The Cultural Nature of Human Development

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Oxford University Press, 13.02.2003 - 448 Seiten
Three-year-old Kwara'ae children in Oceania act as caregivers of their younger siblings, but in the UK, it is an offense to leave a child under age 14 ears without adult supervision. In the Efe community in Zaire, infants routinely use machetes with safety and some skill, although U.S. middle-class adults often do not trust young children with knives. What explains these marked differences in the capabilities of these children? Until recently, traditional understandings of human development held that a child's development is universal and that children have characteristics and skills that develop independently of cultural processes. Barbara Rogoff argues, however, that human development must be understood as a cultural process, not simply a biological or psychological one. Individuals develop as members of a community, and their development can only be fully understood by examining the practices and circumstances of their communities.

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Inhalt

1 Orienting Concepts and Ways of Understanding the Cultural Nature of Human Development
3
2 Development as Transformation of Participation in Cultural Activities
37
3 Individuals Generations and Dynamic Cultural Communities
63
4 Child Rearing in Families and Communities
102
5 Developmental Transitions in Individuals Roles in Their Communities
150
6 Interdependence and Autonomy
194
7 Thinking with the Tools and Institutions of Culture
236
8 Learning through Guided Participation in Cultural Endeavors
282
9 Cultural Change and Relations among Communities
327
References
371
Credits
413
Index
415
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