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culiar experience and knowledge of society have stroyed her fortune, while the troubles in Sarafforded her, added to the happiest naturel that dinia shattered that of her husband. Then ever fell to human portion, render her exquisite came the necessity of returning to her former voice and talent, both still in undiminished perfection, by no means her chief attraction in society. way of life. She had, fortunately for herMadame Rossi could afford to lose her voice to self, continued to cultivate music as an art, morrow, and would be equally sought. True to and can, probably, at this moment, sing as her nation, she has combined all the Liebenswür- well as at any period of her life. digkeit of a German with the witchery of every which have passed by have detracted little other land. Madame Rossi's biography is one of from her personal appearance. She is still a great interest and instruction, and, it is to be fine, handsome woman, with a figure less hoped, will one day appear before the public. It is not generally known that she was ennobled by the buoyant and agile, perhaps, than when, at King of Prussia, under the title of Mademoiselle nineteen, she first made her appearance in de Lauenstein ; and, since absolute will, it seems, England ; but she is not less able, but rather, can bestow the past, as well as the present and perhaps, more, to give full efficacy to imfuture, with seven 'ahnerrn, or forefathersor passioned singing, and stir the deeper emoeight,' said the Countess, laughing, “but I can't tions of the heart. remember ;' and, though never disowning the popular name of Sontag, yet, in respect for the donor, events of Prussia should have deprived her
We regret, of course, that the political her visiting cards, when she appears in Prussia, of the property amassed in her early years. are always printed Néé de Lauenstein. We were greatly privileged in the enjoyment of her rich
But all the occurrences of our lives carry and flexible notes in our private circle, and, under along with them a compensating power, so her auspices, an amateur concert was now pro- that our very sufferings are often made profitposed for the benefit of the poor in Revel. able to us. We trust it may be so with
“The rehearsals were merry meetings; and Mademoiselle Sontag, whose reception on when our own bawling was over, Madame Rossi her return to London must have been in the went through her songs as scrupulously as the highest degree gratifying to her. Even after rest. I will never forget the impression she excited one evening. We were all united in the
the sensation produced
by the extraordinary great ball-room of the governor's castle at Revel, singing of Jenny Lind, she found it no way which was partially illuminated for the occasion, impossible to inspire the public with enthuand having wound up our last noisy • Tourna- siasm, though various feelings combined to ment,' we all retreated to distant parts of the salle, render her reappearance memorable. Of leaving the Countess to rehearse the celebrated
the crowds who had beheld her on her first Scena from the Freischutz with the instrumental parts. She was seated in the midst, and coin
appearance, many, perhaps most, had gone pletely hidden by the figures and desks around her. the way of all living, yet thousands remained And now arose a train of melody and expression to institute a comparison between her former which it thrills every nerve to recall; the interest and her later efforts; and among these the and pathos creeping gradually on through every general impression is, that she has gained division of this most noble and passionate of songs rather than lost by her long retreat from -the gloomy light—the invisible songstress-all public life. Her voice, perhaps, has not that combining to increase the effect, till the feeling became too intense to bear. And then the hum in the
exquisite buoyancy which youth bestows, distance, and the husky voice of suppressed agony
but it has a more searching power, and richer whilst doubt possessed her soul. chilled the blood and mellower tones, produced by the softin our veins, and the final burst 'er ists, er ists, ening influence of time. was one of agony to the audience. Tears, real She has improved also as much in art as tears, ran down cheeks both fair and rough, who though she had been almost all the while knew not and cared not that they were there; and not until the excitement had subsided did I feel tinue to excite as much admiration as any
upon the stage, and consequently will conthat my wrist had been clenched in so convulsive a grasp by my neighbor, as to retain marks living singer. It may not be necessary for long after the siren had ceased. I have heard her to desire a protracted continuance of pubSchröder and Malibran, both grand and true in lic favor, because her object, we believe, is this composition, but neither searched the depths merely to repair the losses she has sustained of its passionate tones, and with it the hearts of by the failure of banks and commercial the audience, so completely as the matchless houses in Germany, after which she will reMadame Rossi."
tire once more to the quiet of domestic life, But now came a reverse of fortune. After
never to‘appear again before the public. For enjoying for many years the sort of happi- ourselves, we wish this day may be far disness which is to be tasted by getting up tant; though, at the same time, it would afamateur concerts, and private imitations of ford us pleasure to learn that she had been the opera, the revolutions of Germany de- fortunate in her professional undertakings,
From the English Review.
THE CONQUEST OF CANADA.
