of the day. It would not formed for the propagation of the Gospel in be easy to fix upon a period since the Refthe American Colonies, the Danish missions ormation, when the religious life of the counin Southern India, and the Moravian missions try was reduced to lower ebb than about in Greenland and South Africa. In fact, the the middle of the last century. Deism—the obstacles to success in almost every part of Deism of Hume—was extending itself among the world, arising from the ascendancy and the learned and professional classes, and intolerance of the Papal, Mohammedan, and practical infidelity was everywhere prevalent Pagan powers, added to the deficiency of our among the lower orders. Yet, we someknowledge and the poverty of our resources, times hear the present age spoken of as pewould have proved little short of insur- culiarly an age of abounding infidelity!“ Say mountable.
not thou, What is the cause that the former A hundred years ago, the moral aspect of days were better than these ; for thou dost society was as dark and discouraging, both not inquire wisely concerning this." at home and abroad, as the political pros- But we must hasten to conclude this ret: pect was gloomy. The state of courtly and rospect with a few miscellaneous references. clerical morals is betrayed in the too ac- In February and March, 1750, two slight curate portraitures of manners in the con- shocks of an earthquake were felt in London ; temporary writings of FIELDING, SMOLLETT, and the apprehensions which they excited, and RICHARDSON. The prevalence of popu- were further increased by the prediction of a lar ignorance and irreligion of the grossest fanatic, a soldier, that another shock would kind, is shown by the reception given to the speedily ensue, which would lay all London early labors of WESLEY and WhitfieLD. In and Westminster in ruins. Great numbers fled the eloquent language of Robert Hall, to the fields in consternation, and could hardly " the creed established by law had no sort be persuaded to return, when the time fixed of influence in forming the sentiments of the for ihe accomplishment of the prediction was people; the pulpit had completely vanquish- past. At that time, the total population of the ed the desk; piety and puritanism were con- metropolitan parishes within the Bills of Morfounded in one common reproach; an almost tality was but 674,356. The population of pagan darkness in the concerns of salvation England and Wales was under six millions and prevailed ; and the English people became a half. That of all Lancashire was under the most irreligious upon earth. Such was 300,000. In 1750, the National debt was the state of things when WHITFIELD and Wes- but seventy millions. Yet, it may be quesLEY made their appearance." The first tioned, whether the burden of taxation did Methodist society was formed in 1739. not press as heavily then as now, and wheTwenty-eight years afterward, the number ther ihe vast increase of the Debt has not been of preachers in England, (according to the compensated by the prodigious augmentation Minutes of Conference) was only 76 ; and of of the wealth and resources of the country. Members, 22,642. In 1750, therefore, the What would have been thought, a hundred Methodists must have formed a very incon- years ago, of sinking a capital of hundreds of siderable body. The state of the Noncon- | millions in the construction of Railways ?
In 1750, Westminster Bridge, commenced formation of the Bible Society and the sevin 1738, was first opened ; prior to which, eral Missionary Societies; the extraordinary old London Bridge retained its undisputed progress in geographical discovery; the dehonors. Years later, barges ascended the velopment of the wonderful powers of steam; Fleet river with the tide to Holborn Bridge: the discoveries in chemistry which have renBlackfriars Bridge was not begun till 1760, dered it almost a new science ;—but, above and was finished in 1770. At that time, all, the prodigious expansion of the wealth Cheapside itself was not paved with flag and monetary power, the commercial enterstones, and the foot-way was defended by prise and manufacturing industry, the terriposts, while almost every shop had its pro- torial empire, and moral supremacy; the rejecting sign. It would be easy to multiply ligious institutions and voluntary munificence similar curious indications of the very dif- and zeal, of Protestant England ;—in a word, ferent aspect which the Metropolis itself pre- the glorious phenomenon of the Brivish Emsented a hundred years ago.
pire. It is not in the spirit of vain-glorious Since then, what prodigious events have boasting that we use this language, but with rapidly succeeded each other! The Ameri- a devout sense of the high national responcan Revolution followed at no distant inter- sibility attaching to both rulers and people. val, by the French of 1789; thirty years of God hath not so dealed with any other naEuropean wars; the rise and fall of the tion” that now exists; and it must be for the French Empire; the European Revolution of accomplishment of mightier purposes than 1830; the conquest of India ; the coloniza- come within the purview and calculation of tion of Australia and New Zealand; the secular politicians.
