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learn that there was such a thing as an oth- have answered. They shall appear at the erwise uninhabited star, peopled solely by bar, and learn that a charge has been preferred magnificent crystals. What a grand thing a against them, that “they are of the earth, world would be, containing, though it con- earthly.” The question shall be put to each, tained nothing else, columns of rock crystal Earthly or not earthly?" and the jury like icebergs, and mountains of purple ame shall give their verdict according to the answer thyst, domes of rubies, pinnacles and cliffs of returned. Our twelve honest men, then,

, emeralds and diamonds, and gates and foun- having sworn in the presence of the great dations of precious stones, such as John saw Judge to give a righteous verdict, shall be in the Holy Jerusalem descending out of taken to the summit of some heaven-kissing heaven! All who reach the Happy Land bill, and left there as long as they please, to are to enter heaven as little children, and it make acquaintance with the stars. may please God, besides other methods of from anxious author and captious critics, they instruction, to teach his little ones his great- shall read for themselves the lesson of the ness and his power, by showing them such a universe. The heavens shall declare the world as we have imagined.

glory of God: the firmament show his handiAnd even if some heavenly messenger, work. Day unto day shall utter speech in “Gabriel, that stands in the presence of their hearing : night unto night show knowlGod," or one of the other angels that excel edge before them. They shall watch the in strength, should descend amongst us, and guiding of Arcturus and his sons: and beproclaim, “There is no life of any kind in any hold the bands of Orion: they shall feel the star but the earth,” should we be entitled to sweet influences of the Pleiades, and listen murmur at the news? Such is the pride to the morning stars singing together. “The and selfishness of man, that he does not hesi- Sirian star, that maketh the summer deadly," tate to proclaim any world a desert, from shall shine forth before them on the forehead which himself or his fellows are excluded. of the sky, and they shall hearken to the But even if it should be certain that every solemn tread of the host of heaven, as, star but the earth is a ball of lifeless granite, drawn up in their constellations, they nightly or barren lava, it would be for us, if we were repeat their sentinel march from horizon to wise, to say of it, as the Psalmist would horizon. have said, “Whither shall I go from thy And when the unsatisfied senses are still Spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy filled with desire, all needful help shall be presence?” In the most deserted and soli- furnished to gratify their longing. The Her. tary of worlds, as we might call it, God is schel forty-feet telescope shall be granted our present. The fullness of him that filleth all jury to gaze through, and the courteous Lord in all, fills“ it; the Saviour and the Holy Rosse will not refuse the giant reflector. Spirit are there. If our ears were not stop- Pulkowa, and Altona, and the Cape shall ped like the deaf adder's, we should, if visi- lend the best instruments of their observatants of such an orb, hear a voice say, “Put tories, and the ingenious Lassell shall record off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place for them what he witnesses with his space, whereon thou standest is holy ground." We piercing tube. The wise and filial Herschel leave, then, the question of the universal shall stand by to explain ; and the eloquent habitation of the heavenly bodies untouched, Arago and sweet-tongued Humboldt make and intend, moreover, to refer chiefly to the the wayfaring man, though a stranger, at nature of the stars, and not to that of their home in the universe. As witnesses, howinhabitants. The character or quality of the ever, witnesses only, shall these high priests dwellers in the heavenly bodies is, doubtless, of nature be called, and speak to facts, but a more generally attractive topic than that offer no opinions. of their habitations, as most thoughtful men Our twelve shall first cast a glance at our would consider the most forlorn and degrad- own solar system, and observe that no one of ed savage a more truly interesting object its planets has the same magnitude, inclination than the grandest palace. Our only hope, of axis, so far as that has been observed, however, in the meanwhile, of ascertaining density, time of rotation, or arrangement of anything concerning the dwellers i: the stars orbit; but that each, in all these particulars, is founded upon what we can discover con- differs greatly from its brethren. They shall cerning the stars themselves.

notice that several of the planets have no We shall judge this case in the same way. moons : that our earth has one relatively The stars themselves shall be appealed to very large one: Jupiter, four relatively small for a reply to the question we are curious to ones : Saturn, seven of greatly varying di