The Conquest of Canada. By the Author of “Hochelaga.” In 2 vols. 8vo.
London : Bentley, 1849.
Those who are already acquainted with, of Columbus, and supplied the means for the ex
Hochelaga” will welcome with pleasure a pedition. work by the same author on the same soil ;
Henry VII. was not discouraged by this disapand we can confidently assure them that
pointment : two years after the discoveries of Co. any
lumbus became known in England, the king enterpleasurable anticipations which they may ! ed into an arrangement with John Cabot, an adven, form will be fully realized by a perusal of turous Venetian merchant, resident at Bristol, and the volumes now before us. They embrace, on the 5th of March, 1495, granted him letters indeed, not merely the last struggle between | patent for conquest and discovery. Henry stipuFrance and England for the possession of lated that one-fifth of the gains in this enterprise those vast and interesting territories which
was to be retained for the crown, and that the lie between the great lake-chain and the vessels engaged in it should return to the port of Northern Ocean, but contain a full history of covered the coast of Labrador, and gave it the
Bristol. On the 24th of June, 1497, Cabot disCanada, from its first discovery to its final
name of Primarista. reduction by the arms of Britain, and convey much information regarding the natural pro- “ A large island lay opposite this shore: from ductions of the country, and the customs of the vast quantity of fish frequenting the neighits aboriginal inhabitants. The author has boring waters, the sailors called it Bacallaos ; Cabct employed great research, and gives the re
gave this country the name of St. John's, having sult in a very attractive form : his style is has long since superseded both appellations. John
landed there on St. John's day. Newfoundland eloquent, his narrative lucid ; and we gener- Cabot returned to England in August of the same ally, though not universally, coincide in his year, and was knighted, and otherwise rewarded views. llaving said thus much by way by the king; he survived but a very short time in of prelude, we proceed to our vocation, with the enjoyment of his fame, and his son Sebastian the certainty of gratifying ourselves, and the Cabot, although only twenty-three years of age,
succeeded hiin in the command of an expedition hope that we shall gratify our readers, by a
destined to seek a north-west passage to the rapid sketch of “ The Conquest of Canada.” South Seas.
After a very interesting account of all the “ Sebastian Cabot sailed in the summer of speculations of the ancients regarding the 1498 ; he soon reached Newfoundland, and existence of the Western World, and of those thence proceeded north as far as the fifty-eighth voyages of discovery, either real or imaginary, degree. Having failed in discovering the hoped-which preceded the exploit of the great Ge
he returned toward the south, examnoese, Mr. Warburton briefly, but strikingly, ining the coast as far as the southern boundary of touches on the career of Columbus, and interval, the enterprising mariner again, in 1517,
Maryland, and perhaps Virginia. After a long then proceeds
sailed for America, and entered the bay which a
century afterward received the name of Hudson. " It was by accident only that England had If prior discovery confer a right of possession, been deprived of these great discoveries. Colum- there is no doubt that the whole eastern coast of bus, when repulsed by the courts of Portugal the North American continent may be justly and Spain, sent bis brother Bartholomew to Lon- claimed by the English race. don, to lay his projects before Henry VII., and · Gasper. Cortereal was the next voyager in seek assistance for their execution. The king, the succession of discoverers; he had been brought although the inost penurious of European princes, up in the household of the King of Portugal, but saw the vast advantage of the offer, and inviteu nourished an ardent spirit of enterprise and thirst the great Genoese to his court. Bartholomew for glory, despite the enervating influences of a was, however, captured by pirates on his return He sailed early in the year 1500, and voyage, and detained till too late ; for in the mean pursued the track of John Cabot as far as the while Isabella of Castille had adopted the project I northern point of Newfoundland : to him is due
the discovery of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and France, and thus become the instruments of dihe also pusbed on northward by the coast of La- viding the dominions of the New World among brador, almost to the entrance of Hudson Bay." | alien powers, while their own classic land reaped -vol. i. pp. 27—31.
neither glory nor advantage from the genius and
courage of her sons. Of this first voyage the Portugal and Spain each attempted to ex- only record remaining is a letter from Verazzano plore the northern continent, but with little to Francis I., dated 8th of July, 1524, merely success and less credit. The expeditions of stating that he had returned in safety to Dieppe. Cortereal were rather slave-trading ventures
“At the beginning of the following year Ve.
