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pay punctually and exactly to the time he promises, may at any time, and on any occasion, raise all the money his friends can spare. This is sometimes of great use. After industry and frugality, nothing con, tributes more to the raising of a young man in the world, than punctuality and justice in all his deal. ings: therefore never keep borrowed money an hour beyond the time you promised, lest a disappointment shut up your friend's purse for ever.
The most trifling actions that affect a man's credit are to be regarded. The sound of your hammer at five in the morning, or nine at night, heard by a creditor, makes him easy six months longer; but if he sees you at a billiard-table, or hears your voice at a tavern, when you should be at work, he sends for his money the next day; demands it before he can receive it in a lump.
It shows, besides, that you are mindful of what you owe; it makes you appear a careful as well as an honest man, and that still increases your credit.
Beware of thinking all your own that you possess, and of living accordingly. It is a mistake that many people who have credit fall into. To prevent this, keep an exact account, for some time, both of your expenses and your income. If you take the pains at first to mention particulars, it will have this good effect; you will discover how wonderfully small tri. iling expenses mount up to large sums, and will discern what might have been, and may for the future be saved, without occasioning any great inconve. pience.
In short, the way to wealth, if you desire it, is as plain as the way to market. It depends chiefly on iwo words, industry and frugality; that is, waste neither time nor money, but make the best use of both. Without industry and frugality nothing will do, and with them every thing. He that gets all he can honestiy, and saves all he gets (necessary expences excepted), will certainly become rich-if that Being, who governs the world, to whom all should look for a blessing on their honest endeavours, doth not in his wise providence otherwise determine.
AN OLD TRADESMAN.
NECESSARY HINTS TO THOSE THAT
WOULD BE RICH.
WRITTEN ANNO 1736. The use of money is all the advantage there is in having money.
For six pounds a-year you may have the use of one inundred pounds, provided you are a man of known prudence and honesty.
He that spends a groat a-day idly, spends idly above six pounds a-year, which is the price for the use of one hundred pounds.
He that wastes idly a groat's worth of his time per day, one day with another, wastes the privilege of using one hundred pounds each year.
He that idly loses five shillings worth of time loses five shillings, and might as prudently throw five shillings into the sea.
He that loses five shillings, not only loses that sum; but all the advantages that might be made by turning it in dealing; which, by the time that a young man becomes old, will amouut to a considerable sum of money.
Again ; he that sells upon credit, asks a price for what he sells equivalent to the principal and interest of his money for the time he is to be kept out of it; therefore, he that buys upon credit, pays interest for what he buys; and he that pays ready money, might let that money out to use; so that he that possesses any thing he has bought, pays interest for the use of it.
Yet, in buying goods, it is best to pay ready money, because, he that sells upon credit, expects to lose five per cent. by bad debts; therefore he charges, on all he sells upon credit, an advance that shall make up that deficiency.
Those who pay for what they buy upon credit, pay their share of this advance. . He that pays ready money, escapes, or may escape that charge.
A penny sav'd is twopence clear ;
THE WAY TO MAKE MONEY PLENTY
IN EVERY MAN'S POCKET,
At this time, when the general complaint is that-6 money is scarce," it will be an act of kindness to inform the moneyless how they may reinforce their pockets. I will acquaint them with the true secret of money-catching--athe certain way to fill empty purses—and how to keep them always full. Two simple rules, well observed, will do the business.
Frst, Let honesty and industry be thy constant companions; and,
Secondly, Spend one penny less than thy clear
Then shall thy hide-bound pocket soon begin to thrive, and will never again cry with the empty belly. ach: neither will creditors insult thee, nor want op. press, no hunger bite, nor nakedness freeze thee. The whole hemisphere will shine brigher, and pleasure spring up in every corner of thy heart. Now, therefore, embrace these rulesand be happy. Banish the bleak winds of sorrow from thy mind, and live independent. Then shalt thou be a man, and not hide thy face at the approach of the rich, nor suffer the pain of feeling little when the sons of fortune walk at thy right hand : for independency, whether with little or inuch, is good fortune, and placeth thee on even ground with the proudest of the golden fleece. Oh, then, be wise, and let industry walk with thee in the morning, and attend thee until thou reacbest the evening hour for rest. Let honesty be as the breath of thy soul, and never forget to have a penny, when all thy expenses are enumerated and paid: then shalt thou reach the point of happiness, and independence shall be thy shield and buckler, thy helmet and crown; then shall thy soul walk upright, nor stoop to the silken wretch hecause he hath riches, nor pocket an abuse because the hand which offers it wears a ring set with diamonds.
AN ECONOMICAL PROJECT À translation of this Letter appeared in one of the
daily papers of Paris about the year 1784. The following is the original piece, with some addi.
tions and corrections made by the Author. 1. To the Authors of the Journal.
MESSIEURS You often entertain us with accounts of new disco. veries. Permit me to communicate to the public, through your paper, one that has lately been made by myself, and which I conceive may be of great utility.
I was the other evening in a grand company, where the new lamp of Messrs. Quinquet and Lange was introduced, and much admired for its splendour; but a general inquiry was made, whether the oil it consumed was not in proportion to the light it afforded, in which case there would be no saving in the use of it. No one present could satisfy us in that point, which all agreed ought to be known, it being a very desirable thing to lessen, if possible, the expense of lighting our apartments, when every other article of family expense was so much augmented.
I was pleased to see this general concern for economy, for I love economy exceedingly.
I went home, and to bed, three or four hours after midnight, with my head full of the subject. An accidental sudden noise waked me about six in the morning, when I was surprised to find my room filled with light; and I imagined at first, that a number of those lamps had been brought into it: but, rubbing my eyes, I perceived the light cane in at the windows. I got up and looked out to see what might be the occasion of it, when I saw the sun just rising above the horizon, from whence he poured his rays plentifully into my chamber, my domestic having negligentiy omitted the preceding evening to close the shutters.
I looked at my watch, which goes very well, and found that it was about six o'clock; and still thinking it something extraordinary that the sun should rise so early, I looked into the almanack, where I found it to be the hour given for his rising on that day. I looked forward too, and found he was to rise still earlier every day till towards the end of June; and that at no time in the year he retarded his rising so long as till eight o'clock. Your readers, who with me have never seen any signs of sunshine before noon, and seldom regard the astronomical part of che almanack, will be as much astonished as I was, when they hear of his rising so early: and especi. ally when I assured them, that he gives light as soon as he rises. I am convinced of this. I am certain of my fact. One cannot be more certain of any fact. I saw it with my own eyes. And having repeated this observation the three following mornings, I found always precisely the same result.
Yet it so happens, that when I speak of this discovery to others, I can easily perceive by their countenances, though they forbear expressing it in words, that they do not quite believe me. One, indeed, who is a learned natural philosopher, has assured me, that I must certainly be mistaken as to the circumstance of the light coming into my room; for it being well known, as he says, that there could be no light abroad at that hour, it follows that none could enter from without; and that of consequence, my windows being accidentally left open, instead of letting in the light, had only served to let out the darkness: and he used many ingenious arguments to show me how I might, by that means, have been deceived. I own that he puz. zled me a little, but he did not satisfy me; and the subsequent observations I made, as above mentioned, confirmed me in my first opinion.
This event has given rise, in my mind, to several serious and inportant reflections. I considered that, if I had not been awakened so early in the morning, I should have slept six hours longer by the light of the sun, and in exchange have lived six hours the following night by candle-light; and the latter being a much more expensive light than the former, my