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bladder over its mouth, how much new air , derful superiority to the cases to be found in will this produce, and has this the quality of medical authors of the same date, than by common air?" We need hardly add, that saying that in expression, in description, in about a hundred years after this, Dr. Black diagnosis, and in treatment, it differs very answered this capital query, and in doing so, little from what we have in our own best works. transformed the whole face of chemistry. After the Earl's death, Locke returned to
We now find that, in contradiction to the England, and seems to have lived partly at generally received account, Wood, who was Exeter House with Lord Shaftesbury, and an Oxford man, and living on the spot, says, partly at Oxford. It was in 1670, at the in his spiteful way, “Mr. Locke, after having latter place, that he sketched the first outgone through the usual courses preparatory line of his immortal Essay, the origin of to practice, entered upon the physic line, and which he has so modestly recorded in his got some business at Oxford.” Nothing can Epistle to the Reader. Dr. Thomas, and be more explicit than this, and more directly most probably Dr. Sydenham, were among opposed to Le Clerc's account of his friend's the “five or six friends who met at my early life, which, it may be remembered, chambers,” and started the idea of that was chiefly derived from notes furnished by work, “which has done more than any
other the second Lord Shaftesbury, whose infor- single work to rectify prejudice, to undermation must necessarily have been at second mine established errors, to diffuse a just or third hand. In 1666, Lord Ashley, af- mode of thinking, to excite a fearless spirit of terward the first Lord Shaftesbury, came to inquiry, and yet to contain it within the bounOxford to drink the water of Astrop; he was daries nature has set to the human faculties. suffering from an abscess in his chest, the If Bacon first discovered the rules by which consequence of a fall from his horse. Dr. knowledge is to be advanced, Locke has Thomas, his lordship's attendant, happening most contributed by precept and example to to be called out of town, sent his friend make mankind at large observe them, and Locke, then practicing there, who examined has thus led to that general diffusion of a into his complaints, and advised the abscess healthful and vigorous understanding, which to be opened ; this was done, and, as the is at once the greatest of all improvements, story goes, his lordship's life was saved. and the instrument by which all other imFrom this circumstance took its origin the provements must be accomplished.” well-known friendship of these two famous About this time Locke seems to have been men. That their connection at first was made a Fellow of the Royal Society. In chiefly that of patient and doctor, is plain 1674 he took the degree of Bachelor of Mefrom the expression, “ He, the Earl, would dicine ; he never was Doctor of Medicine, not suffer him to practice medicine out of his though he generally passed among his friends house, except among some of his particular as Dr. Locke. friends," implying that he was practicing In 1675 he went abroad for his health, when he took him. In 1668, Locke, then in and apparently, also, to pursue his medical his 36th year, accompanied the Earl and studies. He remained for some time at Countess of Northumberland to the Conti- Montpellier, then the most famous of the nent, as their physician. The Ear) died on schools of medicine. He attended the lechis journey to Rome, leaving Locke with the tures of the celebrated Barbyrac, to whose Countess in Paris. When there, he attended teaching Sydenham is understood to have her during a violent attack of what seems to been so much indebted. When there, and have been tic-douloureux, a most interesting during his residence abroad, he kept a diary, account of which, and of the treatment he large extracts from which are for the first adopted, was presented by the late Lord time given by Lord King.* The following King to the London College of Physicians,
* Lord King refers to numerous passages in and was read before them in 1829. We have, Locke's Diaries exclusively devoted to medical subby the great kindness of Dr. Paris, the presi- jects, which he has refrained from publishing, as dent of the College, had access to a copy of unlikely to interest the general public; and Dr. this medical and literary curiosity, which, be- Forster gives us to understand that he has in his sides its own value as a plain, clear statement witty letters to his friend Furley on medicine, his
possession "some ludicrous, sarcastic, and truly of the case, and as an example of simple, original profession;" but which le:ters the doctor skillful treatment, is the best of all proofs declinės giving to the public “in these days of abthat at that time Locke was a regular phy- surd refinement.” We would gladly forswear our sician. We cannot give this case higher Locke considered worth the writing down about praise, or indicate more significantly its won- 1 anything
is likely to be worth the reading.
