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gently transferred from one element to an- 1 gyll, where, undisturbed by consonants, he other-it was thus left in the aëriform posi- had soundly slept, to behold in sunshine and tion it had been planned to 'occupy.
in solitude that which during a weary period During the operations we have detailed of gestation had been either mysteriously there were, of course, made by the spectators moving in his brain, or like a vision-someof both sexes a variety of observations of times of good omen and sometimes of badmore or less wisdom, of which our limits will had by night as well as by day occasionally only allow us historically to record a single been fitting across his mind. sample.
Without, however, presuming to divine, “Dear me !" said an old gentleman, as the from the rising fumes of a cigar, the various tube when it first swung across the Straits subjects of his ruminations, we will merely was in perspective seen approaching the confess that, on looking up from our boat, as platform on which he sat, and which was it glided away, at the aërial gallery he was immediately in front of the awful chasm be- contemplating, we were astonished to find tween Britannia and Anglesey Tower, “They ourselves very much in the frail predicament hare surely been and made it too short ; they of mind of the old gentleman of yesterday must put a bit on!” As soon, however, as, whose emotions we so accurately delineated veering round, it approached him broadside --for when the tube was lying on the Carforemost, he whispered, “I'm quite sure it's narvon shore we certainly fancied that it 100 LONG ; they'll have to cut a piece off!" looked too heavy and too high for its object,
A lady said to her companion, "Mr. Ste- whereas it now appeared almost too light and phenson appeared dreadfully excited during the too low: in short, it had assumed the simple passage ! Didn't you observe how he kept appearance which, in principle, it had been continually stretching out his arms, raising designed to bear--that of a rectangular holthem up and then sinking them down in this low beam; and although it had in fact anway?" (suiting her words to the actions by nulled the awful chasm between the Anglewhich the speed of the voyage had calmly sey and Britannia Towers, nevertheless, by been regulated). “ But no wonder he was exactly measuring it, it now appeared con80 agitated!"
siderably to have increased it ! The Company's servants were engaged Moreover, in viewing this low narrow pasuntil long after sunset in securing and placing sage-only 15 feet by 30—which, without in safety the various materials, &c., that had cuneiform support, was strecthing half across been in requisition during the day, and it was the Menai Straits—it has been quaintly obnot till past midnight that, over-tired, they served by Mr. Latimer Clark, in the clever managed one after another to retire to pamphlet named at the head of this article, rest.
that if this single joint of the tube could be On the following morning, after we bad bid placed on its tiny end in St. Paul's Churchden adieu to the hospitable inmates of a small yard, it would reach 107 feet higher than the wooden habitation, beneath the Anglesey cross)—it seemed surprising to us that by Tower, in which we had been very kindly re- any arrangement of materials it could possibly ceived, we had occasion to pass near to a be made strong enough to support even itself, stand which had purposely been constructed much less heavily-laden trains of passengers in a peculiarly advantageous position, to en- and goods, flying through it, and actually passable the Directors of the Chester and Holy. ing each other in the air
, at railway speed. head Railway to witness the operation. Upon And the more we called reason and reflection the centre bench of this platform-the ground to our assistance, the more incomprehensible far around which was partially covered with did the mystery practically appear; for the bits of orange-peel, greasy papers that had plate-iron of which this aërial gallery is comcontained sandwiches, and other scraps, indi- posed is literally not so thick as the lid, sides, cative of an intellectual feast that was over, and bottom which, by heartless contract, are -we observed, reclining entirely by himself, required for an elm coffin 6} feet long, 2 a person in the easy garb of a gentleman, feet wide, and 2 feet deep, of strength merely who appeared to be in the exquisite enjoy- sufficient to carry the corpse of an emaciated, ment of a cigar, whose white smoke in long friendless pauper from the workhouse to his expirations was periodically exuding from his grave ! lips, as with unaverted eyes he sat indolently The covering of this iron passage, 1841 gazing at the aërial gallery before him. It feet in length, is literally not thicker than the was the father looking at his new-born child! hide of the elephant! Lastly, it is scarcely He had strolled down from Llanfairpwllgwyn- | thicker than the bark of the "good old English” oak; and if this noble sovereign, not-gates would not only continue to press