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country was highly advantageous to France, it was a grievous inconvenience to the inhabitants of the British colonies. The Indians were almost generally desirous to cultivate the friendship of the French, by whom they were abundantly supplied with arms and ammunition. Whenever a war hap. pened, the Indians were ready to fall upon the frontiers : this they frequently did, eveii when Great Britain and France were at peace. From these considerations, it appeared to be the interest of Great Britain to gain the possession of Canada. But the importance of such an acquisition was not well understood in England. Franklin about this time published his Canada pamphlet, in which he, in a very forcible manner, pointed out the advantages which would result from the conquest of this province.
An expedition against it was planned, and the command given to General Wolfe. His success is well known. At the treaty in 1762, France ceded Canada to Great Britain, and by her cession of Louisiana, at the same time, relinquished all her possessions on the continent of America.
Although Dr. Franklin was now principally occu. pied with political pussuits, he found time for philosophical studies. He extended his electrical researches, and made a variety oî experiments, particu. larly on the tourmalin. The singular properties which this stone possesses, of being electrified on one side positively, and on the other negatively, by heat alore, without friction, had been but lately observed.
Some experiments on the cold produced by evaporation, made by Dr. Cullen, had been communicated to Dr. Franklin, by Professor Simpson, of Glasgow. These he repeated, and found, that, by tho erapora. tion of either in the exhausted receiver of an air. pump, so great a degree of cold was produceu in a summer's day, that water was converted into ice. This discovery he applied to the solution of a numbes of phenomena, particularly a singular fact, which philosophers had endeavoured in vain to account for, viz. that the temperature of the human body, when in health, never exceeds 96 degress of Fahrenheit's Thermometer, although the atinosphere which sura Anunds it may be heated to a much greater degree. This he attributed to the increased perspiration, anıl consequent evaporation, produced by the heat.
In a letter to Mr. Small, of London, dated in May, 1760, Dr. Franklin makes a number of observations, tending to show that, in North America, north-east storms begin in the south-west parts. It appear:, from actual observations, that a north-east storm, which extended a considerable distance, commenced at Philadelphia nearly four hours before it was felt at Boston. He endeavoured to account for this, by supposing that, from heat, some rarefraction takes place about the gulph of Mexico, that the air further north being cooler rushes in, and is succeeded by the cooler and denser air still farther north, and that thus a continued current is at length produced.
The tune produced by rubbing the brim of a drinking-glass with a wet finger’had been generally known. A Mr. Puckeridge, an Irishman, by placing on a table a number of glasses of different sizes, and tuning them by partly filling them with water, endeavoured to form an instrument capable of playing tunes. He was prevented, by an untimely end, from bringing his invention to any degree oi perfection. After his death some improvements were made upon his plan.
The sweetness of the tones induced Dr. Franklin to make a variety of experiments; and he at length formed the elegant instrument, which he has called the Armonica.
In the summer of 1762, he returned to America. On his passage he observed the singular effect pro. duced by the agitation of a vessel, containing oil floating on water. The surface of the oil remains smooth and undisturbed, whilst the water is agitated with the utmost commotion. No satisfactory expla. nation of this appearance has, we believe, ever been given.
Dr. Franklin received the thanks of the Assembly of Pennsylvania, “as well for the faithful discharge of his duty to that province in particular, as for the many and important services (lone to America in general, during his residence in Great Britain.” A compersation of 50001. Pennsylvania currency,
was also decreed him for his services during six years.
During his absence he had been annually elected member of the Assembly. On his return to Pennsylvania he again took his seat in this body, and continued a steady defender of the liberties of the people
In December, 1762, a circumstance which caused great alarm in the province took place. A number of Indians had resided in the county of Lancaster, and conducted themselves uniformly as friends to the white inhabitants. Repeated depredations on the frontiers had esasperated the inhabitants to such a degree, that they determined on revenge upon every Indian. A number of persons, to the amount of about 120, principally inhabitants of Donegal and Peckstang or Paxton township, in the county of York, assembled; and, mounted on horseback, proceeded to the settlement of these harmless and defenceless Indians, whose number had now been reduced to about twenty. The Indians received intelligence of the attack which was intended against them, but disbelieved it. Considering the white people as their friends, they apprehended no danger from them. When the party arrived at the Indian settlement, they found only some women and children, and a few old men, the rest being absent at work. They murdered all whom they found, and amongst others the chief Shaheas, who had been always distinguished for his friendship to the whites. This bloody deed excited much indignation in the well-disposed part of the community.