account of the annual “capping” at Mont. | for the Doctor held his professorship till the pellier is very amusing. "The manner of 10th October 1679, and in November followmaking a Doctor of Physic is this : 1st, a ing, married Rebecca, the daughter of Mr. procession in scarlet robes and black caps— Lucy Knightley of Hackney, à Hamburg the professor took his seat—and after a merchant.' And we know that on the 10th company of fiddlers had played a certain of May that same year, Locke was sent for time, he made them a sign to hold, that he from Paris by Lord Shaftesbury, when his might have an opportunity to entertain the Lordship was made President of Sir Wilcompany, which he did in a speech against liam Temple's Council, half a year after innovations—the musicians then took their which they were both exiles in Holland. As turn. The Inceptor or candidate, then be we have already said, there is something gan his speech, wherein I found little edifi- very characteristic in this jocular, pawky, cation, being chiefly complimentary to the affectionate letter. chancellor and professcrs, who were present. There can be little doubt from this, that The Doctor then put on his head the cap so late as 1677, when he was 45 years of that had marched in on the beadle's staff, in age, Locke was able and willing to undersign of his doctorship-put a ring upon his take the formal teaching of medicine. finger-girt himself about the loins with a It would not be easy to say how much gold chain-made him sit down beside him mankind would have at once lost and gained --that having taken pains he might now-how much the philosophy of mind would take ease, and kissed and embraced him in have been hindered, and how much that token of the friendship which ought to be of medicine would have been advanced, amongst them."
had John Locke's lungs been as sound as From Montpellier he went to Paris, and his understanding, and had he “stuck to was a diligent student of anatomy under Dr. the physic line, or had his friend Dr. Guenelon, with whom he was afterward so Mapletoft“ looked that way." a little earlier, intimate, when living in exile at Amsterdam. and made Rebecca Knightley his wife two
In June 1667, when in Paris, he wrote years sooner, or had Lord Shaftesbury the following jocular letter to his friend Dr. missed the royal reconcilement and his half Mapletoft, then physic professor at Gresham year's presidency. College. This letter, which is not noticed Medicine would assuredly have gained in any life of Locke that we have seen, is something it still lacks, and now perhaps thus introduced by Dr. Ward : “ Dr. more than ever, had that "friend of yours," Mapletoft did not continue long at Gresham, having thrown the old shoe with due solemand yet longer than he seems to have de- nity and precision at the heads of the happy signed, by a letter to bim, written by the couple, much for their sakes and a little for famous Mr. John Locke, dated from Paris, his own, settled down in that quiet, com22d June 1677, in which is this passage : fortable, baccalaurean habitation, over against • If either absence (which sometimes increas- the entrance into Bishopsgate street, and es our desires) or love (which we see every had thenceforward, in the prime of life, diday produces strange effects in the world) rected the full vigor of that singularly enhave softened you, or disposed you toward lightened, sound, humane, and practical una liking for any of our fine new things, 'tis derstanding, to the exposition, of what Lord but saying so, and I am ready to furnish Grenville so justly calls
, “ the large and difyou, and should be sorry not to be employ- ficult” subject of medicine. What an amount ed; I mention love, for you know I have a of gain to rational and effective medicineparticular interest of my own in it. When what demolition of venerable and mischievyou look that way, nobody will be readier, ous error—what exposition of immediately as you may guess, to throw an old shoe useful truth-what an example for all fuafter you, much for your own sake, and a ture laborers in that vast and perilous field, little for a friend of yours. But were I to of the best method of attaining the best ends, advise, perhaps I should say that the lodg- might not have been expected from him of ings at Gresham College were a quiet and whom it was truly said that “ he knew somecomfortable habitation.' By this passage," thing of everything that could be useful to continues Ward, “it seems probable that mankind !" It is no wonder then, that lookDr. Mapletoft had then some views to mar- ing from the side of medicine, we grudge the riage, and that Mr. Locke was desirous, loss of the Locke “ Physic Lectures, and should it so fall out, to succeed him. But wish that we might, without fable, imagine neither of these events happened at the time, I ourselves in that quaint steep-roofed quadrangle, with its fifteen trees and its diagonal | wherein if men, through prepossession or walks across the green Court; and at eight oscitancy, mistake, they may be convinced