exactwithstanding the “heart” and interior sub- ly as heavily against the latter as the whole stance of which it boasts, is, even in the well- German Ocean had previously done, but by protected park in which it has been born and simultaneously inflicting the same amount bred, often prostrated by the storm, how of pressure against the inside of the new gates difficult is it to conceive that an attenuated as the ocean was inflicting on their outaërial hollow beam, no thicker than its mere ide, the pressure of this imprisoned single rind, should by human science be constituted oot of water would so accurately counterstrong enough to withstand, besides the poise that of the whole wide, free ocean, that weights rushing through it, the natural gales if the machinery which had closed the new and artificial squalls of wind to which through- gates were suddenly to be removed, they (the out its immense length, and at its fearful new gates) would be found, as it were, vertiheight, it is permanently to be exposed ! cally to float between the two equal press
IV. RAISING THE TUBES.— Hydraulic ures ! Press.-Although the tube, resting at each
But anomalous as this theory may appear, end upon the ledge or shelf that had been it is beautifully demonstrated by the wellprepared for it, had been deposited high known fact, that if water be poured into a glass enough to allow an ordinary boat to row under syphon, of which one leg is, say an inch in it, yet the heaviest job still remained—that diameter, and the other, say a foot, the smallof raising it about 100 feet to its final resting er quantity will exactly counterbalance the place. This operation, which might be com- greater, and the water will consequently, in pared to lifting the Burlington Arcade to the both legs, rise precisely to the same level; top of St. James's Church-supposing al- and this would be the case if one leg of the ways that the said church arose out of very syphon were as large as the German Ocean, deep, rapid water-was, as we have already and the other as small as the distance between stated, to be performed by the slow but the two sets of lock gates we have just desirresistible
agency of hydraulic power; and cribed-indeed it is evident that, if a hole as one of the presses used is said not only to were to be bored through the bottom of the be the largest in the world, but the most new gates, a syphon would instantly be formpowerful machine that has ever been con- ed, of which the ocean would be one leg structed, we will venture to offer to those of and the foot of included salt-water the our readers who may never have reflected other. upon the subject, a brief, homely explanation Now B ramah, on reflection, clearly perof the simple hydrostatic principle upon which ceived that from this simple principle in nathat most astonishing engine, the hydraulic ture a most important mechanical power press invented by Bramah, is constructed. might be obtained ; for if, say five ounces of
If the whole of the fresh water behind the water in a small tube can be made to counlock-gates of a canal communicating directly terbalance, say a hundred thousand ounces with, say the German Ocean, were to be sud- of water in a large one, it is evident that by denly withdrawn, it is evident that the sea-side the mere substitution in the bottom of the of the gates would receive water-pressure, and larger tube of a flat solid substance instead the other side none.
of the water, a pressure upon the body so Now if a second set of gates were to be inserted of very nearly a hundred thousand inserted in the salt-water at a short distance, ounces would be inflicted by the application say one foot, in front of the old ones—(the of only five ounces !_and—as this pressure water between both sets of gates remaining would of course be proportionately increased at the same sea-level as before)—many, and by increasing the height, or in other words perhaps most people, would believe that the the weight of water in the smaller tubepressure of the German Ocean against the Bramah therefore further reasoned that, if, new gates would of course relieve, if not en- instead of adding to the quantity of water in tirely remove, the pressure against the old the smaller tube, the fluid therein were to be ones—just as a barrier before the entrance of ejected downward by a force-pump, the a theatre most certainly relieves those be- pressure upward in the larger tube would tween it and the door from the pressure of the proportionately be most enormously inmob without.
creased; and à fortiori, as, in lieu of the oldThis opinion, however, is fallacious; for, fashioned forcing-pump, the power of steam supposing that the new gates were by ma- has lately been exerted, our readers will, we chinery to be firmly closed, the foot of salt believe, at once percieve that, if the instruwater included between them and the old ment which holds the water could but be made strong enough, the pressure which fixed in the upper region of the Britannia might be inflicted within it by a few gallons Tower, 148 feet above the level of its base, of water might almost be illimitable.