razzano fitted out and armed a vessel called the than
voyages of discovery ; whilst those of Dauphine, mapped with a crew of thirty hands, Ponce de Leon aimed at an imaginary good, and provisioned for eight months. He first di. and obtained little real benefit. The beautiful rected his course to Madeira; having reached coast, which he surnamed Florida, from the that island in safety, he left it on the 17th of richness and variety of its flowers, has passed January, and steered for the west. After a narrow not only from the crown, but even from the escape from the violence of a tempest, and having race of Castille :
proceeded for about nine hundred leagues, a long
low line of coast rose to view, never before seen “ The first attempt made by the French to share by ancient or modern navigators. This country in the advantages of these discoveries was in the appeared thickly peopled by a vigorous race, of year 1504. Some Basque and Breton fishermen
tall stature and athletic form : fearing to risk a at that time began to ply their calling on the landing at first with his weak force, the advengreat bank of Newfoundland and along the adja- turer contented himself with admiring at a discent shores. From them the island of Cape tance the grandeur and beauty of the scenery, and Breton received its name. In 1506, Jean Denys, From this place he followed the coast for about
enjoying the delightful mildness of the climate. a man of Harfleur, drew a map of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Two years afterward, a pilot of fifty leagues to the south, without discovering Dieppe, named Thomas Aubert, excited great any harbor or inlet where he might shelter his curiosity in France, by bringing over some of the vessel ; he then retraced his course, and steered savage natives from the New World : there is no
to the north. After some time Verazzano venrecord whence they were taken, but it is supposed tured to send a small boat on shore to examine the from Cape Breton. The reports borne back to
country more closely : numbers of savages came France by these hardy fishermen and adventurers
to the water's edge to meet the strangers, and were not such as to raise sanguine hopes of gazed on them with mingled feelings of surprise, riches from the bleak northern regions they had admiration, joy, and fear. He again resumed his visited: no teeming fertility or genial climate porthward course, till, driven by want of water, tempted the settler, no mines of gold or silver ex
he armed the small boat, and sent it once more tocited the avarice of the soldier, and for many
ward the land to seek a supply; the waves and years the French altogether neglected to profit by surf, however, were so great, that it could not their discoveries.”—p. 34.
reach the shore. The natives, assembled on the
beach, by their signs and gestures eagerly invited The decree by which that disgrace to hu- swimmer, threw himself into 'ihe water, bearing
the French to approach: one young sailor, a bold manity, Alexander the Sixth, divided the
some presents for the savages, but his heart failed western hemisphere between the crowns of him on a nearer approach, and he turned to regain Castille and Portugal, impeded, though it the boat; his sirength was exhausted, however, did not suppress, the maritime discoveries of and a heavy sea washed him almost insensible other nations. It was not long ere the Ref- up, upon the beach.
The Indians treated him ormation, by denying the authority, de with great kindness, and, when he had sufficiently
recovered, sent him back in safety tu the ship. stroyed the effect of the papal bull as far as
“ Verazzano pursued his examination of the regarded England; and France, though ad- coast with untiring zeal, narrowly searching hering to the communion of Rome, showed every inlet for a passage through to the westan early determination to dispute the Borgia ward, until he reached the great island, known to grant :
the Breton fishermen, Newfoundland. In this
important voyage he surveyed more than two “ In the year 1523, Francis I. fitted out a thousand miles of coast, nearly all that of the squadron of four ships to pursue discovery in the present United States, and a great portion of west ; the command was intrusted to Giovanni British North America."-p. 37. Verazzano of Florence, a navigator of great skill and experience, then residing in France : he was Another expedition under the same comabout thirty-eight years of age, nobly born, and mander was devoid of any result. In 1525. liberally educated ; the causes that induced bim Stefano Gomez sailed from Spain for Cuba to leave his own country and take service in France are not known. It has often been re- and Florida, whence, coasting northward, he marked as strange, that three Italians should have reached Cape Race on the south-eastern directed the discoveries of Spain, England, and coast of Newfoundland. His object in steer
ing to the north was to discover the north- dreary country were still locked up in the winwest passage to India,—that fatal mirage ters ice, forbidding the approach of shipping; he which has lured so many noble spirits across
then bent to the south-east, and at length found the shifting desert of the barren sea to fail anchorage at St. Catherine, six degrees lower in and to perish. The other delusions of early again turned to the north, and on the 21st of May
latitude. Having remained here ten days, he times have left us. The philosopher's stone reached Bird Island, fourteen leagues from the no longer excites the ambition of our scholars coast. and chemists; our mechanics no longer at- Jacques Cartier examined all the northern tempt to produce perpetual motion in perish- shores of Newfoundland without having ascertainable things; the ancien régime, with all its ed that it was an island, and then passed southfaults and follies, has passed away for ever ;
ward through the Straits of Belleisle. The counand popery has, generally speaking, lost ali try appeared everywhere the same bleak and in
hospitable wilderness; but the harbors were nuhold either upon the heart or the head of
merous, convenient, and abounding in fish. He the educated classes on the European conti- describes the natives as well-proportioned men, nent. But the north-west passage
still wearing their hair tied up over their heads, like mains a monument of past ignorance and bundles of hay, quaintly interlaced with birds' present perversity, like à hoar-headed bar- feathers. Changing his course still more to the barian, who (the last of his own generation) south, he then traversed the Gulf of St. Lawrence, yet survives to tell the tale of the past to his entered a deep bay; from the intense heat expe
approached the main land, and on the 9th of July civilized descendants.
