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such as to make even defeat itself honorable. I of their neighbors ; unlike other tribes, they culBut we are anticipating. Let us return to tivated the ground, and remained stationary. that period when the white intruder, of what- Three miles from Hochelaga, there was a lofty ever nation, was a stranger in the home of Cartier bent his way after having examined the
hill, well tilled, and very fertile; thither Jacques the native Canadian,
town. From the summit he saw the river and
the country for thirty leagues around, a scene of “ The chief Donnacona and the French contin- singular beauty. To this hill he gave the name ued in friendly intercourse, day by day exchanging of Mont Royal, since extended to the large and good offices and tokens of regard. But Jacques fertile island on which it stands, and to the city Cartier was eager for further discoveries : 'the below. Time has now swept away all trace of two Indian interpreters told him that a city of Hochelaga : on its site the modern capital of Canmuch larger size than Stadacona lay further up ada has arisen; 50,000 people of European race, the river, the capital of a great country : it was
and stately buildings of carved stone, replace the called in the native tongue Hochelaga ; thither simple, Indians and the huts of the ancient he resolved to find his way. The Indians endeay. towns.”—vol. i. p. 58. ored vainly to dissuade their dangerous guests from this expedition ; they represented the dis- The destruction of the ancient town, howtance, the lateness of the season, the danger of ever, does not lie at the door of the French the great lakes and rapid currents; at length settlers. In fact, the tale of its ruin is unthey had recourse to a kind of masquerade or pan. known. After a time it vanishes from history tomime, to represent the perils of the voyage, and the ferocity of the tribes inhabiting that distant for a while, and then, when inquired after, is
without remark. It ceases to be mentioned suade Jacques Cartier from proceeding on his en- found no longer in existence. terprise, and one of them refused to accompany Jacques Cartier returned safe to France, him. The brave Frenchman would not hearken carrying with him the chief Donnacona, whom to such dissuasions, and treated with equal con- he had treacherously entrapped, having untempt the verbal and pantomimic warnings of the justly suspected him of sinister designs. The alleged difficulties. As a precautionary measure, to impress the savages with an exalted'idea of his prisoner was, however, soon reconciled to his power as a friend or foe, he caused twelve cannon, fate by the kind treatment and great disloaded with bullets, to be fired in their presence tinction which he experienced. But his death against a wood : amazed and terrified at the noise, in France raised suspicions in the minds of and the effect of this discharge, they fled howling his countrymen, which, though carefully conand shrieking away., Jacques Cartier sailed for cealed, destroyed for ever their confidence in Hochelaga on the 19th of September.
The the French. voyage presented few of the threatened difficul
To trace the fortunes of the French adties; the country on both sides of the Great River was rich and varied, covered with stately timber, venturers and the colony which they foundand abounding in vines.
The place ed, from the departure of Jacques Cartier on where the French first landed was, probably, his first voyage, to the capture of Quebec about eleven miles from the city of Hochelaga, by the British in 1629, would be a tedious below the rapid of St. Mary. On the day after and unprofitable task. Such narratives lose his arrival Jacques Cartier proceeded to the town. all interest when stripped of their details
. .: The road was well beaten, and bore evidence It is painful as well as tiresome to read of a of being much frequented; the country through which it passed was exceedingly rich and fertile. series of mistakes and mishaps, of domestic Hochelaga stood in the midst of great fields of In- quarrels, party contests, and petty wars, dian corn; it was of a circular form, containing when deprived of those striking facts and about fifty large huts, each fifty paces long, and heroic exploits which alone render such subfrom fourteen to fifteen wide, all built in the shape jects bearable. This portion of his work has of tunnels, formed of wood, and covered with been admirably executed by the author. He birch bark; the dwellings were divided into sev- has indeed contrived to throw a charm over eral rooms, surrounding an open court in the cen- the incidents of a border struggle, and to tre, where the fires burned. Three rows of palisades encircled the town, with only one entrance ; give a wholesome interest to the minutiæ of above the gate, and over the whole length of the a court intrigue. One circumstance strikes outer ring of defence, there was a gallery, ap- us as worthy of remark. The French Huproached by flights of steps, and plentifully pro- guenots were anxious to have made Canada vided with stones, and other missiles, to resist at their refuge, but their intention was frustack. This was a place of considerable impor- trated by the jealousy of Romanism. It were tance in those remote days, as the capital of a great extent of country, and as having eight or