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mensions : Uranus, as is believed, six ; and be more complex ones; and try to conceive Neptune, two or more. They shall see the how unlike our planetary arrangements must splendid girdles which Saturn, and, as some be the economy of the worlds to which these think, Neptune, wear, and be warned that luminaries furnish light. They shall gaze at two at least of the moons of Uranus move purple and orange suns, at blue and green and from east to west, or in a direction opposite yellow and red ones ; and become aware of to that of their planet, and of all the other double systems where the one twin apbodies of the solar system.

pears to be a self-luminous sun, and the other The enormous differences in the length of a dark sphere of corresponding magnitude, the planetary years shall startle them; that like a sun gone out, as if modern science of Mercury, for example, being equal to about would assign an exact meaning to Origen's three of our months ; that of Neptune, to reference to “stars, which ray down dark164 of our years. The lesser, but marked ness.” Herschel shall show them the sidereal diversities in the length of their days shall clusters, many of which“ convey the comawaken notice, the Mercurial day being like plete idea of a globular space filled full of our own, twenty-four hours long, the Satur- stars [i. e. suns) insulated in the heavens, nine only ten. The variations in the amount and constituting in itself a family or society of heat and light received from the Sun by apart from the rest, and subject only to its each of its attendants shall not be forgotten; own internal laws. Lord Rosse shall exUranus, for example, obtaining two thousand hibit the nebulæ, resolved and unresolved. times less than Mercury, who receives seven The Continental observatories shall furnish retimes more than the earth. They sha'l also cords of those strange heavenly bodies which observe the extent to which the planets are periodically wax and wane, now shining like subject to changes of season ; "the Earth - candles of the Lord,” now darkening with knowing its four grateful vicissitudes; Jupiter Ichabod on their foreheads. Tycho Brahe knowing none; whilst the winter in Saturn shall tell of those mysterious unabiding stars, under the shadow of his rings is fifteen years which have flashed almost in a moment into long. All those unresembling particulars existence in the heavens, and have died away shall be made manifest to our observant like all precocious things prematurely, aptwelve. Neither shall they be forgetful of pearing as if to verify the poet's prediction, those dissimilarities in relation to atmosphere, that the sun himself will prove a transient and perhaps to physical constitution which meteor in the sky. The Chinese astronomers astronomers have detected. When so much shall proclaim the paths of ancient comets, diversity has been seen to shine through the which neither Greek nor Roman had courage unity of the Solar system, our twelve shall or science enough to trace through the gaze forth into space to see if all be sameness heavens; and Humboldt, after describing the there. Sameness ! They shall- discern stars wanderings of the comets of later days, shall of the first magnitude, stars of the second supply the commentary that so great are the magnitude, of the third, of the fourth, of differences among these eccentric bodies, the seventh, down to points so small, even “that the description of one can only be apto the greatest telescopes, that the soberest plied with much caution to another.” The of philosophers can devise no better name American observers shall detail how thick for them than star-dust; and one of them and fast the “fiery tears” fall from the declares " that for anything experience has November meteors: and a thousand other hitherto taught us, the number of the stars witnesses stand ready to affirm“ of diversity may be really infinite, in the only sense in there is no end." But we may suppose our which we can assign a meaning to the word.' somewhat distracted twelve, at this stage of They shall find that the Dog-star is a sun, the proceedings, to decline further evidence, whose light has an intrinsic splendor sixty- and bethiok themselves what their verdict three times greater than that of our own solar shall be. orb, and that he is not counted chief of the “These stars !" one juryman 'will say, a stars. They shall search in vain through the chandler we may guess, or oil merchant, or abysses for a system similar to our own, and perhaps only a lamp-lighter—" these stars ! find none, but perceive instead, multitudes of these suns ! these street lamps,' as Carlyle double-stars or twin suns, revolving round has called them, in the city of God,' are each other. They shall learn that there are they to be counted, my brethren, so many triple systems of suns, and that there may argand burners, each cast in the same mould,

with wick clipped to the same length, and * Herschel's Astronomy, Second Edition, p. 620. fed with the like modicum of oil, that it


