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• He that by the plow would thrive
Himself must either hold or drive.'

And again, • The eye of the master will do more work than both his hands ;' and again, • Want of care does us more damage than want of knowledge; and again, Not to oversee workmen is to leave them your purse open.' Trusting too much to others care is the ruin of many : for, as the Alinanac says, . In the affairs of the word, men are saved not by faith, but by the want of it ;' but a man's own care is pro. fitable; for, saith poor Dick, Learning is to the stu. dious, and riches to the careful, as well as power to to the bold, and heaven to the virtuous.' And, far. ther, If you would have a faithful servant, and one that you like, serve yourself.? And again, he advis. eth to circumspection and care, even in the smallest matters, because sometimes, A little neglect may breed great mischief;' adding, "For want of a nail the shoe was lost; for want of a shoe the horse was lost; and for want of a horse the rider was lost;' being overtaken and slain by the enemy, all for wani of care about a horse-shoe nail

“ So much for industry, my friends, and attention to one's own business; but to these we must add frugality, if we would make our industry more cer. tainly successful. A man may, if he knows not bog to save as he gets keep his nose all his life to the grindstone, anr? die not worth a groat at last.' 'A fat kitchen makes a lean will,' as poor Richard says; and,

Many estates are spent in the getting ; Since women for tea forsonk spinning and knitting, And men for punch forsook he wing and splitting. **

*6* If you would be wealthy, (says he, in another Almanac) think of saving, as well as of getting: the Indies have not made Spain rich, because her one goes are greater than her incomes'

« Away than with your expensive follies, and you will not have much cause to complain of hard times, hcavy taxes, and chargeable fainilies; for, as poor Dick says,

« Women and wine, game and deceit,
Make the wealth small, and the want great.'

* And, farther, What maintains one vice, wou):1 3. bring up two children.' You may think, perhaps,

that a little tea, or a little punch now and then, dies a litile more costly, clothes a little finer, and a little entertainment now and then, can be no great matter; hut remember what poor Richard says, “Many a little makes a meikle ; and farther, Beware of litue expenses; a small leak will sink a great ship;' and again, . Wbə dainties love, shall beggars prove;' and, moreover, Fools make feasts, and wise men ea them.'

“Here you are all got together at this sale of fineries and nicknacks. You call them goods; but if you do not take care, they will prove evils to some of you. You expect they will be sold cheap, and perhaps they may for less than they cost; but if you have no occasion for them, they must be dear to you, Remember what poor Richard says, “ Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt sell thy ne- · cessaries.' And again, . At a great pennyworth pause awhile.' Ho means, that perhaps the cheapness is apparent only, or not real; or the bargain, by strait. ening thee in thy business, may do thee more harm than good. For in another place he says, “Many have been ruined by buying good pennyworths.' Again, as poor Richard says, “It is foolish to lay out money in a purchase of repentance;' and yet this folly is practised every day at auctions, for want of ininding the Almanac. · Wise men (as poor Dick says) learn by others harms, fools scarcely by their own; but Felix quam faciunt aliena pericula cautum.'Many a one, for the sake of finery on the back, have gone with a hungry belly, and half starved their fa. milies: Silk and satins, scarlet and velvets, (as paar Richard says) put out the kitchen fire.' Thase

are not the necessaries of life; they can scarcely he called the conveniences; and yet only because they look pretty, how many want to have them? The artificial wants of mankind thus become more numerous than the natural; and as poor Dick says, For one poor person there are a hundred indigent.' BY these and other extravagances, the genteelare reduced to poverty, and forced to borrow of those whom they formerly despised, but who, through industry and frugality, have maintained their standing; in which case, it appears plainly, ' A ploughman on his legs is higher than a gentleman on his knees,' as poor Rich. ard says. Perhaps they have had a small estate left them, which they knew not the getting of; they think, • It is day, and will never be night; that a little to be spent out of so much, is not worth minding : ' A child and a fool (as poor Richard says) imagine twenty shillings and twenty years can never be spent; but always be taking out of the meal-tub, and nerer putting in, soon comes to the bottom;'then, as poor Dick says, “When the well is dry they know the worth of water.' But this they might have known before, if they had taken his advice : If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some; for he that goes a borrowing goes a sorrowing; and, indeed, so does he that lend to such people, when be goes to get it in again.' Poor Dick farther advises, and says,

Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse : Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse.'