vain as endless to speculate on the possible ten villages subject to its sway. The inhabitants consequences of this desire, had it been carspoke the language of the great Huron nation, ried out. and were more advanced in civilization than any But let us return to our narrative :
“When the French received the news of the history of the British settlements, and then loss of Canada, opinion was much divided as to takes up the thread of his narrative again, the wisdom of seeking to regain the captured settlement. Some thought its possession of little
saying :value in proportion to the expense it caused; while others deemed that the fur-trade and fish- “Having noticed the principal features of the eries were of great importance to the commerce origin and progress of the English colonies, the of France, as well as a useful nursery of ex. powerful and dangerous neighbors of the French perienced seamen. Champlain strongly urged settlement, in the New World, it is now time to the government not to give up a country where return to the course of Canadian history subsethey had already overcome the principal difficulties quent to the death of the illustrious founder of of settlement, and where, through their means, Quebec." the light of religion was dawning upon the darkness of heathen ignorance. His solicitations Long and fierce was the struggle between were successful
, and Canada was restored to the rival nations, imbittered by hereditary France at the same time with Acadia and Cape animosity, and sharpened by the love of gain Breton, by the treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye. At this period,” proceeds our author, “ the fort of accession of Indian allies on either side gave
as well as that of glory and power. The Quebec, surrounded by a score of hastily-built dwellings and barracks, some poor huts on the
a ferocity to the warfare hitherto unknown island of Montreal, the like at Three Rivers and in the contest waged between England and Tadoussac, and a few fishermen's log-houses else- France—a ferocity which spread from the where on the banks of the St. Lawrence, were barbarians to the colonists, and even inthe only fruits of the discoveries of Verazzano, fected the European commanders. Much Jacques Cartier, Roberval, and Champlain, the was the suffering inflicted, many were the great outlay of La Roche and De Monts, and the toils and sufferings of their followers, for nearly atrocities perpetrated on either side ; and it a century.”—p. 99.
was a happy result for both peoples which
terminated the internecine hostility of New We have no space to afford a due eulogium France and New England by placing them to the great and good Champlain, who both under British rule. Strange that the stamped the first permanent impression upon victory which gave us the one deprived us New France. His name will ever be grate of the other-strange that the success of fully remembered in the land of his adoption, Wolfe laid the foundation of the defeat of and honored by all good men throughout England—strange that the overthrow of the world. He died in December, 1635.* Montcalm prepared the way for the triumph And now commences the regular history of of France! That such, however, was the Canada, and here the author pauses to re- case, there can be no doubt. Let us, howview the character and condition of the
ever, proceed. country when it became the abode of a race of European extraction. His account of the
By the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, Louis the physical phenomena, general appearance, Magnificent ceded away for ever, with ignorant and natural productions of the country, with indifference, the noble province of Acadia, the the manners and customs of its inhabitants, inexhaustible fisheries of Newfoundland, and his is extremely entertaining, though to some of claims to the vast but almost unknown regions of our readers portions will probably be al- Hudson's Bay ; his nominal sovereignty over the
Iroquois was also thrown into the scale, and thus ready familiar, and some of the results a dearly purchased peace restored comparative arrived at . may perhaps admit of question. tranquillity to the remnant of his American emThere is, however, a racy vigor and a rude pire.”—vol. ii. p. 13. eloquence in this part of the work which well accord with the subject. After occupy- More than thirty years afterward the then ing five chapters with these interesting sub-Governor of Canadajects, our author devotes three more to the
“ The Comte de la Gallisonière proposed that * In the same month, to the deep regret of all Monsieur du Quesne, a skillful engineer, should good men, death deprived his country of the brave, be appointed to establish a line of fortifications in the city of which he was the founder ; where, to through the interior of the country,
and at the this day, he is fondly and gratefully remembered
same time urged the Government of France to among the just and good. Gifted with high ability, send out 10,000 peasants to form settlements on upright, active, and chivalrous, he was at the same
the banks of the great lakes and southern rivers. time eminent for his Christian zeal and humble By these means he affirmed that the English piety. “ The salvation of one soul,” he often said, colonies would be restricted within the narrow is of more value than the conquest of an empire." tract lying eastward from the Alleghany Moun.
tains, and in time laid open to invasion and ruin.