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spread an equal number of rays over the same because it burns a different sort of fuel, as square section of heaven's pavement ? Nay! because it merely burns more of the same are we not certain that at least they differ coke that our locomotive consumes. Neither in size and brightness ? and if thus they does it seem a self-evident proposition that vary in dimensions and in splendor, as well as the Sirian machine must be made up of some in color of light and in mode of arrange- sixty chemical pieces, because one of the carment, is it likeliest that in other respects they riages of our Sun's train consists of so many. differ only in degree, and have all but one And as for the train of the Dog-star, if there function, or that they differ in kind and in be one, it appears not unlikely that the office also ? Some shall be likened to fra traffic of the regions through which it runs grant wax-candles, lighting up gay drawing may be very different from that of our zodirooms; and others shall be murky torches ac, and that the vehicles composing the suite following the dead to the tomb; and others of Sirius may differ in many particulars from Eddystone lamps, saving goodly ships from such as accompany our Sun. I, for one at destruction; and others, rainbow-tinted vases, least, will say that I perceive no grounds for making the streets gay on coronation festivals: assuming that where diversity prevails in reor strontia-fires, bidding armies begin battle; lation to all the points that are cognizable by or Bude flames, illuininating halls of parlia- us, sameness should be counted to be the ment; or lime-ball and electric lights on lofty rule in regard to everything that is hidden mountain-tops, measuring arcs of the globe.' from our sight.”

A second of the twelve shall arise, a black- A third juryman, who has plainly served smith, or stoker by the look of him. “That before the mast, will make bold to ask the visible sun of ours, it should seem, is the question—"Those ships of heaven that go open furnace-door of a great locomotive en- sailing past, each on its mysterious Godgine, sweeping through space. Its train goes commissioned errand, were it wisest to conwith it, of Jupiter-Saturn first class carriages, sider them a fleet of herring-boats or collier Mars-Earthly second class, and Ceres-Vesta brigs, some larger, some smaller, but all built third ones; satellite trucks being here and of the same materials, rigged in the same there interspersed through the train ; and style, and carrying the same cargo? Or comel engines provided to go special mes- were it wiser to compare ourselves to the sages. Those far distant stars, it should watchers on lonely Ascension Isle or solitary seem, are locomotives too, and like enough, St. Helena, now signaling a man-of-war with propel planet-trains, though no one has seen its · Mariners of England ;' then an African even traces of the latter. But are we free slaver with its doleful passengers and demonto settle that each drags its Jupiter, its Earth crew; now a heavy-laden Indiaman, rich and Vesta carriages behind it, with the same with the wealth of China; then a battered lord and squire passengers in the first, citizens South Sea whaler, filled with the spoils of well to do in the second, and stout mechanics slaughtered monsters of the deep ; light Taor ragged Irishmen in the third ? Are the hitian schooners with cocoa-nuts and arrowpaint and lacker, the cushions and the pad root; stout American ships with ice for the dings, the door-handles and the wheels, and epicures in India ; English barks with misall the similar coach furniture, to be looked sionaries, for the heathens of all lands. Oak for in these hypothetical trains, exactly as ships, and teak ships, and ships bammered they are found in our Sun's planet-car- out of iron : sailing vessels, and ocean steamriages ? Let us consider before we admit ers with paddles and screw propellers. this, how many coupled engines we see ; how Danes, Dutchmen, and Swedes, Frenchmen, many triplets and other locomotive wonders, Russians and Spaniards, each with its differwhich are likely to have attendants as strange ent build, its unlike dialect, its strange flag as their engines, and pause before we settle and unresembling crew. All sizes and shapes that Space is but a railway network, traversed and kinds of navigable craft, with all sorts of by up and down trains, differing only in unimaginable cargoes and motley companies length and speed, and carrying in the same of seafaring men. vehicles the same kind of passengers and

“ If there are all these differences among goods, at the one Universal penny a mile. our sailing vessels, are there likely to be

“ It seems, indeed, but an appeal to our fewer among the ships of heaven? Do you ignorance to say, that that Sirius-engine, for loink it probable that if by means of some example, differs nothing from our Sun-locot hudest speaking-trumpet, we could hail each motive but in size. Its fire is far brighter- hining orb with 'Star a-boy!' and thereafand hotter than ours, and perhaps as muchs | ter, by means of some farthest echoing re

