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was held in the highest estimation. He was received with the greatest marks of respect by all the lite. rary characters; and this respect was extended amongst all classes of men. His personal influence was hence very considerable. To the effects of this were added those of various performances which he published, tending to establish the credit and character of the United States. To his exertions in this way may, in no small degree, be ascribed the success of the loans negociated in Holland and France, which greatly contributed to bringing the war to a happy conclusion. · The repeated ill-success of their arms, and more particularly the capture of Cornwallis and his army, at length convinced the British nation of the impossibility of reducing the Americans to subjection. The trading interest particularly become clamorous for peace. The ministry were unable longer to oppose their wishes. Provisionl articles of peace were agreed to, and signed at Paris, on the 30th of Novem. ber, 1782, by Dr. Franklin, Mr. Adams, Mr. Jay, and Mr. Laurers, on the part of the United States; and by Mr. Oswald on the part of Great Britain. These formed the basis of the definitive treaty, which was concluded the third of September, 1783, and signed by Dr. Franklin, Mr. Adams, and Mr. Jay, on the one part, and by Dr. David Hartley on the other,
On the third of April, 1783, a treaty of amnity and commerce, between the United States and Sweden, was concluded at Paris by Dr. Franklin and the Count Von Kiutz.
A similar treaty with Prussia was concluded in 1785, not long before Dr. Franklin's departure from Europe. - Dr. Franklin did not suffer his political pursuits to engross his whole attention. Some of his performauces made their appearance in Paris. The object on these were generally the promotion of industry and economy
In the year 1784, when animal magnetism made great noise in the world, particularly at Paris, it was brought a matter of such importance, that the King appointed commissioners to examine into the foun dation of this pretended science. Dr. Franklin was one of the number. After a fair and diligent exami. nation, in the course of which Mesmer repeated a number of experiments, in the presence of the commissioners, some of which were tried upon them. selves, they determined that it was a mere trick, intended to impose upon the ignorant and credulous. Mesmer was thus interrupted in his career to wealth and fame, and a most insolent attempt to impose upon the human understanding baffled.
The important ends of Dr. Franklin's mission being completed by the establishment of American Independence, and the infirmities of age and disease coming upon him, he became desirous of returning to his native country. Upon application to congress to be recalled, Mr. Jefferson was appointed to succeed him, in 1785. Some time in September of the same year, Dr. Franklin arrived in Philadelphia. He was shortly after chosen a member of the supreme executive council for the city, and soon after was elected president of the same.
When a conveution was called to meet in Philadel. phia, in 1787, for the purpose of giving more energy to the government of the union, by revising and amending the articles of confederation, Dr. Franklin was appointed a delegate from the state of Pennsyl. vania. He signed the constitution which they pro. posed for the union, and gave it the most unequivocal marks of his approbation. • A society for political inquiries, of which Dr. Franklin was president, was established about this period. The meetings were held at his house. Two or three essays read in this society were published. It did not long continue.
lil the year 1787, two societies were established in Philadelphia, founded on the principles of the most liberal and refined humanity-The Philadelphia Society for alleviating the miseries of public prisons ; and the Pennsylvania Society, for promoting the abo. lition of slavery, the relief of free negroes unlawfully held in bondage, and the improvement of the condition of the African race. Of each of these Dr. Franklin
was president. The labours of these bodies have been crowned with great success; and they continue to prosecute, with unwearied diligence, the laudable designs for which they were established.
Dr. Franklin's increasing infirmites prevented his regular attendance at the council-chamber; and in 1788, he retired wholly from public life.
His constitution had been a remarkably good one. He had been little subject to disease, except an attack of the gout occasionally, until about the year 1781, when he was first attacked with symptoms of the calculous complaint, which continued during his life. During the intervals of pain from this grievous disease, he spent many cheerful hours, conversing in the most agreeable and iristructive nianner. His faculties were entirely unimpaired, even to the hour of his death.
His name as president of the abolition society, was signed to the memorial presented to the house of re-, presentatives of the United States, on the twelfih of February, 1789, praying them to exert the full extent of power vested in them by the constitution, in discouraging the traffic of the human species. This was his last public act - In the debates to which this memorial gave rise, several attempts were made to justify the trade. In the Federal Gazette of March 25th, there appeared an essay, signed Historicus, written by Dr. Franklin, in which he communicated a speech, said to have been delivered in the Divan of Algiers, in 1687, in opposition to the prayer of the petition of a set called Erika, or purists, for the abolition of piracy and slavery. This pretended African speech was an excellent parody of one delivered by Mr. Jackson of Georgia. All the arguinents used in favour of negro slavery, are applied with equal force to justify the plundering and enslaving of Europeans. It affords, at the same time, a demonstration of the futility of the arguments in defence of the slave trade, and of the strength of mind and ingenuity of the author, at his advanced period of life. It furnished too, a no less convincing proof of his power of imitating the style of other times and nations than his celebrated parable against dersecution. And as the
latter led many persons to search the Scriptures with a view to find it, so the former caused many persons 10 search the book-stores and libraries for the work from which it was said to be extracted.* .
In the beginning of April following, he was attack. ed with fever and a complaint of his breast, which terminted his existence. The following account of his last illness was written by his friend and physician, Pr. Jones.
* The stone, with which he had been afflicted for several years, had for the last twelve months confined him chiefly to his bed ; and, during the extreme painful paroxysms, he was obliged to take large doses of laudanum to initigate his tortures-still, in the intervals of pain, he not only amused himself with reading and conversing cheerfully with his family, and a few friends who visited him, but was often employed in doing business of a public as well as private nature, with various persons who waited on him for that purpose ; and in every instance display. ed, not only that readiness and disposition of doing good, which was the distinguished characterestic of his life, but the fullest and clearest possession of his uncommon mental abilities; and not unfrequently indulged himself in those jeux d'esprit and entertain. ing anecdotes, which were the delight of all who heard him.
“ About sixteen days before his death, he was seized with a feverish indisposition, without any particular symptoms attending it, till the third or fourth day, when he complained of a pain in the left breast, which increased till it became extremely acute, attended with a cough and laborious breath. ing. During this state, when the severity of his pains sometimes drew forth a groan of complaint, he would abserve-that he was afraid he did not bear them as he ought-acknowledged his grateful sense of the many blessings he had received from that Supreme Being, who had raised him from small and low beginnings to such high rank and consideration
* This speech will be found among his Essays.
aipong men and made no doubt but his present af) Aictions were kindly intended to wean him from a world, in which he was no longe. fit to act the part assigned him. In this frame of body and mind he continued till five days before his death, when his pain and difficulty of breathing entirely left him, and his family were flattering themselves with the hopes of his recovery, when an imposthumation, which had formed itself in his lungs, suddenly burst, and vis-, charged a great quantity of inatter, which he continued to throw up, while he had sufficient strengtb 1o do it; but, as that failed, the organs of respiration became gradually oppressed--a calm lethargic state succeeded—and, on the 17th of April, 1790, about eleven o'clock at night, he quietly expired, closing a long and useful life of eighty-four years and three inonths.”
It may not be amiss to add to the above account, that Dr. Franklin, in the year 1735, had a severe pleurigy, which terininated in an abscess of the left lobe of his lungs, and he was then almost suffocated with the quantity and suddenness of the dischargc. A second attack, of a similar nature, happered somo years after this, from which he soon recovered, and did not appear to suffer any inconvenience in his respiration from these events.
The following epitaph on himself, was written by him many years previous to his death
its contents torn out,
lies here food for worms;