Among the admirers of Madame Catalani was not the less obliged to make her escape at the French Opera House was the Emperor from France without a passport. She emNapoleon, who, although destitute of any barked secretly at Morlaix on board a vessel taste for music, wished to fix the admired which had been sent for the exchange of pricantatrice in his capital, partly from iin am- soners, and to whose captain she paid £150 bitious desire to see himself surrounded by for his services. This interview with the Emgreat artists, and partly with the view of di- peror Napoleon made so deep an impression verting the thoughts of the Parisians from on Madame Catalani, that she was wont to graver and more dangerous topics. Accord speak of it as the most agitating moment of ingly he commanded her attendance at the her life. A few days before her death, Tuileries. The poor woman had never been while she was sitting in her saloon, without brought before into contact with this terrible any presentiment of her approaching end, virtuoso of war, who at that time filled all she received a visit from an unknown lady, Europe with the fame of his fioriture; she who declined giving her name to the servant. trembled from head to foot on entering his On being ushered into her presence, the stranpresence. “Where are you going, Madame ?" ger bowed before her with a graceful yet inquired the master, with his abrupt tone and lowly reverence, saying, “I am come to imperial voice. "To London, sire.”—“You offer my homage to the most celebrated canmust remain in Paris, where you shall be tatrice of our time, as well as to the most well paid, and where your talents will be noble of women; bless me, madame, I am better appreciated. You shall have a hun- Jenny Lind !” Madame Catalani, moved dred thousand francs a year, and two months' even to tears, pressed the Swedish nightinvacation : that is settled. Adieu, madame!” | gale to her heart. After a prolonged interAnd the cantatrice retired more dead than view they parted, each to pursue her alive, without having dared to inform her pointed path,—the one to close her eyes, brusque interrogator that it was impossible with unexpected haste, upon earth, with all for her to break an engagement which she its shifting hopes and fears,—the other to had formed with the English Ambassador at enjoy fresh triumphs, the more pure and Portugal. If Napoleon had been acquainted happy, as they are the fruit not only of her with this circumstance, he would undoubtedly bewitching talent, but also of that excellence have laid an embargo on the fair singer, which wins for her in every place the heartwhom he would have considered a rich cap- felt homage of esteem and love. ture from his enemies. Madame Catalani
From Tait's Magazine.
LIFE OF THE LATE DR. CHALMERS.
MANY years must have passed since the mous publication of several works, and espedeath of any man in Seotland excited that cially of his short commentaries, has increased sad sensation caused by the demise of Dr. the esteem in which he was long regarded in Chalmers, and many years must pass again religious circles. We mention these circumbefore death can produce a similar result by stances as calculated to increase the respona single stroke ; for we have no man with a sibility of his biographer. character yet earned or formed, so high in It was some time since announced that his general estimation as that his removal would lite would be written by his son-in-law, Dr. be felt in the same extent to be a national Hanna, and he has several qualifications of a calamity. The circumstances attendant on special kind for this work. He was in terms the death of Dr. Chalmers were well calcu. of the most perfect intimacy with Dr. Challated to increase its effect. The body with mers, and he has the most complete access, whom he was immediately associated had not merely to all his papers, but to those of passed toward the close of its annual as- his opinions on public questions, that, though sembly, when death came to him noiselessly, unwritten, must live in the recollection of the and without a warning. He literally fell members of his family: Dr. Hanna is a naasleep; for, left at night in health, he was tive of Belfast; and although he was, prefound at morn in death. No premonitory vious to the disruption, a parochial minister symptoms of bodily or mental weakness had in the Scotch Established Church, yet his prepared his friends for the loss that they freedom from early prejudices and feelings were to sustain. His pallid features bore no may, on many topics connected with Scotvestige of a struggle with the last enemy; land, which will necessarily come under liis and death, in this instance, was very like notice in the second and subsequent volumes, “ translation." All men were saddened by enable him to adhere closely to the part of a this change; for even those who were unin- fair and candid historian. Dr. Chalmers' life fluenced by religious considerations, felt still is intimately woven into the history of all nathat a man great in science, wielding an im- tional movements, from the day when he mense influence by the weight of personal aided to form a small Bible Society at Kilcharacter alone, of undoubted benevolence many, to his last evidence on the site quesand pure motives, had passed away, and left tion, before a committee of the House of a place that would not be soon occupied. Commons. His biographer must have been, It was curious and instructive to mark the from his earliest years, acquainted with haste with which death smoothed down feuds, Scotch ecclesiastical movements; the son of and healed animosities, amongst various reli- a minister who was long justly considered the gious bodies. Few men had ever mingled leader of the evangelical party amongst the more than Dr. Chalmers in polemical and Irish Presbyterians, and who retains, in semi-political discussions. His opposition to treme old age, no small influence amongst any cause had been long deemed a serious that body ; Dr. Hanna must have grown up hindrance to