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1. Historic Doubts relative to Napoleon Buonaparte. Eighth edition, pp. 60.
8vo. London, 2. The Nemesis of Faith. By J. A. Froude, M. A., Fellow of Exeter College,
Oxford. 12mo. London: pp. 227. 3. Popular Christianity, its Transition State and Probable Development. By F. J.
Foxton, B. A.; formerly of Pembroke College, Oxford, and Perpetual Curate of Stoke Prior and Docklow, Herefordshire. 12mo. London: pp. 226.
"Reason and Faith," says one of our old exclusive of faith, all the truths on which we divines, with the quaintness characteristic of are daily compelled to act, whether in relahis day, “ resemble the two sons of the pa- tion to this world or the next. Neither is it triarch ; Reason is the firstborn, but Faith in- right to represent either of them as failing of herits the blessing.” The image is ingenious, the promised heritage, except as both may and the antithesis striking ; but nevertheless fail alike, by perversion from their true end, the sentiment is far from just. It is hardly and depravation of their genuine nature ; for right to represent Faith as younger than if to the faith of which the New Testament Reason: the fact undoubtedly being, that speaks so much, a peculiar blessing is prohuman creatures trust and believe, long be- mised, it is evident from that same volume fore they reason or know. But the truth is, that it is not a “ faith without reason” any that both Reason and Faith are coeval with more than a “ faith without works,” which is the nature of man, and were designed to approved by the Author of Christianity. dwell in his heart together. In truth, they And this is sufficiently proved by the injuncare, and were, and, in such creatures as our- tion “to be ready to give a reason for the selves, must be, reciprocally complementary; hope,”—and therefore for the faith,—" which -neither care exclude the other. It is as im- | is in us.” possible to exercise an acceptable faith without reason for so exercising it,—that is, with in the first clause as an argument; and in the seout exercising reason while we exercise
cond, as the characteristic endowment of our species.
The distinction between Reason and Reasoning -as it is to apprehend by our reason, (though most important) does not affect our state
ment; for though Reason may be exercised where * Let it not be said that we are here playing there is no giving of reasons, there can be no givupon an ambiguity in the word Reason ;-considered I ing of reasons without the exercise of Reason. VOL. XIX. NO. III.
If, therefore, we were to imitate the quaint-| alone, but their well-balanced and reciprocal ness of the old divine, on whose diclum we interaction. It is a system of alternate have been commenting, we should rather com-checks and limitations, in which Reason does pare Reason and Faith to the two trusty not supersede Faith, nor Faith encroach on spies, "faithful amongst the faithless," who Reason. But our meaning will be more eviconfirmed each other's report of “ that good dent when we have made one or two remarks land which flowed with milk and honey, on what are conceived to be their respective and to both of whom the promise of a rich provinces. inheritance there, was given,—and, in due In the domain of Reason men generally time, amply redeemed. Or, rather, if we include, Ist, what are called “intuitions ;' might be permitted to pursue the same vein 2d, “necessary deductions” from them ; a little further, and throw over our shoulders and 3d, deductions from their own direct for a moment that mantle of allegory which “experience;” while in the domain of Faith none but Bunyan could wear long and suc- are ranked all truths and propositions which cessfully, we should represent Reason and are received, not without reasons, indeed, but Faith as twin-born beings,—the one, in form for reasons underived from the intrinsic eviand features the image of manly beauty,-dence (whether intuitive or deductive, or the other, of feminine grace and gentleness; from our own experience) of the proposibut to each of whom, alas ! was allotted a tions themselves ;—for reasons (such as cresad privation. While the bright eyes of dible testimony, for example,) extrinsic to the Reason are full of piercing and restless intel proper meaning and significance of such proligence, his ear is closed to sound ; and while positions : although such reasons, by accuFaith has an ear of exquisite delicacy, on mulation and convergency, may be capable her sightless orbs, as she lifts them toward of subduing the force of any difficulties or heaven, the sunbeam plays in vain. Hand improbabilities, which cannot be demonstraled in hand the brother and sister, in all mutual to involve absolute contradictions. * love, pursue their way, through a world on which, like ours, day breaks and night falls alternate ; by day the eyes of Reason are the by intuition, we have examples in what are called
* Of the first kind of truths, or those perceived guide of Faith, and by night the ear of self-evident axioms,” and “ fundamental laws” or Faith is the guide of Reason. As is wont “conditions of thought,” which no wise man has with those who labor under these privations ever attempted to prove. Of the second, we have respectively, Reason is apt to be eager, im- examples in the whole fabric of mathematical petuous, impatient of that instruction which science, reared from its basis of axioms and defini
tions, as well as in every other necessary deduction his infirmity will not permit him readily to from admitted premises. The third virtually inapprehend; while Faith, gentle and docile, cludes any conclusion in science based on direct exis ever willing to listen to the voice by which periment, or observation ; though the belief of the alone truth and wisdom can effectually reach truth even of Newton's system of the world, when her.