and about 45 feet above that to which the The principle of the hydraulic press having bridge is to be raised. been above faintly explained, the power and Around the neck of the iron ram or piston, dimensions of the extraordinary engine of which protrudes 8 inches above the top of this nature, which has been constructed by this cylinder, there is affixed a strong horizonMessrs. Easton and Amos, of Southwark, tal iron beam 6 feet 9 inches in length, resemfor raising the Britannia tubes, may be thus bling the wooden yoke used by milkmaids briefly described
for carrying their pails, from the extremities of The cylinder, or large tube, of the syphon, which there hang two enormous iron chains, which is 9 feet 4 inches in length, 4 feet 10 composed of eight or nine flat links or plates, inches in diameter, and which is made of each 7 inches broad, 1 inch thick, and 6 cast iron 11 inches thick, weighs 16 tons feet in length, firmly bolted together. These The piston, termed the Ram, which, pressed chains (which, in order to lift the tube to its upward by the water, works within it, is 20 destination, are required to be each 145 feet inches in diameter. The whole machine long, weigh no less than 100 tons—which is complete weighs upward of 40 tons. The more than double the weight of the equestrian force-pump barrel communicates with a slen statue of the Duke of Wellington, lately der tube or passage about the size of a erected in Hyde Park—commonly regarded lady's smallest finger, which, like the touch- as one of the heaviest lifts ever effected; and hole of a cannon, is drilled through the me- certainly, when from the giddy region of the tallic side of the cylinder; and thus, although Britannia Tower, in which this hydraulic the syphonic principle really exists, nothing machinery, like the nest of an eagle, has been appears to the eye but a sturdy cast-iron deposited, the stranger, after looking down cylinder of about the length of a 24 lb. can- upon the enormous weight of iron not only non, having the thickness of metal of a 13- to be supported, but to be raised, compares inch mortar.
the whole mass with the diameter of the little From the above trifling data it will be touch-hole immediately before him, through evident that, leaving friction and the weight which the lifting-power has to pass—and of the ram out of the question, the lifting when he reflects that the whole process can, power of this machine must exceed the force with the greatest ease, be regulated and conapplied to the force-pump in the same propor- trolled by a single man, it is impossible to tion that 14 inch diameter bears to a diame- help feeling deeply grateful to the Divine ter of 20 inches—which in figures amounts to Power for an invention which, at first sight, about 354 to 1; and as the two 40-horse has more the appearance of magic than of steam-engines which are to be applied to the art. touch-hole for compressing the water in the As soon as all adjustments were prepared, smaller tube would, it has been calculated and the boiler was sufficiently heated, the by Mr. Latimer Clark, be sufficient to force great piston, under the influence of severe the fluid more than five times as high as the pressure upon the water beneath it, began top of Snowdon, or 5000 feet higher than the slowly, like a schoolboy's “jack-in-the-box," summit of Mount Blanc, our readers have only to emerge from the cylinder, and, apparently to increase the force in this proportion to be- regardless of the enormous weight that opcome sensible of the extraordinary power pressed his shoulders, he continued steadily which the hydraulic press of the Britannia to rise, until in about thirty minutes he lifted Bridge is capable of exerting for the purpose the tube 6 feet, and, as he could raise it no of raising its tubes. In short, the power is higher, the huge chains beneath were immeto the weight of the tubes as follows :- diately secured by a powerful vice or “clams”
at the foot of the press.
By letting off the Weight of one of the largest tubes . . 1800
water, which of course relieved the pressure Lifting-power of the hydraulic press . 2622 beneath the piston, it descended, by its own
gravity, to the point from which it had startThe mode in which this enormous powered, where the chains being again affixed to is practically exercised is as follows :- its yoke—an operation which requires about
The hydraulic cylinder, standing erect, half an hour—it again by the vitality of steam, like a cannon on its breech, on two stout lifted its weight another six feet; and, as the wrought-iron beams bolted to each other, is, other end of the tube was simultaneously together with its steam-boiler, securely treated in a similar way, the whole was pro
gressively raised nearly 30 feet, when, by the and timber which had cautiously been underbursting of the largest of the hydraulic press- built during its ascent—and from which it es—a contingency which, from the faithless has still to be raised to a point a few feet crystalline character of cast iron, it is utterly above its final position, where a strong iron impossible for Science to prevent—the pon beam being placed beneath, it will, we trust, derous mass suddenly fell through a space of triumphantly be lowered to its final restingseven inches--an awful phenomenon to wit- place, to be the aërial highway of the pubness—until it was stopped by the brickwork | lic.