The remainder of these unfortunate Indians, whc, by absence, had escaped the massacre, were con. ducted to Lancaster, and lodged in the goal as a place of security. The Governor issued a proclamation, expressing the strongest disapprobation of the action, offering a reward for the discovery of the perpetrators of the deed, and probibiting all injuries to the peaceable Indians in future. But, notwithstanding this, a party of the same men shortly after marched to Lancaster, broke open the goal, and inhumanly butchered the innocent Indians who had been placed there for security. Another proclama. tion was issued, but it had no effect. A detachment marched down to Philadelphia, for the express purpose of murdering some friendly Indians, who had been removed to the city for safety. A number of citizens armed in their defence. The quakers, whose principles are opposed to fighting, even in their own defence, were most active upon this occasion. The rioters came to Germantown. The Governor fled for safety to the house of Dr. Franklin, who, with some others, advanced to meet the Paxton boys, a they were called, and had influence enough to pre vail upon them to relinquish their undertaking, and return to their homes.
The disputes between the proprietaries and the Assembly, which, for a time had subsided, were again revived. The proprietarjes were dissatisfied with the concessions made in favour of the people, and made great struggles to recover the privilege of exempting their estates from taxation, which they had been induced to give up.
In 1763, the Assembly passed a militia bill, to which the Governor refused to give his assent, unless the Assembly would agree to certain amendments which he proposed. These consisted in increasing the fines, and in some cases, substituting death for fines. He wished too, that the officers should be appointed altogether by himself, and not be nominated by the people, as the bill had proposed. These amendments the Assembly considered as inconsistent with the spirit of liberty. They would not adopt them; the Governor was obstinate, and the bill was lost.
These, and various other circumstances, increas. ed the uneasiness which subsisted between the pro prietaries and the Assembly, to such a degree, tha in 1764, à petition to the King was agreed to by th house, praying an alteration from a proprietary to a regal governinent. Great opposition was made to this measure, not only in the house, but in the pub. lic prints. A speech of Mr. Dickenson, on the sub. ject, was published, with a preface by Dr. Smith, in which great pains were taken to show the impro. priety and impolicy of this proceeding. A speech of Mr. Dickenson, on the subject, was published, with a preface by Dr. Smith, in which great pains were taken to show the impropriety and impolicy of this proceeding. A speech of Mr. Galloway, in reply to Mr. Dickenson, was published, accompanied with a preface by Dr. Franklin; in which he ably opposed the principles laid down in the preface to Mr. Dickenson's speech. This application to the throne produced no effect. The proprietary government was still continued.
At the election for a new Assembly, in the fall of 1764, the friends of the proprietaries made great exertions to exclude those of the adverse party; and they obtained a small majority in the city of Philadelphia. Franklin now lost his seat in the house, which he had held for fourteen years. On the meeting of the Assembly, it appeared that there was still a decided majority of Franklin's friends. He was immediately appointed provincial agent, to the great chagrin of his enemies, who made a solemn protest against his appointment; which was refused admission upon the minutes, as being unprecedented. It was, however, published in the papers, and produced a spirited reply from him, just before his departure for England.
The disturbances produced in America by Mr. Grenville's stamp act, and the opposition made to it, are well known. Under the Marquis of Rockingham's administration, it appeared expedient to endeavour to calm the minds of the colonists; and the repeal of the odious tax was contemplated. Amongst other means of collecting information on the disposition of the people to submit to it, Dr. Franklin was called to the bar of the House of Commons. The examination which he here underwent was published, and contains a striking proof of the extent and accuracy of his information, and the facility with which he communicated his sentiments: He represented facts in so strong a point of view, that the inexpediency of the act must have appeared clear to every unprejudiced mind. The act, after some opposition, 'was repealed, about a year after it was en