received as Locke says he received and as the ge
nerality of men receive it,--without being able to It has been shown by Butler in the fourth follow the steps by which the great geometer proves and fifth chapters (Part I.) of his great his conclusions,—may be represented rather as an work, that the entire constitution and condi- act of Faith than an act of Reason ; as much so as tion of man, viewed in relation to the pres- historic and other evidences. The greater part of
a belief in the truth of Christianity, founded on its ent world alone, and consequently all the men's knowledge, indeed, even of science, - even analogies derived from that fact in relation to the greater part of a scientific man's knowledge of a future world, suggest the conclusion that science, based as it is on testimony alone and which we are here the subjects of a probationary so often com pels him to renounce to-day what he discipline, or in a course of education for considered as more allied to Faith than Reason. It
thought certain yesterday),-may be not unjustly another state of existence. But it has not, may be said, perhaps, that the above classification perhaps, been sufficiently insisted on, that if of the truths received by Reason and Faith respectin the actual course of that education, of ively, is arbitrary; that even as to some of their alwhich enlightened obedience to the law of leged sources, they are not always clearly distin
guishable; that the evidence of experience may in virtue," as Butler expresses it, or, which is
some sort be reduced to testimony,--that of sense; the same thing, to the dictates of supreme and testimony reduced to experience, that of huwisdom and goodness, is the great end, we man veracity under given circumstances; both being give an unchecked ascendency to either Rea- founded on the observed uniformity of certain pheson or Faith, we vitiate the whole process. truth of this: and we admit it the more willingly,
nomena under similar conditions. We admit the The chief instrument by which that process as it shows that so inextricably intertwined are the is carried on is not Reason alone, or Faith ! roots both of Reason and Faith in our nature, that
In receiving important doctrines on the series of analogies as striking as any of those strength of such evidence, and in holding to which Butler has pointed out (and on which them against the perplexities they involve, we heartily wish his comprehensive genius or, what is harder still, against the prejudices had expended a chapter or two), Christianthey oppose, every exercise of an intelligent ity, in the demands it makes on both princifaith will, on analysis, be found to consist ; ples conjointly, is evidently adapted. its only necessary limit will be proven contra- Men often speak, indeed, as if the exercise dictions in the propositions submitted to it; of faith was excluded from their condition as for, then, no evidence can justify belief, or inhabitants of the present world. But it reeven render it possible. But no other diffi- quires but a very slight consideration to culties, however great, will justify unbelief, show that the boasted prerogative of reason where man has all that he can justly demand, is here also that of a limited monarch ; and -evidence such in its nature as he can deal that its attempts to make itself absolute cap with, and on which he is accustomed to act only end in its own dethronement, and, after in his most important affairs in this world successive revolutions, in all the anarchy of (thus admitting its validity), and such in absolute pyrrhonism. amount as to render it more likely that the For in the intellectual and moral educadoctrines it substantiates are true, than, from tion of man, considered merely as a citizen of mere ignorance of the mode in which these the present world, we see the constant and difficulties can be solved, he can infer them inseparable union of the two principles, and to be false. “Probabilities,” says Bishop provision made for their perpetual exercise. Butler, "are to us the very guide of life;" He cannot advance a step, indeed, without and when the probabilities arise out of evi- both. We see faith demanded not only ødence on which we are competent to pro- amidst the dependence and ignorance in nounce, and the improbabilities merely from which childhood and youth are passed; not our surmises, where we have no evidence to only in the whole process by which we acdeal with, and perhaps, from the limitation quire the imperfect knowledge which is to of our capacities, could not deal with it, fit us for being men; but to the very
last if we had it, it is not difficult to see what we may be truly said to believe far more than course practical wisdom tells man he ought we know. “Indeed,” says Butler, “the unto pursue ; and which he always does pursue, satisfactory nature of the evidence with whatever difficulties beset him,-in all cases which we are obliged to take up in the daily except one!
course of life, is scarce to be expressed. Such is that strict union—that mutual de- Nay, in an intelligible sense, even the "pripendence of Reason and Faith—which would mary truths,” or “ first principles,” or funseem to be the great law under which the damental“ laws of thought,” or “self-evident moral school in which we are being educated maxims,” or “ intuitions," or by whatever is conducted. This law is equally, or almost other names philosophers have been pleased equally, its characteristic, whether we regard to designate them, which, in a special sense, man simply in his present condition, or in his are the very province of reason, as contrapresent in relation to his future condition,- distinguished from "reasoning" or logical as an inhabitant only of this world, or a can- deduction, may be said almost as truly to didate for another; and to this law, by a depend on faith as on reason for their recep
tion. For the only ground for believing
them true is that man cannot help so beno definitions that can be framed will completely lieving them! The same may be said of that phenomena which may be said to fall under the do great fact, without which the whole world ininion of one as much as of the other. We have
would be at a stand-still—a belief in the unibeen content, for our practical purpose, without any formity of the phenomena of external natoo subtle refinement, to take the line of demarca- ture ; that the same sun, for example, which tion which is, perhaps, as obvious as any, and as ge
rose yesterday and to-day, will rise again tonerally recognized. Few would say that a generalized inference from direct experiment was not matter
Thắt this cannot be demonstrated, of reason rather than of faith ; though an act of faith is involved in the process; and few would not call confidence in testimony where probabilities * Common language seems to indicate this: Since were nearly balanced, by the name of faith rather we call that disposition of mind which leads some than reason, though an act of reason is involved in men to deny the above fundamental truths (or affect that process. We are much more anxious to show
to deny them), not by a word which indicates the their general involution with one another than the opposite of reason, but the opposite of faith-Sceppoints of discrimination between them.