o'clock, when the morning sun was falling of their error by unerring nature and matter on the long legs and antennæ of the gilded of fact. What we know of the works of nagrasshoppers, and the mighty hum of awak- ture, especially in the constitution of health ening London was beginning to rise, might and the operations of our own bodies, is only figure to ourselves the great philosopher by the sensible effects, but not by any cerlainstepping briskly through the gate into his ly we can have of the tools she uses, or the lecture-room-his handsome, serious face, ways she works by.” set “in his hood, according to his degree in But we must draw this notice of Locke in the university, as was thought meet for more the character of Doctor to a close. In the order and comeliness sake," and there, twice Philosophical Transactions for 1697, there is every week in the term, deliver the “ solemn an account by him of an odd case of hyperPhysic Lecture,” in the Latin tongue, in trophied nails, which he had seen at La dutiful accordance with the “ agreement tri- Charité when in Paris, and he gives pictures partite, between the mayo commonalty, of the hornlike excrescences, one of them and citizens of London-the wardens and upward of four inches long. The second commonalty of the mystery of mercers, and Lord Shaftesbury, who was Locke's pupil, the lecturers in Gresham House;" and again, and for whom he chose his wife, in a letter six hours later, read the same “ solemn lec- to Furley, who seems to have been suffering ture” we would fancy with more relish and from a relapse of intermittent fever, explains, spirit in the “English tongue," "foras- with great distinctness and good sense, “ Dr. much,” so good Sir Thomas' will goes, “ as Locke's method" of treating this disease with the greater part of the auditory is like to be the Peruvian bark ; adding, “I am satisfied, of such citizens and others as have small that of all medicines, if it be good of its kind, knowledge, or none at all, of the Latin and properly given, it is the most innocent tongue, and for that every man, for his and effectual, whatever bugbear the world health's sake, will desire to have some makes of it, especially the tribe of inferior knowledge of the art of physic.'
physicians, from whom it cuts off so much We have good evidence, from the general | business and gain.” We now conclude our bent and spirit of Locke's mind, and from notices of Locke's medical history, which, some occasional passages in his letters, espe- however imperfect, seem to us to warrant cially those to Dr. Molyneux, that he was our original assertion, with the following fully aware of the condition of medicine at weighty sentence taken from the admirable that time, and of the only way by which it "Fragment on Study” given by Lord King, could be improved. Writing to Dr. Moly- and which was written when Locke was at neux, he says, “I perfectly agree with you his studies at Oxford. It accords nicely concerning general theories—the curse of the with what we have already quoted from Dutime and destructive not less of life than of gald Stewart: science they are for the most part but a sort of waking dream, with which, when “Physic, polity, and prudence are not capable men have warmed their heads, they pass of demonstration, but a man is principally helped into unquestionable truths. This is begin in them, 1, by the history of matter of fact; and, ning at ihe wrong end, men laying the foun- 2, by a sagacity of inquiring into probable causes, dation in their own fancies, and then suiting and effects. Whether a certain course in public
and finding out an analogy in their operations the phenomena of diseases, and the cure of
or private affairs will succeed well-whether them, to these fancies. I wonder, after the pattern Dr. Sydenham has set of a better way, men should return again to this ro- et de courage d'esprit, à pouvoir envisager sans mance way of physic. But I see it is more s'étonner, la Nature dans la multitude innombrable easy and more natural for men to build cas
de ses productions, et à se croire capable de les tles in the air of their own than to surrey well comprendre et de les comparer; il y a une espèce those that are on the ground. Nicely to pour but, que des objets particuliers, et l’un peut
de gout, à les aimer, plus grand que le gout qui n'a observe the history of diseases in all their dire, que l'amour et l'étude de la Nature, suppose changes and circumstances is a work of time, dans l'esprit deux qualités qui paroissent opposées, accurateness, allention, and judgment, * and les grandes vues d'un génie ardent, qui embrasse rhubarb will purge, or quinquina cure an ague, 1 small addition;" and he was right in laying can be known only by experience."*
tout d'un coup-d'ail, et les petites attentions d'un
instinct laborieux, qui ne s'attache qu'à un seul * The eloquent Buffon thus speaks of the gift of point.” Gaubius calls it “masculum illud obserobservation :-" Il y a une espèce de force de génie, / vandi studium veteribus tantopere excultum.”