its success. No party felt them- familiar with ecclesiastical proceedings and selves safe before his marked disapproval, questions of interest in Scotch affiirs, yet in and many whom he opposed were irritated a manner not so likely to warp the judgment under his arguments. At some period of his as might be fairly expected, and must be lang and active career, he had been led into cautiously watched, in one who has lived opposition, nearly to all the various denomi- amongst the actors in party movements from nations, except that with which he was at his infancy, and gradually imbibed strong opindeath connected. Yet the general benevo- ions regarding them, even before his reason lence of his character had always soon effaced can have made an intelligent decision on their these breaches; and even his rebukes breath- merits. Dr. Hanna is a particularly unobed a spirit of love and truth. The posthu-trusive man, but his literary abilities will enable him to use fully and well the rich ma- | Church of Scotland ; and was, probably, terials in his power. As editor of the North gratified by their adherence to the Free British Review, to which Dr. Chalmers regu. | Church at the period of the disruption. Six larly contributed, he had the best means of years ago, Dr. Chalmers visited Ireland, we ascertaining his relative's impressions regard- believe, for the last time, and resided for a ing the current of events toward the close considerable period at the beautiful village of of his life; and the last volume of the work Rostrevor. He had previously experienced is likely to be the most interesting.
weakness, arising, not improbably, from the It may be considered a curious chain of excitement of the period. His residence at events that has given the narration of this Rostrevor, and the air of the Mourne Mounlife—that of Scotland's greatest son, in the tains, had contributed to restore his strength. first part of our century—to an Irish gen- We met him one day, when on his way hometleman. It seems to accord completely with ward, in a curious position for an invalid : one of those objects that we know to have the top of one of the range of high mounbeen very near to Dr. Chalmers' heart in his tains that environ Belfast on the north-west, lifetime, the strengthening of the link that and seem to have been cast up between it once, more obviously even than now, bound and Lough Neagh. The summit of the Cave Ulster to Scotland, and Scotland to her ear- bill commands a sweep of great extent on liest and greatest colony: Historians allege every side ; and, on a summer afternoon, that the Scots were originally a colony from when the sun's rays sparkle on the distant Ireland, who settled in the western division waters of Lough Neagh, Lough Strangford, of Scotland ; and that before their name was and the Channel, yields one of the most given to this country, it had belonged to superb views in our islands. The busy town Ireland. No doubt exists respecting the ori- beneath, with its fine river, covered with ginal connection, although its nature may not ships of many flags, and every form, gradunow be altogether intelligible. The inter-ally widening into Belfast Lough, and the course between countries separated at one latter losing itself between the Copeland and point by a channel of twenty, and at another the Maiden Islands in the Channel, with the point of ten miles, must have always been Scottish hills in Galloway, for a background considerable, and we meet its consequences to the east; or the same river, winding its in many pages of Scotch and Irish history. course up the fertile valley to Lisburn, now Still is shown, on the borders of Ulster, the lost for a long distance, to be again revealed spot where the rash but chivalric Edward between corn-fields or through trees in a Bruce fell, in his attempt to drive the Eng- narrow line of silvery brightness, and its lish out of Ireland. When, at a long poste- densely peopled banks, away from the ocean rior period, James the First of England de to its source, studded with little towns and termined to colonize part of Ulster, from numerous villas, catching the eye amid its England and Scotland, a large body of the many cottages, sometimes clustered round a undertakers, and their tenants and retainers, | tall chimney, or gathered together at the came from Scotland ; and their descendants corner of bleaching fields, that seem, even in now occupy a great part of the north-eastern July, to have a covering på snow; or over counties, forming the majority of the popu- the Castlereagh hills, on the south-east to lation. At subsequent periods, when perse - Lough Strangford, with its many islands checution reddened its sword and erected its quering its wide expanse of water, surgallows in the West of Scotland, men fled in rounded by many pleasant villages, so hidge numbers, with the love of truth and den and out of the way of the world as freedom as their heritage, from the western scarcely to be known; or the sharp and discounties to Ulster. To these circumstances, tant summits of the Mourne Mountains, and the probability that the tenets of the raised by their Maker like a barrier between Culdees were never entirely forgotten and the dark South and the black North ; or the obliterated in the North of Ireland, may be corner of the wide Lough Neagh and the ascribed the formation of the Irish Presby- Ban River, carrying away its waters to the terian Church, which has its centre in An- north, and the Derry Mountains closing up trim, Down, and Derry; and the general the scene to the west; or the vast expanse prevalence of Protestantism in Ulster. Dr. of bleak country, broken apparently here and Chalmers was intimately conversant with the there by streaks of green and yellow, seemhistory of that body, and sincerely desirous ing like crevices, only because we cannot look for their prosperity. He found them closely into the wide, and sometimes fertile, but associated with the doctrinal history of the I always densely peopled vales of Antrim, and VOL. XIX. NO. III.