rienced there, he named it the · Baye de ChaIlow far Gomez penetrated is unknown; leurs.' The beauty of the country, and the kindbut there is reason to believe that he entered ness and hospitality of his reception, alike charmthe estuary of the St. Lawrence, and traded ed him ; he carried on a little trade with the friendon its banks. A Spanish tradition asserts, ly savages, exchanging European goods for their that the Spaniards reached these shores be
furs and provisions. fore the French, and, disappointed with find- considerable extent of the gulf-coast; on the 24th
" Leaving this bay, Jacques Cartier visited a ing no symptoms of gold or silver mines, of July he erected a cross thirty feet high, with a repeatedly cried out “ ca nada!” here there shield bearing the fleur-de-lys of France on the is) nothing ; whence the name Canada. This, shore of Gaspi Bay. Having thus taken poshowever, is evidently one of those punning session of the country for his king in the usual derivations by which ingenious idlers attempt
manner of those days, he sailed on the 25th of to account for names with the origin of which July on his homeward voyage. At this place two
of the natives were seized by stratagem, carried they are unacquainted. The word Kannata
on board the ships, and borne a way to France. or Kannada signifies village, or a collection Cartier coasted along the northern shores of the of Indian cabins, in the dialect of several of gulf the 15th of Augnst, and even entered the the tribes which inhabited the shores of the mouth of the River St. Lawrence, but the weath. Gulf of St. Lawrence when the French ar- er becoming stormy, he determined to delay his rived there, and it is clear the name Canada departure no longer; he passed again throngh arose from a misconception of the strangers,
the Straits of Belleisle, and arrived at St. Malo
on the 5th of September, 1534, contented with his who, whenever they asked the name of an
success, and full of hope for the future. inhabited spot, received for answer a word Jacques Cartier was received with the considwhich they supposed to denote the whole eration due to the inportance of his report. The country.
Court at once perceived the advantage of an es
tablishment in this part of America, and resolved “ In the year 1534, Philip Chabot, admiral of to take steps for its foundation. Charles de MonFrance, urged the king to establish a colony in cy, Sieur de la Mailleray, vice-admiral of France, the New World, by representing to himn in glow
was the most active patron of the undertaking ; ing colors the great riches and power derived by through his influence Cartier obtained a more efthe Spaniards from their transatlantic possessions. fective force, and a new commission, with ampler Francis I., alive to the importance of the design, powers than before. When the preparations for soon agreed to carry it out. JACQUES CARTIER, assembled in the cathedral of St. Malo, on Whit
the voyage were completed, the adventurers all an experienced navigator of St. Malo, was recommended by the admiral to be intrusted with the Sunday, 1535, by the command of their pious expedition, and was approved of by the king. On leader; the bishop then gave them a solemn benthe 20th of April, 1534, Cartier 'sailed from St. ediction, with all the imposing ceremonials of the Malo with two ships of only sixty tons burden Romish Church.”—p. 45. each, and 120 men for their crews. He directed his course westward, inclining rather to the north; his fleet consisting of three small vessels, the
On the 19th of May, Cartier again set sail, the winds proved so favorable, that on the twentieth day of the voyage he had made Cape Bona- largest being not more than 120 tons burden. gista in Newfoundland. But the harbors of that | Separated by storms from each other, they
all made for Newfoundland, where the lead- | tered the Indian's canoe, and presented bread and er's vessel arrived first, on the 7th of July. wine, which they ate and drank together. They On the 26th her consorts joined her. We then parted in all amity: proceed in Mr. Warburton's own glowing with his boats pushed up the north shore against
“After this happy interview, Jacques Cartier language; for to abridge in such a case would the stream, till he reached a spot where a little be unpardonable.