much of this evil condition to the discontinSYDENHAM, the prince of practical physi- uance of “the ancient and serious diligence cians, whose character is as beautiful and of Hippocrates." This serious diligence, as genuinely English as his name, did for his this dxpresia or nicety of observation, by art what Locke did for the philosophy of which the “divine old man of Cos” achieved mind-he made it, in the main, observation- so much, was Sydenham's master principle al; he made knowledge a means, not an end. in practice and in speculation. He proclaimIt would not be easy to over-estimate our ed it anew, and displayed in his own case its obligations as a nation to these two men, in certain and inestimable fruits. regard to all that is involved in health of It appears to us one of the most interestbody and soundness of mind. They were ing, as it is certainly one of the most difficult among the first in their respective depart. and neglected departments of medical literaments to show their faith in the inductive ture, to endeavor to trace the progress of method, by their works. They both pro- medicine as a practical art, with its rules fessed to be more of guides than critics, and and instruments, as distinguished from its were the interpreters and servants of nature, consolidation into a systematic science with not her diviners and tormentors. They its doctrines and laws, and to make out how pointed out a way, and walked in it; they far these two, which conjoined, form the taught a method, and used it, rather than philosophy of the subject, have or have not announced a system or a discovery; they harmonized with, and been helpful to each collected and arranged their risa before set other, at different periods of their histories. tling their cogitata, a mean-spirited proceed Much might be done to make such an ining, doubtless, in the eyes of the prevailing quiry instructive and attractive, by marking dealers in hypotheses, being in reality the out the history of medicine into three or four exact reverse of their philosophy. How cu- great epochs, and taking, as representative rious, how humbling, to think that it was not of each, some one distinguished artsman or till this time, that men in search of truth practitioner, as well as teacher or discoverer. were brought to see that “it is not the in. We might have Hippocrates and his epoch, Sysufficiency or incapacity of man's mind, but denham and his John Hunter, Pinel, and Lænthe "remote standing or placing thereof, that nec and theirs. These great men differed cerbreedeth mazes and incompreliensions ; for tainly widely enough in character and in ciras the sense afar off is full of mistaking, but cumstances, but all agreed in this, their possessis exact at hand, so is it of the understand- ing in large measure, and of rare quality, ing, the remedy whereof is not lo quicken or
that native sagacity, that power of serious, strengthen the organ, but to go nearer to the choice, patient, continuous, honest observaobjeci.” Well might the noble author even tion, which is at once a gift and a habit ; now say, as he does in the context-(he is that instinct for seeking and finding, which treating of medicine)" Medicine is a science Bacon calls “experientia literala, sagacilas which hath been more professed than labor- potius et odoratio quædam renarica, quam ed, more labored than advanced, the labor srientia ;" that general strength and soundbeing in my judgment more in a circle than ness of understanding, and that knack of bein progression : I find much iteration, but ing able to apply their knowledge, instantly
and aright, in practice, which must ever con* Dr. Thomas Young puts this very powerfully stitute the cardinal virtues of a great physiin the preface to his “ Introduction to Medical Lit- cian, the very pith and marrow of his worth. erature.” * There is, in fact, no study more difficult than that of physic: it exceeds, as a science, fear there survives in the profession little
Of the two first of these famous men, we the comprehension of the human mind; and those who blunder onward, without attempting to under
more than the names; and we receive from stand what they see, are often nearly on a level them, and are made wiser and þetter by inwith those who depend too much on imperfect gen. heriting their treasures of honest and exquiseralizations." "Some departments of knowledge ite observation, of judicious experience, withdefy all attempts to subject them to any didactic method, and require the exercise of a peculiar ad- out, we fear, knowing or caring much from dress, a judgment, or a taste which can only be form- whom it has come. “ One man soweth, and ed by indirect means. It appears that physic is one another reapeth.” The young forget the of those departments in which there is frequent ne old, the children their fathers; and we are cessity for the exercise of an incommunicable facul; all too apt to reverse the saying of the wise transcendental, as extending beyond the simple com- king,—"I praised the dead that are already bination of all that can be taught by