And again, Pride is as loud a beggar as Want, and a great deal inore saucy.' When you have bought one fine thing, you must buy ten more, that your appearance may be all of a piece; but poor Dick says. It is easier to suppress the first desire, than to satisfy all that follow it.' And it is as truly folly for the poor to ape the rich, as the frog to swell, in order to equal the ox.

• Vessels large may venture more,

But little boats should keep near shore.' '?Tis, however, a folly soon punished; for, “Pride that dines on vanity, sups on contempt,' as poox Richard says. And in another place, Pride break. fasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty and supped with Infamy.' And, after all, of what use is this pride of appearance, for which so much is risked, so much is suffered ? It cannot promote health, or ease pain, it makes no increase of merit in the person; it hastens misfortune.

• What is a butterfly? at best,
He's but a caterpillar drest ;
The gaudy fop's his picture just,'

as poor Richard says.

"But what madness must it be to run in debt for these superfluities! We are offered by the terms of this sale six months' credit; and that perhaps has induced some of us to attend it, because we cannot spare the ready money, and hope now to be fine without it. But, ah ! think what you do when you run in debt. You give to another power over your liberty. If you cannot pay at the time, you will be ashamed to see your creditor: you will be in fear when you speak to him; you will make poor, pitiful, sneaking excuses, and by degrees come to lose your veracity, and sink into base downright lying; for, as poor Richard says, The second vice is lying; the first is running in dehat.' And again, to the same purpose, Lying rides upon debt's back ;' whereas a free-born Englishman ought not to be ashamed nor afraid to speak to any man living --But poverty often deprives a man of all spirit and virtue: It is hard for an empty bag to stand upright," as poor Richard truly says. "What would you think of that prince, or that government, who would issue an edict, forbidding you to dress like a gentleman or gentlewoman, on pain of imprisonment or servitude Would you not say, that you were free, have a right to dress as you please, and that such an edict would

he a breach of your privileges, and such a government tyrannical? And yet you are about to put your. self under that tyranny when you run in debt for such dress! Your creditor has authority, at his pleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, by confining you in goal for life, or by selling you for a servant, if you should not be able to pay him. When you have got your bargain, you may, perhaps, think little of pay. inent; but Creditors (poor Richard tells us) have better memories than debtors;' and in another place he says, Creditors are a superstitious sect, great observers of set days and times.' The day comes round before you are aware, and the demand is made before you are prepared to satisfy it. Or if you bear your debt in mind, the term which at first seemed so long, will as it lessens, appear extremely short. Time will seem to have added wings to his heels as well as at his shoulders. Those have a short Lent (saith proor Richard) who owe money to be paid at Easter.' Then since, as he says, “The borrower is a slave to the lender, and the debtor to the creditor;' disdain the chain, preserve your freedom, and maintain your independency: be industrious and free; be frugal and free. At present, perhaps, you may think yourselves in thriving circumstances, and that you can bear a little extravagance without injury; but

• For age and want save while you may, No morning sun lasts a whole day.' as poor Richard says. Gain may be temporary and uncertain ; but ever, while you live, expense is constant and certain : and it is easier to build two chimneys, than to keep one in fuel,' as poor Richard says. So • Rather go to bed supperless than rise in debi,'

Get what you can, and what you get hold, 'Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into gold." as poor Richard says. And when you have got the philosopher's stone, sure you will no longer complain X bad times, or the difficulty of paying tases.

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