river flowed into a 'goodly and pleasant sound,'
forming a convenient haven. 'He moored his “ Having taken in supplies of fuel and water, vessels here for the winter on the 18th of Septemthey sailed in company to explore the Gulf of St. ber, and gave the name of St. Croix to the stream, Lawrence. A violent storm arose on the 1st of in honor of the day on which he first entered its August, forcing them to seek shelter. They hap- waters; Donnacona, accompanied by a train of pily found a port on the north shore, at the en- 500 Indians, came to welcome his arrival with trance of the Great River, where, though difficult generous friendship. In the angle formed by the of access, there was a safe anchorage. Jacques tributary stream and the Great River stood the Cartier called it St. Nicholas, and it is now al- town of Stadacona, the dwelling-place of the most the only place still bearing the name he chief; thence an irregular slope ascended to a gave. They left their harbor on the 7th, coast. lofty height of table-land: from this eminence a ing westward along the north shore, and on the bold headland frowned over the St. Lawrence, 10th came to a gulf filled with numerous and forming a rocky wall 300 feet in height. The beautiful islands. Cartier gave this gulf the name waters of the Great River, here narrowed to less of St. Lawrence, having discovered it on that than a mile in breadth, rolled deeply and rapidly Saint's festival day. On the 15th of August, past into the broad basin beyond. When the they reached a long rocky island toward the south, white men first stood on the summit of this bold which Cartier named l’Išle de l'Assumption, now headland, above their port of shelter, most of the called Anticosti. Thence they continued their country was fresh from the hand of the Creator; course, examining carefully both shores of the save the three small barks lying at the mouth of Great River, and occasionally holding communi- the stream, and the Indian village, no sign of hucation with the inhabitants, till, on the 1st of man habitations met their view.
Far as the eye September, they entered the mouth of the deep could reach the dark forest spread: over hill and and gloomy Saguenay. The entrance of this valley, mountain and plain; up to the craggy peaks, great tributary was all they had leisure to survey; down to the blue water's edge; along the gentle but the huge rocks, dense forests, and vast body slopes of the rich Isle of Bacchus, and even from of water, forming a scene of sombre magnificence projecting rocks, and in fissures of the lofty presuch as had never before met their view, inspired cipice, the deep green mantle of the summer fothem with an exalted idea of the country they had | liage hung its graceful folds. In the dim disdiscovered. Still passing to the south-west of the tance, north, south, east, and west, where mounSt. Lawrence, on the 6th they reached an island tain rose above mountain in tumultuous variety abounding in delicious filberts, and on that account of outline, it was still the same; one vast leafy vale named by the voyagers Isle aux Coudres. Cartier concealed the virgin face of nature from the being now so far advanced into an unknown stranger's sight. On the eminence commanding country, looked out anxiously for a port where this scene of wild but magnificent beauty a proshis vessels might winter in safety. He pursued his perous city now stands: the patient industry of voyage till he came upon another island, of great man has felled that dense forest, tree by tree, for extent, fertility, and beauty, covered with woods miles and miles around; and where it stood, rich and thick-clustering vines. This he named Isle fields rejoice the eye; the once silent waters of de Bacchus: it is now called Orleans. On the the Great River below, now surge against hun7th of September, Donnacona, the chief of the dreds of stately ships; commerce has enriched country, came with twelve canoes filled by his this spot; art adorned it; a memory of glory entrain, to hold converse with the strangers, whose dears it to every British heart. But the name ships lay at anchor between the island and the QUEBEC still remains unchanged; as the savage north shore of the Great River. The Indian first pronounced it to the white stranger, it stands chief approached the smallest of the ships with to-day among the proudest records of our counonly two canoes, fearful of causing alarm, and try's story.”—pp. 42–63. began an oration, accompanied with strange and uncouth gestures. After a time he conversed
Proud indeed is the sound of that name to with the Indians who had been seized on the former voyage, and now acted as interpreters. He England, and in the pride that it awakens heard from them of their wonderful visit to the there is nothing to gall or wound our defeatgreat nation over the salt lake, of the wisdom and ed adversaries. The conquest of Canada, power of the white men, and of the kind treatment the capture of Quebec were achieved by they had received among the strangers. Donna- British valor, not yielded by French cowardice. cona appeared moved with deep respect and ad- The conduct, indeed, of our opponents on the miration; he took Jacques Cartier's arm and placed it gently over his own bended neck, in token occasion was such as to raise the merit of our of confidence and regard. The admiral cordially success to the highest attainable point, whilst returned these friendly demonstrations. He en. the
and skill of the conqueror was