His advice was, however, disregarded, and the army in Germany, and, casting aside the hampersplendid province of Canada soon passed for ever ing formalities of military rule, promoted him to from under the sway of France."-vol. ii. p. 25. the rank of Major-general, and the command of
“ In the year 1750, commissioners met at Paris the troops destined for the attack of Louisburgh. to adjust the various boundaries of the North At the same time, from the British Navy's brilAmerican territories. . . . The English commis- liant roll the minister selected the Hon. Edward sioners, however, soon perceived that there was Boscawen as a Imiral of the fleet, and gave him little chance of arriving at a friendly arrangement. also, till the arrival of General Amherst, the The more they advanced in their offers, the more unusual commission of command over the land the French demanded; futile objections were forces. With vigorous zeal the equipments were started, and unnecessary delays continued: at hurried on, and, on the 19th of February, a maglength Mr. Shirley and his colleague broke up the nificent armament sailed from Portsmouth for the conference, and returned to England. It now be- harbor of Halifax on the Acadian peninsula. The came evident that a decisive struggle was at general was delayed by contrary winds, and did hand.”-vol. ii. p. 33.
not reach Halifax till the 28th of May, where he
met Boscawen's fleet coming out of the harbor ; 17 After a long and doubtful contest, in the admiral, impatient of delay, having put all which success alternated between the rival the force in motion, with the exception of a powers, the scale became turned completely corps 1600 strong, left to guard the post. No in favor of France, till at length the genius less than twenty-two ships of the line and fifteen of Montcalm and the inefficiency of his frigates, with 120 smaller vessels, sailed under antagonists seemed likely to subjugate the his flag, and fourteen battalions of infantry with whole continent to the sway of the house exclusively British regulars, were embarked to
artillery and engineers, in all 11,600, almost of Bourbon. It was not until the great form the army of General Amherst. The troops Earl of Chatham was securely established were told off in three brigades of nearly equal as Prime Minister of England that success strength, under the Brigadier-generals Whitmore, once more attended the arms of our country- Lawrence, and James Wolfe.”—vol. ii. pp. 133
“ This illustrious man knew no party but the We have already given so many extracts British nation, acknowledged no other interest. from the earlier portions of the work, that To exalt the power and prosperity of his country the limits which we have assigned to this and to humble France was his sole aim and ob- article prevent us from giving any lengthenect. Personally disagreeable to the highest ed account of the operations which ended in power in the state, and from many causes regarded with hostility by the several aristocratic the conquest of Canada, and the final triumph confederacies, it needed the almost unanimous of the Anglo-Saxon race on the North Amervoice of his countrymen, and the acknowledged ican continent. Dangers and difficulties of confidence of those powerful men whose favor the most appalling description were overhe neither possessed nor desired, to sweep away powered by the skill and courage of Amherst those formidable difficulties, and give to England and Wolfe“; nor did the genius and valor of in the hour of need the services of her greatest Montcalm, or the inefficiency of their own son.
“For the remainder of the campaign of 1757, coadjutors, prevent the triumph which their however, the energy and wisdom of Pitt were too supereminent merit forced from the hands late brought to the council, and the ill-conducted of the gallant enemy. schemes of his predecessors bore, as has been The first exploit of the English was the shown, the bitter fruit of disaster and disgrace. capture of Louisburgh, bravely defended by But no sooner was he firmly established in office, Drucour. The account of the siege is most and his plans put in execution, than the British cause began to revive in the western hemisphere, spirited and graphic. We have only room and, although still chequered with defeat, glory for the concluding observations. and success rewarded his gigantic efforts. He at once determined to renew the expedition against “ In those days the taking of Louisburgh was Cape Breton, and, warned by previous failures, a mighty triumph for the British arms: a place of urged upon the king the necessity of removing considerable strength, defended with skill and both the naval and military officers who had courage, fully manned and aided by a powerful hitherto conducted the operations. With that fleet, had been bravely won ; 5000 men, soldiers, admirable perception, which is one of the most sailors, and mariners, were prisoners; eleven useful faculties of superior minds, he readily dis ships of war taken or destroyed, 240 pieces of cerned in others the qualities requisite for his ordnance, 15,000 stand of arms, and a great purpose, -his judgment ever unwarped, and his amount of ammunition, provisions and military keen vision unclouded by personal or political stores, had fallen into the hands of the victors, considerations. In Colone: Amherst he had dis- and eleven stand of colors were laid at the feet of co ered sound sense, steady courage, and an act- the British sovereign; they were afterward solive genius; he, therefore, recalled him from the en nly deposited in St. Paul's Cathedral.