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verberating hearing-horn, could get back an riety of weapon, worn by all sorts and conanswer, that from every one would be re- ditions of men. And if man, bent only on turned the same doleful or trivial earthly fighting for his hearth and home, and withmurmur— Money market tight; Shares out caring for diversity, nay, doing his best looking up ; Pope still at Gaeta; the Prince to provide against it, by tailor's uniform,' of Wales is to be Earl of Dublin ; Bem has serjeant's drill,' 'pipe clay,' orders of serbeaten the Ban.'

vice,' and whatever else promised to smooth My friends, think of this. In the azure over differences,-has never been able to do sea above us, there are no shores or landing more than iron straight and make uniform a places; it is one boundless Pacific OCEAN, single regiment at a time, and that for the where the frailest bark never hides behind a shortest period, how is it likely to be with bulwark, or drops anchor in a storm. The that Host of Heaven, as ye call them ? fleets of heaven are all phantom ships, for Scarcely among earthly hosts has some latest ever sailing, but never nearing port. If they regulation-cap become comfortable on the are all then as nearly as possible identical, head of its military wearer, before he who why are there so many ? If the nature and planted it there to realize his thirst for unity, object of each is the same, why are they not has grown weary of its sameness, and must pieced together, so as to make up one huge have the felt shaped anew. This is the lesvessel ? They might as well have been nailed son that nature has taught him, how not two and hammered into a single mighty sun, or leaves can be found alike, not even two peas: sun-earth, lighting up, and darkening itself, and if not two alike, still less three: least of while it floated through space, like a gigantic all thirty or a thousand. If, moreover, Noah's ark, laden with every living crea- among objects of the same class or species ture.

every additional unit shows an additional This is our Sailor-juryman's opinion ; but difference, how much greater the probability we have an old Serjeant also among our of variety, when there is a likelihood of the twelve, and he claims to be heard next. individuals belonging to different tribes ! “The Skipper,” he begins, “ the Skipper has Call not, then, the heavenly bodies a host, likened the stars to men-of-war, and so will or army, or acknowledge that they must I, though in a different sense from him, but have mighty differences among them. I say with a view to repeat his question : If the not that each “sentinel star is unlike ail celestial bodies are all alike, why are there others. It is enough if it be unlike many, so many

of them? The stars, I have been | There may be whole battalions of the same told, are the ‘Host of Heaven,' the armies race, wielding the same weapon, and wearof the sky,' and if so, are something more ing the same uniform: but will this be the than a regiment, and are likely to present case with the entire army? It was not so other differences than merely a grenadier with Pharoah's host or the Roman legions, company

of stars of the first magnitude; a with Attila's hordes or Britain's army, or light company of stars of the second ; a mass with any host that man has seen.

I ask no of troops of the line of the third ; and drum- other evidence of diversity existing among mer-boys of the fourth. An army, my the starry night-watchers than that there are friends, is not a row of pipe-clayed men, with millions of millions of them. Such numbers stiff stocks and buttoned gaiters, turning their do not exhaust unity ; no numbers can ; but eyes to the right or the left, as some martinet they exclude sameness when oneness of specolonel gives the word of command. It cies cannot be shown; and before we have counts not by men but by companies, not by counted even our thousands, all things, I companies but by regiments, not by regi- doubt not, will have become new.' Yes! ments but by battalions, not by battalions the faulchion that Orion wields is forged of but by nations. Its officers are dukes and a different metal from the flaming sword of archdukes, kings, and emperors. It has cay- the comet, or the fiery weapon of Mars, and alry and infantry, artillery battalions, rifle the club of Hercules is carved of another brigades, rocket companies, engineers, sap wood than the shaft of Bootes' spear.' pers ind miners. In that small matter of

A long-haired, ample-collared young genarms and clothing, how endless the differ- tleman, will here interrupt our militaire.

Plumed bonnet, helmet and shako, “Of regimental tailoring and army cutlery I grenadier cap, cocked hat; plaid, cuirass, know nothing. But did not Byron write hussar-jacket, broadsword, sabre and spear, that immortal line, bayonet, pistol, carabine and musket: all kinds of dress and equipment, and every va- "Ye Stars ! which are the poetry of heaven ?'