ticism, Unbelief, Incredulity.
is admitted on all hands; and that it is not sleep? Is not my essence thought ?" "You absolutely proved from experience is evident, ought to know your own essence best," all both from the fact that experience cannot creation will reply. “I am confident,” says prove any thing future, and from the fact one, “that I never do cease to think—not that the uniformity supposed is only accept- even in the soundest sleep.” “You do, for ed as partially and transiently true ; the great a long time, every night of your life," exbulk of mankind, even while they so confi- claims another, equally confident and equaldently act upon that uniformity, rejecting ly ignorant. “Where do I exist ?" it goes the idea of its being an elernal uniformity. on. “Am I in the brain ? Am I in the Every theist believes that the order of the whole body? Am I anywhere? Am I nouniverse once began to be; and every Chris- where ?” “I cannot have any local existtian, and most other men, believe that it will ence, for I know I am immaterial,” says one. also one day cease to be.
“I have a local existence, because I am materiBut perhaps the most striking example of al,” says another. “I have a local existthe helplessness to which man is soon re- ence, though I am not material,” says a third. duced if he relies upon his reason alone, is “Are my habitual actions voluntary,” it exthe spectacle of the issue of his investiga- claims, however rapid they become; though tions into that which one would imagine he I am unconscious of these volitions when must know most intimately, if he knows any- they have attained a certain rapidity; or do thing; and that is, his own nature—his own I become a mere automaton as respects such mind. There is something, to one who re-actions ? and therefore an automaton nine flects long enough upon it, inexpressibly times out of ten, when I act at all ?” To this whimsical in the questions which the mind query two opposite answers are given by difis for ever putting to itself respecting itself; ferent minds; and by others, perhaps wiser, and to which the said mind returns from its none at all; while, often, opposite answers dark caverns only an echo. We are apt, are given by the same mind at different when we speculate about the mind, to forget times. In like manner has every action, for the moment, that it is at once the querist every operation, every emotion of the mind and the oracle; and to regard it as some- been made the subject of endless doubt and thing out of itself, like a mineral in the hands disputation. Surely if, as Soame Jenyns of the analytic chemist. We cannot fully imagined, the infirmities of man, and even enter into the absurdities of its condition, ex- graver evils, were permitted in order to afcept by remembering that it is our own wise ford amusement to superior intelligences, selves who so grotesquely bewilder us. The and make the angels laugh, few things could mind, on such occasions, takes itself (if we afford them better sport than the perpleximay so speak) into its own hands, turns it- ties of this child of clay engaged in the study self about as a savage would a watch, or a of himself. “Alas !" exclaims at last the monkey a letter; interrogates itself, listens baffled spirit of this babe in intellect, as he to the echo of its own voice, and is obliged, surveys his shattered toys—bis broken theoafter all, to lay itself down again with a very ries of metaphysics, “I know that I am; but puzzled expression—and acknowledge that what I am—where I am-even how I act not of its very self
, itself knows little or nothing! only what is my essence, but what even my “I am material,” exclaims one of these whim- mode of operation,—of all this I know nothșical beings, to whom the heaven-descended ing; and, boast of reason as I may, all that “Know thyself” would seem to bave been I think on these points is matter of opinionironically addressed. “No!-immaterial,” or is matter of faith !" He resembles, in says another. "I am both material and im- fact, nothing so much as a kitten first intromaterial,” exclaims, perhaps, the very same duced to its own image in a mirror : she mind at different times. Thought itself runs to the back of it, she leaps over it, she may be matter modified,” says one. “ Rath- turns and twists, and jumps and frisks, in all er,” says another of the same perplexed spe- directions, in the vain attempt to reach the cies," matter is thought modified; for what fair illusion ; and, at length, turns away in you call matter is but a phenomenon." weariness from that incomprehensible enigma * Both are independent and totally distinct --the image of herself! substances, mysteriously, inexplicably con- One would imagine-perhaps not untruly joined,” says a third. « How they are con
--that the Divine Creator had subjected us joined we know no more than the dead. Not to these difficulties—and especially that inso much, perhaps." "Do I ever cease to comprehensible trilemma,--that there is an think,” says the mind to itself, even in /union and interaction of two totally distinct