“ But, while the wisdom and zeal of Amherst, balance of humanity is strongly on the side and the daring skill of Wolfe excite the gratitude of the English, and no charge of bad faith and admiration of their countrymen, it must not be can be brought against our countrymen. forgotten that causes beyond the power and patriocism of man mainly influenced this great event. The brave admiral doubted the practicability of
“The general's active care could not protect the first landing. Amherst hesitated, and the chi- the frontier settlers from the atrocious cruelties valrous Wolfe himself, as he neared the awful of the French and Indians; although scouting surf, staggered in his resolution, and, purposing parties were constantly moving through the forto defer the enterprise, waved his hat for the boats ests, the subtle and ferocious enemy eluded their to retire. Three young subaltern officers, how- vigilance, and scalped men, women, and children, ever, commanding the leading craft, pushed on
without mercy. 'l'hese outrages gave rise to the ashore, having mistaken the signal for what their following order by Amherst, which he found stout hearts desired, the order to advance ; some means to forward to the governor of Canada and of their men, as they sprung upon the beach, his general :were dragged back by the receding surge and
No scouting party, or others in the army, are drowned, but the remainder climbed up the rugged to scalp women or children belonging to the enerocks, and formed upon the summit. The briga- my. They are, if possible, to take them prisoners, dier then cheered on the rest of the divisions to but not to injure them on any account, the general the support of this gallant few, and thus the al being determined, should the enemy continue to most desperate landing was accomplished.
murder and scalp women and children who are “Nor 'should due record be omitted of that the subjects of the King of Great Britain, to rewhich enhances the glory of the conquerors, and venge it by the death of two men of the enemy the merit of the conquered. To defend the whole for every woman or child murdered by them." line of coast with his garrison was impossible ;
• It were a needless pain to dwell upon the for nearly eight miles, however, the energetic cruelties of this bloody war. Drucour had thrown up a chain of works, and oc
must bear their share, although not an equal share, cupied salient points with troops. And when, at
of the deep disgrace. The contending parties length, the besiegers effected landing, he still readily acquired the tiendish ingenuity in torture left no means untried to uphold the honor of his of their Indian allies; the Frenchman soon beflag. Hope of relief or succor there was none; came as expert as his Red teacher in tearing the beyond the waters of the bay the sea was white scalp from a prostrate enemy; and even the Britwith the sails of the hostile fleet. Around him ish soldier counted those odious trophies with on every side the long red line of the British in unnatural triumph.
In the exterminating strife, fantry closed in from day to day. His light troops the thirst of blood became strong and deep, and were swept from the neighboring woods ; his was slaked, not only in the lite-streams of the sallies were interrupted or overwhelmed; well armed foe, but in that of the aged, the maimed, armed batteries were pushed up to the very ram
the helpless woman, and the innocent child. The parts; a murderous fire of musketry struck down peaceful hamlet and the smiling corn-field excited his gunners at their work; tbree gaping breaches hostile fury alike with the camp, the intrenchlay open to the assailants; his best ships burned ment, and the fort, and shared in their destruction or taken; his officers and men worn with fatigue when the defenders were overpowered. Yet, still and watching; four-fifths of his artillery disabled; over these murdered corpses and scenes of useless then, and not till then, did the brave Frenchman desolation the spotless tiag of France and the Red give up the trust which he had nobly and faith Cross of St. George waved in alternate triumph, fully held. To the honor of the garrison, not a proudly and remorselessly, by their symbolic presman deserted his colors, through all the dangers,
ence sanctioning the disgraceful strife.”-vol. ii. privations, and hardships of the siege, with the p. 241. exception of a few Germans, who served as unwilling conscripts. This spirited defence was in It is with pleasure that we leave this painso far successtul, that it occupied the bulk of the ful subject to give some of the outlines of British force, while Abercromby was being crush that great achievement which forms the clied by the superior genius and power of Mont
max of the interesting narrative before uscalm; by thus delaying for seven weeks the progress of the campaign, the season became too far great in every sense, whether we consider advanced for further operations, and the final the chivalrous commander and his gallant catastrophe of French American dominion was army, or the mighty results which have deferred for another year.”—vol. ii, pp. 140-143. thence arisen. Well might the great minis
ter pour forth the full tide of his overwhelm· In the spring of 1759 every preparation ing eloquence as he spoke of "the horror of was made by the British to ensure the entire the night, the precipice scaled by Wolfe, the conquest of Canada, which had now become empire he with a handful of men had added the darling object both of the Minister and to England, and the glorious catastrophe of the nation. It is painful to look back on the contentedly terminaling his life when his cruelties perpetrated throughout this war by fame began.” Well might he declare that both the parties engaged in it, though the "ancient story may be ransacked, and oster
• No pity
tatious philosophy thrown into the account , from flank to flank of the assailing battalions rollbefore an episode can be found to rank with ed a murderous and incessant fire. The 35th and Wolfe's.”