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And what think ye did he mean by that ? | chestra, now with muted voice, as the fingers That our sun, with the help of his family, of God move over one starry bank of keys, had once since the beginning of things com- lisping under breath some simple melody, posed an ode; he, after much thought, giv- then, as they change to another, sounding ing out the first line, his planets with difficul-out a trumpet obligato, or when the Highest ty furnishing a line a-piece, the moons at- gives his voice,' rolling forth with open diatending to the stops, whilst the comets sup- pason a Jupiter symphony,' or guiding the plied the interjections and notes of admira- Hallelujah chorus of the morning stars singtion. His lordship, too, would intend us to ing together. The starry choir, I ween, is understand, either that copies of this remark- no African row of monotonous performers able production were handed round the uni- singing in unison, and able to sing only one verse, or that, by a striking coincidence of song, but a Russian horn-band, where eachindigenius, such as happened more than once to vidual furnishes his indispensable single, and himself and Goethe, each sun with due help unlike note, toward the universal harmony, composed once in its existence the very same and the troop can execute all kinds of music: family piece ; so that for millions of centuries or a German festival-chorus with its thouthe stars have all been chanting like the sand voices, and its unlike parts undulating children of an infant school, the same un- together into one vast symphony, and flowchanging, meagre version of the hand that ing on as a mighty river of sound. There made us is divine.'

is no speech or language where their voice is " That might be his lordship's meaning : not heard. Their line is gone out through but might he not, perhaps, intend us to un- all the earth, and their words to the end of

. pect to have our sympathy with another view theThe Chancellor, or Foreman, however, of of things ? Our Earth, I think, alone engages our twelve, desiring impartiality, and also, as for its part to furnish a whole epic of Para- befits his office, loving unity, shall here indise Lost, through • Man's first disobedience, terpose : “My friends, let not this discerning and the fruit of that forbidden tree,' and each of diversity prevail with us too far. From sphere it is likely has, like Thalaba, its wild the evidence laid before us it should seem, and wondrous tale to tell. The poetry of that this solar system of ours is a goodly heaven, according to my Lord Byron, or any branch, on the summit of whose stem blooms other of the poet guild, is no solitary sonnet, a brilliant sun-flower, whilst round its stalk, or single song, but an Olympic contest of at due distances, are arranged the compoIliads and Odysseys, epics and lyrics, trage- nents of its foliage, seventeen broad planetdies and comedies, histories in twenty-four leaves, and eighteen or nineteen moon-leafbooks, isolated verses, single hymns, detach- | lets. Besides these, there are myriads of ed odes, and separate songs, where the same sharp - pointed, swift - piercing, straggling poem is never recited twice by one author, comet-thorns, which have occasioned much nor similar compositions made public by dif- annoyance to those who have handled them. ferent poets; but in endless diversity, a With these I shall not meddle ; but those countless succession of abounding rhymes far-distant, non-planetary stars ! were it not flows on, of 'grave and gay, and lively and good to count them sunflowers also, of which severe,' recounting the history and the des- on some branches indeed there are two on tinies of the universe, and glorifying him who one stalk, and on others three; larger it may sits enthroned as its King.”

be in certain cases, and fairer than ours, “Ay! and the Music of the Spheres,” purer in their tints, and varied occasionally will a sweet-tongued juryman say, “is that in the hue of their petals, but sunflowers all some unaccompanied melody ; some “Gloria of them, and embosomed in more or fewer Patri’ of three notes; or God save the leaves and leaflets like those on our own King, upon a single string,' played endlessly stem? It were no mean and paltry idea of upon the millions of similar barrel organs a universe, or meagre scheme of its unity, to that make up the universe ? or is the latter compare its clustered stars to unfading flowsome grandest cathedral organ provided not ers blossoming on the branches of one great merely with 'vox humana,' or Earthly stops, tree. I should liken it to such a monarch of but with unnumbered Phæbus flutes, Mar- the wood as Nebuchadnezzar beheld in his tial trumpets, Aries horns, Serpent clarions, night-dream, or better to such as Ezekiel and pedals touched by the feet of him who saw in waking vision. “A cedar in Lebanon walketh on the wings of the wind ? Under with fair branches, and with a shadowing the vault of heaven it stands a complete or- shroud, and of an high stature ; and his top

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