precept.” dead, more than the living that are yet alive.” As we are not sufficiently conscious of, so we you cannot make over to him your own assuredly are not adequately grateful for that knack as a dead-shot, or make him keep his accumulated volume of knowledge, that body seat over a rasping fence. He must win of practical truth, which comes down as a these for himself as you have done before gift to each one of us from six thousand him. Thus it is that much of the best of a years of human endeavor, and which, like a man like Sydenham, dies with him. mighty river, is moving forever onward - It is very different with them who frewidening, deepening, strengthening, as it quent the field of scientific discovery. Here goes ; for the right administration and use of matters are reversed. No man, for instance, whose untold energies and wealth, we, to in teaching anatomy or physiology, as he whom it has thus far descended, are respon- comes to enounce each new subordinate dissible to Him from whom it comes, and to covery, can fail to unfold and to enhance the whose feet it is hastening-responsible to ever-increasing renown, of that keen black-aan extent we are too apt to forget
, or to un- vic'd little man, with bis piercing eye, “small derrate. We should not content ourselves and dark, and so full of spirit ;" his compact with sailing victoriously down the stream, broad forehead, his self-contained perempor with considering our own portion of tory air, his dagger at his side, and his finit merely; we should go up the country gers playing with its hilt, to whom we owe oftener than we do, and see where the the little book, “ De molu cordis el sanguinis mighty feeders come in, and learn and circulatione.” This primary, capital discovnot forget their names, and note how ery, which no succeeding one can ever sumuch larger, how much powerfuller the persede or obscure, he could leave consumstream is after they have joined it. It is the mate to mankind; but he could not so leave lot of the successful medical practitioner the secret of his making it; he could not who is more occupied with discerning dis- transmit that combination of original genius, eases and curing them, than with discoursing invention, exactness, perseverance, and judgabout their essence, and arranging them into ment, which enabled him, and can alone ensystems, who observes and reflects in order able any man to make any such permanent to act, rather than to speak,—it is the lot addition to the amount of scientific truth. of such men to be invaluable when alive, and But what fitted Harvey for what he achievto be forgotten soon after they are dead, and ed, greatly unfitted him for such excellence this not altogether or chiefly from any in practice as Sydenham attained. He bespecial ingratitude or injustice on the part of longed to the science more than to the art. mankind, but from the very nature of the His friend Aubrey says of him, that “though case. Much that made such a man what all his profession would allow him to be an the community, to their highest profit, found excellent anatomist, I have never heard of him to be, dies with him. His inborn gifts, and any who admired his therapeutic way.” A much of what was most valuable in his ex- mind of his substance and mettle, speculaperience, were necessarily incommunicable tive and arbitrary, passing rapidly and pasto others, this depending much on his for- sionately from the particular to the general, getting the process by which, in particular from multitude to unity, with, moreover, a cases, he made up his mind, and its minute fiery temper and an extemporaneous dagger successive steps, from his eagerness to pos- as its sting, was not likely to take kindly to sess and put in action the result, and much the details of practice, or make a very usefrom his being confident in the general ful or desirable family doctor. Sydenham soundness of his method, and caring little again, though his works everywhere maniabout formally recording to himself his tran- fest that he was gifted with a large capacity sient mental conditions, much less announc. and keen relish for abstract truth, moved ing them articulately to others ;-but main- habitually and by preference in the lower, ly, we believe, because no man can explain but at the time the usefuller sphere of directly to another man how he does any one everyday practice, speculating chiefly in orpractical thing, the doing of which he him- der to act, reducing his generalizations back self has accomplished, not at once, or by im- to particulars, so as to answer some immeitation, or by teaching, but by repeated per- diate instance, the result of which was the sonal trials, by missing much before ultimate- signallest success of “his therapeutic way." ly hitting. You may be able to expound We have had in our own day two similar excellently to your son the doctrine of pro- examples of the man of science and the man jectiles, or read him a course of lectures of art ; the one Sir Charles Bell—like Harupon the principles of horsemanship, but | vey, the explorer, the discoverer, the man of