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Supreme law of the Land. This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land ; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

Oath.-No religious Test. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound, by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution : but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualifi. cation to any office or public trust under the United States.

ARTICLE VII. The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be suffi. cient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same. Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states pre

sent, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names.

GEO. WASHINGTON, President, and deputy from Virginia.

NEW HAMPSHIRE. John LANGDON, NICHOLAS GILMAN.

MASSACHUSETTS. NATHANIEL GORHAM, RUFUS KING.

CONNECTICUT. WILLIAM SAMUEL JOHNSON, ROGER SHERMAN.

NEW YORK ALEXANDER HAMILTON.

NEW JERSEY.
WILLIAM LIVINGSTON,
DAVID BREARLEY,
WILLIAM PATERSON,
JONATHAN DAYTON.

PENNSYLVANIA,
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN,
THOMAS MIFFLIN,
ROBERT MORRIS,
GEORGE CLYMER,
THOMAS FITZSIMONS,

NORTH CAROLINA. WILLIAM BLOUNT, RICHARD Dobbs SPAIGHT, Hugh WILLIAMSON.

JARED INGERSOLL,
JAMES WILSON,
GOUVERNEUR MORRIS.

DELAWARE.
GEORGE REED,
GUNNING BEDFORD, JR.,
John DICKINSON,
RICHARD BASSETT,
JACOB BROOM.

MARYLAND.
JAMES M'HENRY,
DANIEL OF St. Tho. JENIFER,
DANIEL CARROLL.

VIRGINIA.
JOHN BLAIR,
JAMES MADISON, JR.

Altest :

SOUTH CAROLINA. John RUTLEDGE, CHARLES C. PINCKNEY, CHARLES PINCKNEY, PIERCE BUTLER.

GEORGIA. WILLIAM Few, ABRAHAM BALDWIN.

WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.

1

AMENDMENTS

TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, RATIFIED ACCORDING

TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE FOREGOING

CONSTITUTION.

Free Exercise of Religion, &c. ARTICLE THE FIRST. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Right to bear Arms. ARTICLE THE SECOND. A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

No Soldier to be Billeted, &c. ARTICLE THE THIRD. No soldier shall, in- time of peace,

be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in a time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Unreasonable Searches Prohibited. ARTICLE THE FOURTH. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Criminal Proceedings. ARTICLE THE FIFTH. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or

naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against him. self, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Mode of Trial. ARTICLE THE SIXTH. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accu. sation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him ; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.

Right of Trial by Jury. ARTICLE THE SEVENTH. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact, tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Bail, Fines. ARTICLE THE EIGHTH. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments in. ficted.

Rights not Enumerated. ARTICLE THE NINTH. The enumeration, in the constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Powers Reserved. ARTICLE THE TENTH. The powers not delegated to the United States, by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

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