the Grenadiers fell fast. Wolfe, at the head of The whole wondrous narrative is here told the 28th, was struck on the wrist, but not disabled. in a manner to give full effect to every inci- hastened from one rank to another, exhorting the
Wrapping a handkerchief round the wound, he dent. It is like some mighty picture, so true men to be steady and to reserve their fire. No to life and nature, that we see the shades of English soldier pulled a trigger ; with matchless night gathering, we hear the almost silent endurance they sustained the trial
. Not a complash of the stealthy oar, we mark the troops pany wavered their arms shouldered, as if on as one by one they gain the rough ascent, we parade, and motionless, save when they closed up see the terrified courier as he scuds over the
the ghastly gaps, they waited the word of com
mand. When the head of the French attack had plains of Abraham, and gives the deadly in- reached within forty yards, Wolfe
gave the order telligence to the brave, the talented, the to fire. At once the long row of muskets was merciless Montcalm. For a moment we leveled, and a volley distinct as a single shot share in his concealed distress, till the mem- flashed from the British line. For a moment the ory of the many atrocities which he encour-advancing columns still pressed on, shivering like aged or permitted removes all sympathy pennons in the fatal storm; but a few paces told
how terrible had been the force of the long-susfrom our minds, and we exclaim,
Numbers of the French soldiers
pended blow. for the pitiless
reeled and fell; some staggered on for a little, It would seem as if Montcalm had for the then dropped silently aside to die; others burst moment been preternaturally urged upon his from the ranks shrieking in agony. The Brigadestruction. Once, and once only, in a dier de St. Ours was struck dead, and De Senesuccessful and illustrious career, did this gal- zergues, the second in command, was left mortally
When the breeze carried lant Frenchman forget his wisdom and mili- wounded on the field. tary skill; but that one tremendous error led away the dense clouds of smoke, the assailing
battalions stood reduced to mere groups among him to defeat and death.” Had he remained the bodies of the slain. Never before or since within the shelter of the fortifications of Que- has a deadlier volley burst from British infantry. bec, winter would soon have forced the Eng- Montcalm commanded the attack in person. Not lish to retire from before its walls, for Wolfe's fifteen minutes had elapsed since he had first force was (without the assistance of Amherst, moved on his line of battle, and already all was who was still far distant) quite unequal to
lost. The Canadian militia, with scarcely an exreducing the city so strongly garrisoned and ception, broke and fled. The right wing, which
had recoiled before Townshend and Howe, was defended, especially in the brief interval be- overpowered by a counter attack of the 68th and fore the severe season set in. In this case
78th : his veteran battalions of Berne and Guienne the fall of Quebec must have been delayed were shattered before his eyes under the British till next year; and in the meanwhile a change fire; on the left the royal Rousillon was shrunk might have occurred in European affairs, or
to a mere skeleton, and deserted by their provinFrance might have been enabled to send ef- cial allies, could hardly retain the semblance of a ficient succors. Despite of all these consid- ruined, was not dismayed: he rode through the
formation. But the gallant Frenchinan, though erations, and after having only a short time broken ranks, cheered them with his voice, enbefore recorded his deliberate opinion that couraged them by his dauntless bearing, and, aidhe could not face the British army in a gen-ed by a small redoubt, succeeded in once again eral engagement, he now on an open plain, presenting a front to the enemy. without waiting even for his artillery, led “ Meanwhile Wolfe's troops had reloaded. He his troops, a great portion of which consisted seized the opportunity of the hesitation in the
hostile ranks, and ordered the whole British line of the rude Canadian Militia, against the
to advance. At first they moved with majestic veterans of England. We extract a few pas- regularity, receiving and paying back with deadly sages describing the results.
After some interest the volleys of the French. But soon movements on both sides :
the ardor of the soldiers broke through the re
straint of discipline, and they increased their pace “The whole of the French centre and left, with to a run, rushing over the dying and the dead, loud shouts and arms at the recover, now bore and sweeping the living enemy off their path . : down to the attack. Their right troops then
Just now Wolfe was a second ceased tiring, and passed to the rear. As the time wounded in the body, but he dissembled his view cleared, their long unbroken lines were seen sufferings, for his duty was not yet accomplished; rapidly approaching Wolfe's position. When again a ball from the redoubt struck him on the they reached within 150 yards, they advanced ob- breast: he reeled on one side, but at the moment liquely from the left of each formation, so that the this was not generally observed. •Support me,' lines assumed the appearance of columns, and said he to a grenadier officer close at hand, that chietly threatened the British right. And now my brave fellows may not see me fall.' In a few