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for it will as 'ne believed) appear once more
in a new
With regard to my books, those I had in France, and those I left in Philadelphia, being now assembled together here, and a catalogue made of them, it is iny intention to dispose of the sarne as foilows:
My “ History of the Academy of Sciences,” in sixty or seventy volumes quarto, I give to the philosophical society of Philadelphia, of which I have the honour lo be president. My collection in folio of “Les Arts et les Metiers," I give to the American philosophical society, established in New England, of which I am a member. My quarto edition of the same, “ Arts et Metiers," I give to the library company of Philadelphia. Such and so many of my books as I shall mark, in the said catalogue, with the name of my grandson, Benjamin Franklin Bache, I lo herehy give to him: and such and so many of my Books as I shall mark in the said catalogne with the name of my grandson William Bache, I do hereby give to him: and such as shall be marked with the name of Jonathan Williams, I hereby give to my cousin of that rame. The residue and reinainder of all my books, manuscripts and papers, I do give to my grandson Williain Temple Franklin. My share in the library company of Philadelphia I give to my grandson Benjamin Franklin Bache, confiding that he will permit his brothers and sisters to share in the use of it.
1 was born in Boston, in New England, and owe my first instructions in literature to the free grammar. schools established there. I therefore give one hun. dred pounds sterling to my executors, to be by them, the survivors or survior of them, paid over to the managers or directors of the free-schools in my native town of Boston, to be by them, or the person or persons, who shall have the superintendence and management of the said schools, put out to interest, and so continued at interest forever; which interest an. nually shall be laid out in silver medals, and given as honorary rewards annually by the directors of the said free schools, for the encouragement of scholar. ship in the said schools, belonging to the said town, in such manner as to the discretion of the select men of the said town shall seem meet.
Out of the salary that may remain due to me, as president of the state, I give the sum of two thousand pounds to my executors, to be by them, the survivors or survivor of them, paid over to such person or persons as the legislature of this state, by an act of the assembly, shall appoint to receive the same, in trust, to be employed for making the Schuylkill navigable.
During the number of years I was in business as a stationer, printer, and post-master, a great many small sums becaine due to me, för books, advertisements, postage of letters, and other matters, which were not collected, when, in 1757, I was sent by the Assembly to England as their agent--and by subsequent appointments continued there till 1775—when, on my return, I was immediately engaged in the affairs of congress, and sent to France in 1776, where I remained nine years, not returning till 1785 : and the said debts not being demande: in such a length of time, have become in a manner obsolete, yet are nevertheless justly due. These as they are stated in my great folio ledger, E, I bequeath to the contribu. tors of the Pennsylvania hospital, hoping that those debtors, and the descendants of such as are deceased, who now, as I find, make some difficulty of satisfying such antiquated demands as just debts, may, howe ever, be induced to pay or give them as charity to that excellent institution. I am sensible that much
must be inevitably lost; but I hope something considerable may be recovered. It is possible, too, that some of the parties charged may have existing old unsettled accounts against me; in which case the managers of the said hospital will allow and deduct the amount, or pay the balance, if they find it against me.
I request my freinds, Henry Hill, Esq. John Jay, Esq. Francis Hopkinson, and Mr. Edward Duffield, of Bonfield, in Philadelphia county, to be the executors of this my last will and testament, and I hereby nominate and appoint them for that purpose.
I would have my body buried with as little expense or ceremony as may be. PHILADELPHIA,
July, 17, 1788.
CODICIL. I, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, in the foregoing or annexed last will and testament, having further considered the same, do think proper to make and publish the fol. lowing codicil, or addition thereto :
It having long been a fixed and political opinion of mine, that in a democratical state there ought to be no offices of profit, for the reason I had given in an arti. cle of my drawing in our constitution, it was my intention, when I accepted the office of president, to devote the appointed salary to some public use : accordingly I had already, before I made my last will, in July last, given large sums of it to colleges, schools, building of churches, &c. and in that will I bequeathed two thousand pounds more to the state, for the purpose of making the Schuylkill navigable; but understanding since, that such a sum would do but lit. tle towards accomplishing such a work, and that the project is not likely to be undertaken for many years to come--and having entertained another idea, which I hope may be more extensively useful, I do hereby revoke and annul the bequest, and direct that the
certificates I have for what remams due to me of that salary, be sold towards raising the sum of two thousand pounds sterling, to be disposed of as I am now about to order.
It has been an opinion, that he who receives an estate from his ancestors, is under sonje obligation to transmit the same to posterity. This obligation lies not on me, who never inherited a shilling from any ancestor or relation. I shall, however, if it is not diminished by some accident before my death, leave a considerable estate among my descendants and relations. The above observation is made merely as some apology to my family, for my making bequests that do not appear to have any immediate rolation to their advantage.
I was born in Boston, New England, and owe my first instructions in literature to the free grainmarschools established there. I have therefore considered those schools in my will.
But I am also under obligations to the state of Massachussetts, for having, unasked, appointed me formerly their agent, with a handsome salary, which continued some years; and, although I accidentally lost in their service, by transmitting Governor Hutchinson's letters, much more than the amount of what they gave me, I do not think that ought in the least to diminish my gratitude. I have considered that, among artisans, good apprentices are inost likely to make good citizens; and having myself been bred to a manual art, printing, in my native town, and afterwards assisted to set up my business in Phi. ladelphia by kind loans of money from two friends there, which was the foundation of my fortune, and of all the utility in life that may be ascribed to me I wish to be ueful even after my death, if possible, in forming and advancing other young men, that may be serviceable to their country in both these towns.
To this end I devote two thousand pounds sterling, which I give, one thousand thereof to the inhabitants of the town of Boston, in Massachusetts, and the other thousand to the inhabitants of the city of Philadelphia, in trust, to and for the uses, intents, and purposes, herein after mentioned and declared,
The said sum of one thousand pounds sterling, if accepted by the inhabitants of the town of Boston, shall be managed under the direction of the select men, united with the ministers of the oldest episcopalian, congregational, and presbyterian churches in that town, who are to let out the same upon interest at five per cent. per annum, to such young married artificers, under the age of twenty-five years, as have served an apprenticeship in the said town, and faithfully fulfilled the duties required in their indentures, so as to obtain a good moral character from at least iwo respectable citizens, who are willing to become sureties in a bond, with the applicants, for the repayment of the money so lent, with interest, according to the terms herein after prescribed; all which bonds are to be taken for Spanish milled dollars, or the value thereof in current gold coin; and the managers shall keep a bound book, or books, where. jn shall be entered the names of those who shall ap. ply for, and receive the benefit of this institution, and of their sureties, together with the sums lent, the dates, and other necessary and proper records, respecting the business and concerns of this institution : and as these loans are intended to assist young married artificers, in setting up their business, they are to be proportioned by the discretion of the managers, so as not to exceed sixty pounds sterling to one person, nor to be less than fifteen pounds. * And if the number of appliers so entitled should be large as that the sum will not suffice to afford to every one some assistance, these aids may there. fore be small at first, but as the capital increase by the accumulated interes:, they will be more ample. And in order to serve as many as possible in their iurn, as well as to make the repayment of the princi. pal borrowed more easy, each borrower shall be obliged to pay with the yearly interest one-tenth part of the principal; which sums of principal and interost so paid in, shall be again let out to fresh borrow. crs. And it is presumed, that there will be always found in Boston virtuous and benevolent citizens, tvilling to hestow a part of their time in doing good to the rising generation, by superintending and man