A MOTHER'S LAMENT.
BY WILLIAM JONES.
WHERE have they lain thee, my own dear child,
Where have they made thy bed?
Where the hemlock waves
On the drowsy graves,
Where have they borne thee, my stricken one?
Would that I shared thy rest!
With thine eyelids closed,
As they oft reposed
They tell me, my boy, thou wert taken hence
And thou wouldst have wept
As the blighting crept
And they tell of an angel-child above,
With a bright and glorious brow,
And I list profound
For the rustling sound;
My baby! though thine is a holy lot,
To walk in the glow of heaven,
And I raise these eyes
To thine own blue skies,
But a whisper of hope has reach'd my ear,
And my heart soars on the strain !
In a sinless clime,
Where the flight of time
From the British Quarterly Review.
RABELAIS-HIS LIFE AND GENIUS.
The Works of Francis Rabelais. Translated from the French by SIR THOMAS
URQUHART and Motteux; with Explanatory Notes by Duchat, Ozell, and others. A New Edition, revised, and with additional Notes. 2 vols. London : Bohn. 1849.
In 1530, Luther, now an elderly man, had unnecessary learning—such were the rules already accomplished more than half his imposed upon the Franciscan friars by the great work, and the young Frenchman, will of their founder ; and whatever relaxaCalvin, was just beginning his career as a tions in these rules time may have introductheologian, when an erratic fellow-country- ed, enough of their spirit remained to preman of the latter, a vagabond monk or priest, serve for the order its traditional character that had long been at a loss what to do with as the most ascetic and beggarly in the himself, came to Montpellier, and was matri- church. In any convent whatever, Rabelais culated at the university there as a student would have been an unruly subject; but in of medicine, by the name of Francis Rabelais. a convent of Franciscans he was discord inHe must have seemed somewhat of an old carnate. His conventual offences were nufellow to be commencing a new course of merous. In the first place, it appears, he study, for he was then in his forty-eighth was by far too studious in his habits for a year—that is to say, exactly as old as Luther, Franciscan; he, and another brother, named and about twenty-six years older than Calvin. Peter Amy, would persist, among other But it was by no means uncommon at that things, in learning Greek together, and in time to see men that had been bred in the corresponding with eminent Greek scholars, church, cast adrift to seek, late in life, for such as the celebrated Budæus—of all which new ties and occupations. Many were the it was clear to the friars that no good could strange waifs that the Reformation had come. Further, there was good reason, after washed afloat upon society; nor of all these the promulgation of the Lutheran heresy, to was there one whose severance from the believe that brother Rabelais was by no papal wreck should have been less a matter means an orthodox catholic in his views of of surprise than that of Rabelais.
that movement, if, indeed, he was not in Born in 1483, at the small town of Chinon, secret a disciple of Luther. But, worse than in Touraine, where his father, who was an all, as we guess, he was of a disposition altoinnkeeper, owned or rented a farm adjacent gether intractable and uncomfortable, “un to a convent of Benedictine monks, Rabelais prêtre," as his friend Budæus hinted, “ d'un had been destined for the church from his caractère bien difficile et morose ;" an earlier boyhood; and after receiving the usual modi- Swift, in short, for bitterness and satiric hucum of education, and fulfilling the usual mor. It is nowise necessary to add to these novitiate, he had at last, in his twenty-ninth traits, as some do, the imputation of personal year (1511), been admitted into priest's lewdness, in order to complete our picture of orders as a member of a fraternity of Fran- a man that would be likely to keep a comciscan or Mendicant Gray Friars, established munity of Gray Friars in a state of hot water. at Fontenay-le-Comte, in Lower Poitou.. A Suffice it that, during thirteen years, he was, position less suitable for a man of his tastes somehow or other, the most unpopular man and temperament could not possibly have in the monastery. At last, this dislike of his been found.
To wear a coarse gray cloak | brother monks to him showed itself in a someand hood, to go barefooted, and live on fish | what serious fashion. In 1524, in conseand other meagre diet, to cherish an humble i quence of some formidable breach of rule—a and abject demeanor, and to abstain from all | profane practical jest, tradition says, that