Slieve Doough to the north-east, rising the claims of the Roman Catholics, he uncone-shaped like a sugar-loaf, lonely and doubtedly alienated for a time the affection alone in its pride : any one of all the pros and esteem of many of his former admirers. pects from the Cave Hill, when the sky is He could not, therefore, be charged with enblue, and the summer day nearly done, is tertaining an unjust preference for the Presworth the stiff journey upward twice re- byterian Church, in believing it likely to be peated; and all of them together form a come a powerful instrumentality for the scene that, as a whole, cannot often be ex- emancipation of Ireland from many evils not celled, and in which there are points that less injurious than political restrictions. He scarcely can be rivaled. Dr. Chalmers loved had supported Roman Catholic emancipaeminently the works of God. Few men have tion; he had assisted the Episcopal Church ever enjoyed them more. A scene like that in various difficulties; he had attended in was to him a rich festival. His mind ac- St. Andrew's at an Independent Church, quired more than its wonted exuberance while an ordained minister of the Establishamidst the beautiful or the sublime in the ment; he lived in terms of intimacy with the works of Creation.
leaders of the English Wesleyan Methodists, Very few disciples of Christianity ever and acting on just principles to those with grasped more completely the idea, “ My whom he could not maintain religious comFather hath made them all.” But looking munion, he was also a man of the most cathover this wide scene in the best part of Ire-olic spirit; yet he loved not less on that acland, he could not fail to remember the count the broad features of Protestant faith, misery and sufferings that occupied a large or the distinctive lines of his own communion. part in the history, and the moral aspect, of Many rugged points in Irish history catch a land singularly rich in natural resources, the
eye, but to those who read it well, there and lamentably poor in their application. is a soft and sombre sadness over the story, No shadow of the coming famine, fever, and that deeply interests the feelings, and leaves sorrows of 1845, and the subsequent years, the reader anxious that peace at last and prosthen darkened the island; yet in many dis- perity would not be only visitors and way. tricts, plenty and want, heartlessness and farers in the land. Dr. Chalmers possessed suffering, dwelt together. He was no sec- this kind of interest in Ireland, and one rising tarian in the narrow and objectionable mean- still higher, from other and nobler sources ; ing of the title, but he held warmly his own and seeking its permanent improvement next, tenets, because he could not yield a cold and probably, to that of Scotland; he expressed frigid assent to any principle of faith; and, his conviction that Scotland and England remembering his own country, and the would not long be prosperous while Ireland changes accomplished there in a single cen- was depressed. tury, ascribing them in a great degree to the These remarks have, however, diverged religious principles that prevail in Scotland, from the general subject, and arose merely he believed that the same creed might form from the preparation of Dr. Chalmers' life similar minds to work out the same results being committed to a gentleman so closely in Ireland. No Irishman, of whatever creed, connected with Ireland as Dr. Hanna-who could love the man less that the warm wish. has accomplished that part of his great task, es of his heart were concentrated in one of now before the public, in a manner calculathose expressive and fervent ejaculatory ted to afford the best idea that can be obprayers, containing in ten words the force tained of the subject. We want not merely and strength of a hundred, with which his a naked narrative of events, chained together journals and Sabbath readings have render- in chronological order; but the history of a ed the public familiar.
great mind. If that want is supplied from Dr. Chalmers, it may be remembered, suf- the man's thoughts, written as time passed ered reproach in advocating the Roman away, with its changes; and illustrated with Catholic Emancipation Bill. He prized the the light which a skillful biographer can throw friendships he had formed in society, but over them—we have obtained the most dewhile valuing them warmly, they were never sirable result. This first volume is prepared permitted to sway his mind from the path with that object steadily in view. Dr. Chalthat seemed to him the way of duty. The mers still speaks in a great number of its Disruption of the Scottish Church was not pages. The biographer keeps himself enthe only or the first example where he set tirely unseen. We know that he moves the aside the claims of fuiendship for the para- panorama which is to pass before us; that mount demands of principle. In advocating I he searches out, puts in order, and joins the